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Physical and Cognitive

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Presentation on theme: "Physical and Cognitive"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical and Cognitive
Development in Early Adulthood

2 Emerging Adulthood Slower than in past to reach milestones of adulthood Prolonged identity development More education Later career entry Less available for low SES

3 Theories of Biological Aging
DNA-Cellular Level Programmed effects of specific genes “Aging genes” Tolomere shortening Random Events Mutations and cancer Free radicals Organ and Tissue Level Cross-linkage theory Gradual failure of endocrine system Declines in immune system

4 Cardiovascular & Respiratory Changes
Heart Few resting changes, lower performance under stress Hypertension, atherosclerosis Diseases declining - better lifestyle Lungs Maximum vital capacity declines after 25 Stiffness makes breathing harder with age

5 Aging and Athletic Performance
Please insert Figure Ten-kilometer running times with advancing age, based on the performances of hundreds of master athletes (is 13.2b - swimming times - still in? If so, please separate the two halves of the figure onto two slides, if needed, for better viewing.)

6 Motor Performance in Adulthood
Athletic skills peak between 20 and 35 Decline gradually until 60s or 70s, then faster Continued training slows loss Keep more vital capacity, muscle, response speed

7 The Immune System in Early Adulthood
Declines after age 20: Fewer T cells from shrinking thymus B cells don’t work as well without T cells Stress weakens immune response

8 Rate of First Births to Women by Age
Please insert Figure First births to American women of different ages in 1970 and 2004.

9 Leading Causes of Death in Early Adulthood
Please insert Figure Leading causes of death between 25 and 44 years of age in the United States and Canada.

10 SES and Self-Reports of Health
Please insert Figure Age differences in self-reported health status by socioeconomic status (SES), as indexed by education.

11 Causes of Overweight Heredity Environmental pressures
Cheap fat and sugar Supersize portions Busy lives Snacks Take-out Lack of exercise

12 Consequences of Overweight
Health Problems Blood pressure, heart Diabetes Liver, gallbladder Arthritis Sleep, digestive Social discrimination Housing Education, careers Mistreatment

13 Treating Obesity Diet and exercise Eating records Social support
Problem-solving skills Extended intervention

14 Dietary Fat Saturated Fat Unsaturated Total fat From meat and dairy
Solid at room temperature No more than 10% of daily calories Unsaturated Liquid vegetable oils Total fat 30% or less of daily calories

15 Variations in Dietary Fat and High Blood Pressure Among Black Africans
Please insert Figure Dietary fat and prevalence of high blood pressure among black Africans in West Africa, the Caribbean, and the United States

16 Exercise Only one third get enough
At least 30 minutes moderate five or more days a week More often, more vigorous is better Around one third of North Americans are inactive Women Low SES

17 Benefits of Exercise Reduces fat, builds muscle
Boosts immune system, prevents some diseases Cardiovascular benefits Mental health benefits Stress reduction Self-esteem Longer life

18 Substance Use in Early Adulthood
Peaks from years, then declines But up to 20% ages are substance abusers Cigarettes, chewing tobacco Alcohol Binge drinking Drugs Marijuana Stimulants Prescription drugs Party drugs

19 Cigarette Smoking 25% of Americans, 19% of Canadians
Numbers slowly declining Less with higher education, but many college students smoke More women smoking Most smokers start before age 21 Deadly health risks Hard to quit Most in treatment programs restart

20 Alcohol Abuse in Early Adulthood
13% of men, 3% of women heavy drinkers About 1/3 of these alcoholics Genetic, cultural factors in alcoholism Causes mental, physical problems High social costs Treatment is difficult Half relapse in months

21 Heterosexual Sexual Activity in Early Adulthood
90% have intercourse by age 22 Most sex in the context of relationships 70% only 1 partner in past year Partners similar to each other Sex infrequent Only 1/3 twice a week or more More often in 20s, declines with age Most are satisfied Over 80% of those in relationships Minority report problems

22 Sex Difference in Sexual Attitudes
Women more opposed to casual sex More men looking for play and pleasure Men more upset by sexual infidelity; women by emotional Lifetime number of partners similar for men and women Attitudes grow more similar with age

23 Homosexuality and Bisexuality in Early Adulthood
2.8% of men, 1.4% of women Estimated 30% same-sex couples do not report Similar behavior to heterosexuals Public acceptance growing Majority say it’s “OK,” support civil liberties, job opportunities Most well-educated; live in larger cities, college towns

24 Dangers of Sex STDs AIDS Sexual Coercion Rape Abuse

25 Factors Related to Sexual Coercion
Perpetrator Characteristics Cultural Forces Believe traditional gender roles Approve violence against women; accept rape myths Perceive behavior inaccurately History of own abuse, promiscuity Alcohol abuse Men taught dominance, competition, aggression Women submission Acceptance of violence Aggressive pornography

26 Consequences of Rape and Sexual Abuse
Trauma response Immediate shock Long-term problems Depression Physical injury STDs General ill health Negative behaviors

27 Preventing and Treating Rape and Abuse
Community services Underfunded Few for men Routine screening Validation of experience Safety planning

28 Stress Related to Caused or worsened by Illness Unhealthy behavior
Low SES Challenges of early adulthood

29 Fostering a Healthy Adult Life
Healthy eating Maintain reasonable weight Keep fit Control alcohol No smoking Responsible sex Manage stress

30 The College Experience
Formative, influential “developmental testing ground” Exposure to new ideas, beliefs, demands leads to cognitive growth, new thinking patterns Relativistic thinking Increased self-understanding Depends on participation in campus life

31 Dropping Out of College
30-50% drop out Personal factors Preparation, motivation, skills Financial problems, low SES Institutional factors Little help, community Cultural disrespect

32 Periods of Vocational Development
Fantasy period Tentative period Realistic period Exploration Crystallization

33 Factors Influencing Vocational Choice
Personality Family influences Teachers Gender stereotypes Access to vocational information

34 Personality Types and Vocational Choice
Investigative Social Realistic Artistic Conventional Enterprising

35 Vocational Preparation of Non College-Bound
North American high-school graduates poorly prepared to work Lack vocational placement, counseling Fewer opportunities than in past Limited jobs Work-study, apprenticeships can help Rare in North America Europe has model systems

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