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Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood

2 Emerging Adulthood  Slower than in past to reach milestones of adulthood  Prolonged identity development  More education  Later career entry  Less available for low SES  Prolonged identity development  More education  Later career entry  Less available for low SES

3 Theories of Biological Aging DNA-Cellular Level  Programmed effects of specific genes  “Aging genes”  Tolomere shortening  Random Events  Mutations and cancer  Free radicals DNA-Cellular Level  Programmed effects of specific genes  “Aging genes”  Tolomere shortening  Random Events  Mutations and cancer  Free radicals Organ and Tissue Level  Cross-linkage theory  Gradual failure of endocrine system  Declines in immune system Organ and Tissue Level  Cross-linkage theory  Gradual failure of endocrine system  Declines in immune system

4 Cardiovascular & Respiratory Changes  Heart  Few resting changes, lower performance under stress  Hypertension, atherosclerosis  Diseases declining - better lifestyle  Heart  Few resting changes, lower performance under stress  Hypertension, atherosclerosis  Diseases declining - better lifestyle  Lungs  Maximum vital capacity declines after 25  Stiffness makes breathing harder with age  Lungs  Maximum vital capacity declines after 25  Stiffness makes breathing harder with age

5 Aging and Athletic Performance

6 Motor Performance in Adulthood  Athletic skills peak between 20 and 35  Decline gradually until 60s or 70s, then faster  Athletic skills peak between 20 and 35  Decline gradually until 60s or 70s, then faster  Continued training slows loss  Keep more vital capacity, muscle, response speed  Continued training slows loss  Keep more vital capacity, muscle, response speed

7 The Immune System in Early Adulthood  Fewer T cells from shrinking thymus  B cells don’t work as well without T cells  Stress weakens immune response Declines after age 20:

8 Rate of First Births to Women by Age

9 Leading Causes of Death in Early Adulthood

10 SES and Self-Reports of Health

11 Causes of Overweight  Heredity  Environmental pressures  Cheap fat and sugar  Supersize portions  Busy lives  Snacks  Take-out  Lack of exercise  Heredity  Environmental pressures  Cheap fat and sugar  Supersize portions  Busy lives  Snacks  Take-out  Lack of exercise

12 Consequences of Overweight  Health Problems  Blood pressure, heart  Diabetes  Liver, gallbladder  Arthritis  Sleep, digestive  Social discrimination  Housing  Education, careers  Mistreatment  Health Problems  Blood pressure, heart  Diabetes  Liver, gallbladder  Arthritis  Sleep, digestive  Social discrimination  Housing  Education, careers  Mistreatment

13 Treating Obesity  Diet and exercise  Eating records  Social support  Problem-solving skills  Extended intervention  Diet and exercise  Eating records  Social support  Problem-solving skills  Extended intervention

14 Dietary Fat  Unsaturated  Liquid vegetable oils  Total fat  30% or less of daily calories  Unsaturated  Liquid vegetable oils  Total fat  30% or less of daily calories  Saturated Fat  From meat and dairy  Solid at room temperature  No more than 10% of daily calories  Saturated Fat  From meat and dairy  Solid at room temperature  No more than 10% of daily calories

15 Variations in Dietary Fat and High Blood Pressure Among Black Africans

16 Exercise  Only one third get enough  At least 30 minutes moderate five or more days a week  More often, more vigorous is better  Around one third of North Americans are inactive  Women  Low SES  Only one third get enough  At least 30 minutes moderate five or more days a week  More often, more vigorous is better  Around one third of North Americans are inactive  Women  Low SES

17 Benefits of Exercise  Reduces fat, builds muscle  Boosts immune system, prevents some diseases  Cardiovascular benefits  Mental health benefits  Stress reduction  Self-esteem  Longer life  Reduces fat, builds muscle  Boosts immune system, prevents some diseases  Cardiovascular benefits  Mental health benefits  Stress reduction  Self-esteem  Longer life

18 Substance Use in Early Adulthood  Cigarettes, chewing tobacco  Alcohol  Binge drinking  Drugs  Marijuana  Stimulants  Prescription drugs  Party drugs  Cigarettes, chewing tobacco  Alcohol  Binge drinking  Drugs  Marijuana  Stimulants  Prescription drugs  Party drugs  Peaks from years, then declines  But up to 20% ages are substance abusers  Peaks from years, then declines  But up to 20% ages are substance abusers

19 Cigarette Smoking  25% of Americans, 19% of Canadians  Numbers slowly declining  Less with higher education, but many college students smoke  More women smoking  Most smokers start before age 21  25% of Americans, 19% of Canadians  Numbers slowly declining  Less with higher education, but many college students smoke  More women smoking  Most smokers start before age 21  Deadly health risks  Hard to quit  Most in treatment programs restart  Deadly health risks  Hard to quit  Most in treatment programs restart

20 Alcohol Abuse in Early Adulthood  Causes mental, physical problems  High social costs  Treatment is difficult  Half relapse in months  Causes mental, physical problems  High social costs  Treatment is difficult  Half relapse in months  13% of men, 3% of women heavy drinkers  About 1/3 of these alcoholics  Genetic, cultural factors in alcoholism  13% of men, 3% of women heavy drinkers  About 1/3 of these alcoholics  Genetic, cultural factors in alcoholism

21 Heterosexual Sexual Activity in Early Adulthood  90% have intercourse by age 22  Most sex in the context of relationships  70% only 1 partner in past year  Partners similar to each other  Sex infrequent  Only 1/3 twice a week or more  More often in 20s, declines with age  Most are satisfied  Over 80% of those in relationships  Minority report problems  90% have intercourse by age 22  Most sex in the context of relationships  70% only 1 partner in past year  Partners similar to each other  Sex infrequent  Only 1/3 twice a week or more  More often in 20s, declines with age  Most are satisfied  Over 80% of those in relationships  Minority report problems

22 Sex Difference in Sexual Attitudes  More men looking for play and pleasure  Men more upset by sexual infidelity; women by emotional  Lifetime number of partners similar for men and women  Attitudes grow more similar with age  More men looking for play and pleasure  Men more upset by sexual infidelity; women by emotional  Lifetime number of partners similar for men and women  Attitudes grow more similar with age  Women more opposed to casual sex

23 Homosexuality and Bisexuality in Early Adulthood  Public acceptance growing  Majority say it’s “OK,” support civil liberties, job opportunities  Most well-educated; live in larger cities, college towns  Public acceptance growing  Majority say it’s “OK,” support civil liberties, job opportunities  Most well-educated; live in larger cities, college towns  2.8% of men, 1.4% of women  Estimated 30% same-sex couples do not report  Similar behavior to heterosexuals  2.8% of men, 1.4% of women  Estimated 30% same-sex couples do not report  Similar behavior to heterosexuals

24 Dangers of Sex  STDs  AIDS  Sexual Coercion  Rape  Abuse

25 Factors Related to Sexual Coercion Perpetrator CharacteristicsCultural Forces  Believe traditional gender roles  Approve violence against women; accept rape myths  Perceive behavior inaccurately  History of own abuse, promiscuity  Alcohol abuse  Men taught dominance, competition, aggression  Women submission  Acceptance of violence  Aggressive pornography

26 Consequences of Rape and Sexual Abuse  Trauma response  Immediate shock  Long-term problems  Depression  Physical injury  STDs  General ill health  Negative behaviors  Trauma response  Immediate shock  Long-term problems  Depression  Physical injury  STDs  General ill health  Negative behaviors

27 Preventing and Treating Rape and Abuse  Community services  Underfunded  Few for men  Routine screening  Validation of experience  Safety planning  Community services  Underfunded  Few for men  Routine screening  Validation of experience  Safety planning

28 Stress  Related to  Illness  Unhealthy behavior  Caused or worsened by  Low SES  Challenges of early adulthood  Related to  Illness  Unhealthy behavior  Caused or worsened by  Low SES  Challenges of early adulthood

29 Fostering a Healthy Adult Life  Keep fit  Control alcohol  No smoking  Responsible sex  Manage stress  Keep fit  Control alcohol  No smoking  Responsible sex  Manage stress  Healthy eating  Maintain reasonable weight  Healthy eating  Maintain reasonable weight

30 The College Experience  Exposure to new ideas, beliefs, demands leads to cognitive growth, new thinking patterns  Relativistic thinking  Increased self-understanding  Depends on participation in campus life  Exposure to new ideas, beliefs, demands leads to cognitive growth, new thinking patterns  Relativistic thinking  Increased self-understanding  Depends on participation in campus life  Formative, influential “developmental testing ground”

31 Dropping Out of College  30-50% drop out  Personal factors  Preparation, motivation, skills  Financial problems, low SES  Institutional factors  Little help, community  Cultural disrespect  30-50% drop out  Personal factors  Preparation, motivation, skills  Financial problems, low SES  Institutional factors  Little help, community  Cultural disrespect

32 Periods of Vocational Development  Fantasy period  Tentative period  Realistic period  Exploration  Crystallization  Fantasy period  Tentative period  Realistic period  Exploration  Crystallization

33 Factors Influencing Vocational Choice  Personality  Family influences  Teachers  Gender stereotypes  Access to vocational information

34 Personality Types and Vocational Choice  Investigative  Social  Realistic  Artistic  Conventional  Enterprising

35 Vocational Preparation of Non College-Bound North American high-school graduates poorly prepared to work  Lack vocational placement, counseling  Fewer opportunities than in past  Limited jobs  Work-study, apprenticeships can help  Rare in North America  Europe has model systems  Lack vocational placement, counseling  Fewer opportunities than in past  Limited jobs  Work-study, apprenticeships can help  Rare in North America  Europe has model systems


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