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WILD 5200-7200 International Issues in Conservation.

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Presentation on theme: "WILD 5200-7200 International Issues in Conservation."— Presentation transcript:

1 WILD 5200-7200 International Issues in Conservation

2 Hair Mammary glands Enucleate erythrosytes Red-blood cells have no nucleus Determinate growth Endothermic temperature regulation Four-chambered heart Lower jaw consists of a single bone Dentary bone Three middle ear ossicles Malleus, incus, stapes Diphyodont dentilation Two generations of teeth: deciduous and permanent


4 All mammal teeth are Thecodont – set in sockets Brachyodont – low crowned, omnivores & herbivores Hypsodont – high crowned, herbivores Prominent Cusp patterns: Bunodont – quadrate with rounded cusps Omnivores, primates, pigs Lophodont – transverse ridges Herbivores, elephants Selenodont – crescent shaped ridges Herbivores, antelope Carnassial – blade-like cutting edges Carnivores, Felids, Canids


6 Molars Pre-molars Canines Incisors

7 Antlers – are shed Horns – are not shed Used for defense, social status, sexual attraction, territory marking, etc. Antlers – made entirely of bone, shed annually Family Cervidae – elk, deer, caribou True Horns – boney inner core with keratinized sheath Family Bovidae – impala, kudu, nyala, cape buffalo, etc Giraffe Horns – boney inner core with furred epithelium Family Giraffidae – giraffes Rhinoceros Horns – solid mass of keratinized epithelial fibers Family Rhinocerotidae – white and black rhino

8 AntlersHorns

9 Cursorial – running Ambulatory – walking Saltatorial – hopping or jumping Graviportal – locomotion in animals with large body sizes Fossorial – burrowing underground Arboreal – moving through trees Aquatic – moving in the water Aerial – true flight

10 Plantigrade – walking on the entire foot Humans, primates, bears Digitigrade – only the digits touch the ground, the heel and instep is raised Felids and Canids Unguligrade – adapted for running on the tips of the toes with enlarged nails (hooves) Cervids and Bovids

11 True ungulates – have hooves Perissodactyla – odd-toed ungulates Rhino, zebra, etc Artiodactyla – even-toed ungulates Antelope, buffalo, hippo, etc Near-ungulates – have toenails Plantigrade Elephant, hyrax

12 Hindgut fermenters Digestion takes place in the stomach, then travels through the large intestine and ceacum. Ruminants Digestion takes place in four chambers: Rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum UngulatesRuminantsHindgut fermenters Odd-toedZebra Rhino Even-toed Antelope Buffalo Giraffe Hippo Bushpig Warthog Near-ungulatesElephant Hyrax


14 Order Hyracoidea Family Procaviidae Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax - Heterohyrax brucei Gest: 7 months, 2-3 young Lifespan 12 years Poor temperature regulation so huddle and bask Order Tubulidentata Family Orycteropodidae Aardvark - Orycteropus afer Gest: 7 months, 1 young Lifespan 18 years Generally nocturnal Myrmecophagy – feed on termites Aardvark translates to “earth pig ”

15 Order Lagomorpha Family Leporidae Scrub Hare - Lepus saxatilis Gest: 77 days, 1 young Lifespan 7 years Practice coprophagy Order Rodentia Family Pedetidae Springhare – Pedetes capensis Gest: 72-88 days, 1 young Lifespan 12-15 years Entirely nocturnal Herbivore

16 Family Hystricidae Porcupine - Hystrix africae-australis Gest: 94 days, 1-3 young Lifespan 15 years Largest rodent in ZA Will defend against predators by running backwards at attacker, quills standing Feeds on roots and tubers Porcupine translates to “quill pig” Family Sciuridae Tree squirrel - Paraxerus cepapi Gest: 56 days, 1-3 young Lifespan 8 years Like to eat biscuits from the deck

17 Family Cercopithecidae Chacma Baboon - Papio ursinus Gest: 6 months, 1 young Lifespan 18 years Oligarchy- social structure where a group of males dominant over the troop Canine teeth can reach up to 2 inches Have up to 30 vocalizations Vervet Monkey - Cercopithecus aethiops Gest: 5 ½ months, 1 young Lifespan 12 years Troop sizes from 10-20 Reproducing males have “blue balls”

18 Family Suidae Warthog - Phacochoerus aethiopicus Gest: 5 ½ months, 1-8 young Lifespan 18 years Live in burrows Always back down into the hole (so don’t stand in front of ‘em!) Males have 4 warts, females have 2 Run with tails standing straight up Bushpig - Potamochoerus porcus Gest: 4 months, 3-4 young Lifespan 15 years Run with tail down

19 Family Herpestidae Banded Mongoose - Mungos mungo Slender Mongoose - Herpestes sanguineus Gest: 60-63 days, 1-4 young Lifespan 6-11 years Various species live solitary or form groups of 12-15 Both diurnal and nocturnal Carnivorous Nomadic through large home ranges

20 Family Viverridae Large-spotted Genet - Genetta tigrina Small-spotted Genet - Genetta genetta Gest: 77 days, 2-4 young Lifespan 13 years Mainly nocturnal Solitary except during breeding Females tend to be more territorial Family Nandiniidae African civet - Civettictis civetta Gest: 60 days, 1-4 young Lifespan 14 years Largest anus relative to its body size Uses civetry to mark territory

21 Family Mustelidae Honey Badger – Mellivora capensis Gest: 180 days, 1-2 young Lifespan 16 years Diurnal and nocturnal Produce foul spelling fluid from anal glands when attacked or provoked. Generalist eating: insects, small vertebrates, fruits, etc. Family Protelidae Aardwolf– Proteles cristata Gest: 100 days, 2-3 young Lifespan 10-15 years Monogamous pairs Nocturnal Insectivore: mainly termites

22 Family Hyaenidae Spotted Hyena - Crocuta crocuta Gest: 90 days, 1-2 young Lifespan 20 years Matriarchy– social structure where females dominant Females are larger than males Mainly feed as scavengers, but will hunt at times Family Felidae African Wild Cat – Felis silvestris cafra Gest: 65 days, 2-5 young Lifespan 10-12 years Very good hearing Primarily nocturnal Eats small mammals, birds, etc.

23 Family Felidae Lion - Panthera leo Gest: 110 days, 1-4 young Lifespan 10-14 years Lions have historically symbolized power, courage, nobility Males have thick manes Social structure includes a pride of 5-10 females with a coalition of 2-3 males (usually brothers) Females do 85% of the hunting 50% of diet comes from scavenging Charging speed ~22.2m/sec or 80km/hr VULNERABLE

24 Family Felidae Leopard - Panthera pardus Gest: 100 days, 2-3 young Lifespan 21 years Solitary Primarily nocturnal Territorial Tend to store and eat prey in trees because lions and hyenas steal the catch Charging speed ~22-24m/sec or 80-90km/hr

25 Family Felidae Cheetah – Acinonyx jubatus Gest: 95 days, 1-6 young Lifespan 16 years Pairs, small groups Primarily diurnal “greyhound of cats” 0-62 mph in 3 seconds, reaching top speed of 70 mph VULNERABLE

26 Family Canidae Black-backed Jackal - Canis mesomelas Gest: 60 days, 1-6 young Lifespan 10 years Diurnal and nocturnal Pack usually consists of two parents and young Bat-Eared Fox- Otocyon megalotis Gest: 50 days Diurnal and nocturnal Excellent hearing Hunt small mammals & insects Monogamous pairs

27 African Wild Dog – Lycaon pictus Gest: 72 days, 6-14 young Lifespan 4-8 years Diurnal hunters, in packs of 10-15 Literally chase prey until it tires, disembowel 50-60 km/h ENDANGERED

28 Family Giraffidae Giraffe – (Giraffa camelopardalis) “one who walks swiftly” Gest: 15 months, 1 young Lifespan 28 years Active at day and night Herd size of 4-30

29 Kudu - Tragelaphus strepsiceros Gest: 9 months, 1 young Lifespan 18 years Horns can grow up to 72 inches with 2 ½ twists Eland - Tragelaphus oryx Gest: 9 months, 1 young Lifespan 20 years Largest antelope species in the world

30 Family Bovidae Subfamily Antilopinae Blue Wildebeest - Connochaetes taurinus Gest: 9 months, 1 young Lifespan 18 years Also Black Wildebeest Social structures include bachelor herds and territorial males with a group of females and offspring Nomadic In Makuleke, there are 4 females and one male

31 Impala - Aepyceros melampus Gest: 7 months, 1 young Lifespan 12 years Males have herds of females Males mark their territory with middens Scent gland above heels on hind legs “M” markings on tail and back thighs Generalists, able to adapt to various conditions Both browsers and grazers “MacDonald’s” of the bush

32 Waterbuck - Kobus ellipsiprymnus Gest: 9 months, 1 young Lifespan 17 years Stay close to water sources White circle around backend Oily secretions from skin make coat waterproof Social structure consists of a group of individuals Common Duikor – Sylvicapra grimmia Gest: 7 months, 1 young Lifespan 11 years Though small, they are highly territorial

33 Family Equidae Plain's Zebra - Equus quagga Gest: 375 days, 1 young Lifespan 20 years Stripes are for camouflage and thermoregulation Harem – social structure consisting of a group of females and a dominant stallion

34 Family Hippopotamidae Hippopotamus - Hippopotamus amphibious Gest: 8 months, 1 young Lifespan 40 years 3 rd largest land mammal Rely on water to keep cool in hot summer months, lack sweat glands Adults can stay submerged for up to 6 minutes Reside in mixed groups up to 15 with a territorial male Graze on grass at night Hippopotamus translates to “river horse” Charging speed ~10m/sec or 36km/hr

35 Family Elephantidae African Elephant - Loxodonta Africana Gestation: 22 months 1 young weighing 25o lbs at birth Lifespan 50-60 years Largest terrestrial land mammal Weight & shoulder height: Males—up to 6000kg (6 tons), 3-4m Females—3000 to 3500kg (3-3.5 tons), 2.5m VULNERABLE


37 Round forehead vs. Square forehead


39 Tusks—modified upper incisors Used for defense, acquisition of food Trunk—fused extension of top lip and nose Two “prehensile fingers” at tip Ears—the bigger the better for hearing Aid in regulation of body temperature Skin—gray & thick covered with tiny hairs Paper thin on ears to 2.5cm thick on back Feet—Graviportal locomotion 5 toenails front feet, 4 toenails back feet

40 Breeding herds—led by Matriarch Mother & offspring Daughters & offspring Average range 2-24 individuals (up to 40+) Males Leave the family unit after 12-15 years Join bachelor herds with other bulls 2-14 individuals Solitary during musth Homerange averages 75km 2 Charging speed ~11.1m/sec or 40km/hr





45 Herbivores Grass, tree leaves & bark, vines, shrubs Daily intake 4-6% of body weight One bull eats 300kg food per day Digestion is not efficient 44% assimilated 150kg excreted daily Water intake One bull drinks 227 liters per day

46 Hmm…wh at’s next week?

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