Presentation on theme: "Pengantar Psikologi Perkembangan"— Presentation transcript:
1Pengantar Psikologi Perkembangan Irwan Nuryana KurniawanPsychology DepartmentIndonesian Islamic Psychology
2Developmental Psychology The study of age-related interindividual differences and age-related intraindividual change; how individuals develop and change as they grow older, and in how different people show different patterns of development and changedevelopmental psychology refers to a systematic study of behavioural, emotional, social and cognitive development of human beings over their lifespan.
3Developmentalists pursue 3 goals. Description- to delineate how human beings change over time both normatively and ideographicallyNormative Development: common developmental patternsIdeographic Development: individual variations
4Developmentalists goals continued 2. Explain-what they observe to determine why:Individuals develop as they typically doWhy there are individual differences in development3. Optimize development- by applying what they have observed in order to help individuals develop in a positive direction
5What Is Life-Span Development? A pattern of change involving growth and decline, beginning at conception and lasting until deathLife phases: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthoodLife-span development is linked with neuroscience and the following areas of psychology:CognitiveAbnormalSocialPage 4 of book poses interesting question of what leads one individual, (Ted Kaczynski), to commit brutal acts while another to achieve greatness in spite of strife (Alice Walker who won the Pulitzer Prize for the Color Purple)?
6Original sin Tabula rasa Innate goodness The Historical Perspective: Childhood has been of interest for a long timeAdulthood became of interest in the late 1900sThree philosophical views of child development:Original sinTabula rasaInnate goodnessToday, childhood is seen as a special time of growth and change, influenced by child-rearing practices, childhood experiences, and other aspects of the child’s environment.Before the latter half of the 20th century, the proportion of people living into their 60s and 70s was small compared with the rest of the population, and development was considered a childhood process.Three philosophical views of child development:Original sin: Christian doctrine that children are born with an inclination toward evil and that the goal of child rearing to save them from original sin.Tabula rasa: (end of 17th century) blank tablet; proposed by John Locke; idea that childhood experiences are important in determining adult characteristics and that parents should spend time with their children to help them become contributing members of society.Innate goodness: Rousseau’s 18th century idea that children are innately good and should be permitted to grow with little parental influence.
7Since 1900, the older adult population has increased dramatically Greatest increases up to 2040 will be in the 85-and-over and 100-and-over age groupsA girl born today in the U.S. has a 1-in-3 chance of living to be 100 years oldAccording to the Lifespan Perspective, changes in adulthood are just as important as the changes in childhoodThere are great changes in body, personality, and abilities during adulthoodThe traditional approach to the study of development was to emphasize considerable change from birth to adolescence, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in later life.
8Average Human Life Expectancy (in Years) at Birth, from Prehistoric to Contemporary Times 7770Years541900 USA471620 Mass. Bay Colony413533Ancient Greece2018Middle Ages, England19th Century England1915 USA1954 USA2002 USAPrehistoric timesTime PeriodFigure 1.1
9Americans over 65 (in millions) The Aging of AmericaFemaleMale4030Americans over (in millions)2010It took 5,000 years to extend the lifespan from 18 to 41 years, and in during the 20th century, it increased by more than 30 years. However, the maximum lifespan has remained consistent at 122.As the number of people living to older age continues to increase, so does the number of older people living without a spouse or children to support them. Additionally, the number of people who are unmarried, childless, or living alone continues to increase, increasing demands on social supports for older populations.1900194020002040YearFigure 1.2
10PERSPEKTIF RENTANG KEHIDUPAN Karakteristik perspektif rentang kehidupan
11No age period dominates development Characteristics of the life-span perspectiveDevelopment is lifelongNo age period dominates developmentBiological, cognitive, and socioeconomic dimensions of experiences and psychological orientation are very important to studyDevelopment is multidirectional: some aspects of dimensions shrink and some expandExample of multidirectional development (page 8) – while practice and experience may increase during older adulthood, the speed of processing may decline.
12psychologists sociologists anthropologists neuroscientists Development is plastic: it has the capacity for changeDevelopment is multidisciplinary: it is of interest topsychologistssociologistsanthropologistsneuroscientistsmedical researchers
13Development is influenced by sociohistoric conditions Historical embednessDevelopment is influenced by sociohistoric conditionsDevelopment is contextual: a person acts on and responds to contexts such asNormative Age-graded influences: Biological processes and environmental experiences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group.Normative History-graded influences: Common to a group of people because of the historical circumstances they experience.Nonnormative Life Events: Life events or unusual circumstances impacting on the specific individualNormative Age-graded influences: Include things like puberty and menopause as well as entering formal education and retiring from work.Normative History graded influences: include things like war, the 9/11 attacks, women’s changing roles, etc.
14Parenting: the impact of issues like divorce and child maltreatment Some contemporary concerns (topics from newspapers and magazines that appear daily):Health and well-being: the power of lifestyles, and issues like drug and alcohol useParenting: the impact of issues like divorce and child maltreatmentEducation: the U.S. system and issues such as bilingual education, poverty, and cooperative learningRe: health and well-being – note research discussed in text (page 10) that the decline in brain tissue with aging was substantially lower I adults who exercised regularly and were aerobically fit (Colcombe and others, 2003).Re: parenting: Maltreated children were much more likely to be mistreated by their peers (Bolger and Patterson, 2001) – predominantly due to their high rate of aggressive behavior.
15Sociocultural contexts and diversity: concepts of SES, gender, context, culture, and ethnicity Culture: The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation.Ethnicity: A characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race (which is a person’s biological heritage), religion and language.Socioeconomic Status (SES): The grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.Social policy: national government’s course of action and politics affect the welfare of citizensGender is more than biological sex; It is the psychological and sociocultural aspect of being male or female.Differing access to educational opportunities, economic resources, levels of power to influence community’s institutions and levels of occupational prestige contribute to differing opportunities for children.
16Around the World: Children (Aged 7–18) Who Have Never Attended a School of Any Kind GirlsBoys2015Percentage105From page 13 – This analysis by UNICEF (2004) – suggest that more girls than boys around the world grow up with limited access to education, especially in Africa. The US, Canada and Russia have the highest percentages of educated women. In developing countries, 67% of women (compared to 50% of men) have never been to school.Women are twice as likely to experience depression in the US as adolescents or adults – and women are the victims of the vast majority of partner abuse (page 14).NonpoorPoorFigure 1.4
17Children Exposed to Six Stressors Middle-income children 73Children Exposed to Six StressorsPoor housing quality49Excessive noise45CrowdingExposure to violence32Child separationFamily turmoil24211614Poor children are more likely to be exposed to any of these six stressors (see Evans and English, 2002, page 14). – More than 15% of kids are being raised in poverty – and ½ of all ethnic minority children are raised in poverty – Lifespan Development Researchers hope to advocate for the rights of children – especially those living in poverty.Most social care programs are only available to those who already have serious problems. As the population ages, more people are in need of medical care later in life, costs are escalating and access to care is decreasing. There is a concern of generational inequity, however, which suggests that the aging population is taking too large a share of resources from the younger populations. Groups like the Gray Panthers (founded by maggie Kuhn in 1970) are working to advance the rights of the rapidly increasing population of older adults in the US.Percentage1273Poor childrenMiddle-income childrenFigure 1.5
18Hormonal changes of puberty Cardiovascular decline Developmental Processes and PeriodsLife-span psychologists focus on shared characteristics, not individual uniquenessBiological processes focus onPhysical nature and genetic influencesHeight and weightBrain developmentMotor skill changesHormonal changes of pubertyCardiovascular declineBiological research seeks to slow the aging process and extend the human life span
19Cognitive processes focus on changes in individual thought, intelligence, and language Responsiveness in caregivers is important in a child’s cognitive developmentIn many instances, biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes are bidirectional because each can affect the other
20Socioemotional processes Developmental Changes Are a Result of Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional ProcessesBiological processesSocioemotional processesCognitive processesFigure 1.6
21Socioemotional processes focus on Changes in individual relationships with othersEmotional changesPersonality changesThe most important process for research and study is marital relations andSatisfaction in sex, romance, passionQuality of the couple’s friendshipRoles that each person fulfillsChild-rearing practices within the family
22Periods of development focus on time frames: Prenatal periodInfancy and ToddlerhoodEarly childhood (Preschool Years)Middle and late childhood (Elementary School)AdolescenceEarly adulthood (20s and 30s)Middle adulthood (40s and 50s/early 60s)Late adulthood (65+)Young old (65-84)Old old (85+)
23Mean number of words recalled Memory, Age, and Time of Day Tested7.0Traditional-aged college students6.5Older adultsMean number of words recalled6.05.55.04.5Traditional aged college student performed better than the older adults in both the morning than the afternoon. However, the performance of the older adults was significantly better in the afternoon. Also, older adults are much better at remembering information that is meaningful to their lives, as compared to meaningless info. Suggests its important to consider the unique characteristics of older adults when interpreting research findings about their cognitive and other abilities.4.0A.M.P.M.Time of testFigure 1.7
24Age and HappinessNo specific age group reports more happiness or satisfaction than another, because each age period has its own stresses, advantages, and disadvantages; for example:Adolescents must cope with identity development, feelings of competency, and self-perceptionsOlder adults must cope with reduced income, less energy, decreasing physical skills, concerns about death, more leisure time, and accumulation of life experiences
25Age and Happiness Happy people (%) 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + 100Happy people (%)8060402015-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 +Age range (years)Figure 1.9
26Chronological age: number of years since birth Conceptions of age:Chronological age: number of years since birthBiological age: age in terms of biological health/functional capacities of organsPsychological age: adaptive capacities compared with those of the same chronological ageSocial age: roles and expectations related to a person’s age.The life-span perspective considers all of the abovePerhaps we are becoming an age-irrelevant society (Neugarten, 1988)Re: psychological age, motivation, flexibility in learning, control of emotion and ability to think clearly may determine psychological age.Chronological age is becoming a less accurate predictor of social age in our society.
27Conceptions of age Chronological age Number of years since birth Age in terms of physical healthBiological ageConceptions of ageAdaptive capacity compared withothers of the same chronological agePsychological ageSocial roles and expectationsrelative to chronological ageSocial ageFigure 1.10
28Nature versus nurtureA debate about whether development is influenced most by biological heredity or environmental experiencesNature proponents argue that genetic blueprints produce commonalities in growth and developmentNature proponents acknowledge the influence of extreme environments on developmentPsychologists emphasize the importance of nurture and that the range of environments can be vast
29Continuity and discontinuity: The continuity–discontinuity issue focuses on whether development isA gradual, cumulative quantitative change process (continuous)A set of distinct stages that are qualitatively different from each other (discontinuous)
30Stability and change:The assumption that nothing much changes in adulthoodThe concept of plasticity, ongoing changeMajor changes were believed to occur only in the first 5 years of childhood (early experience doctrine); we are no longer able to ignore the rest of the life spanThere is still a lot of controversy over both sides of this issue