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Pengantar Psikologi Perkembangan

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1 Pengantar Psikologi Perkembangan
Irwan Nuryana Kurniawan Psychology Department Indonesian Islamic Psychology

2 Developmental Psychology
The study of age-related interindividual differences and age-related intraindividual change; how individuals develop and change as they grow older, and in how different people show different patterns of development and change developmental psychology refers to a systematic study of behavioural, emotional, social and cognitive development of human beings over their lifespan.

3 Developmentalists pursue 3 goals.
Description- to delineate how human beings change over time both normatively and ideographically Normative Development: common developmental patterns Ideographic Development: individual variations

4 Developmentalists goals continued
2. Explain-what they observe to determine why: Individuals develop as they typically do Why there are individual differences in development 3. Optimize development- by applying what they have observed in order to help individuals develop in a positive direction

5 What Is Life-Span Development?
A pattern of change involving growth and decline, beginning at conception and lasting until death Life phases: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood Life-span development is linked with neuroscience and the following areas of psychology: Cognitive Abnormal Social Page 4 of book poses interesting question of what leads one individual, (Ted Kaczynski), to commit brutal acts while another to achieve greatness in spite of strife (Alice Walker who won the Pulitzer Prize for the Color Purple)?

6 Original sin Tabula rasa Innate goodness The Historical Perspective:
Childhood has been of interest for a long time Adulthood became of interest in the late 1900s Three philosophical views of child development: Original sin Tabula rasa Innate goodness Today, childhood is seen as a special time of growth and change, influenced by child-rearing practices, childhood experiences, and other aspects of the child’s environment. Before the latter half of the 20th century, the proportion of people living into their 60s and 70s was small compared with the rest of the population, and development was considered a childhood process. Three philosophical views of child development: Original sin: Christian doctrine that children are born with an inclination toward evil and that the goal of child rearing to save them from original sin. Tabula rasa: (end of 17th century) blank tablet; proposed by John Locke; idea that childhood experiences are important in determining adult characteristics and that parents should spend time with their children to help them become contributing members of society. Innate goodness: Rousseau’s 18th century idea that children are innately good and should be permitted to grow with little parental influence.

7 Since 1900, the older adult population has increased dramatically
Greatest increases up to 2040 will be in the 85-and-over and 100-and-over age groups A girl born today in the U.S. has a 1-in-3 chance of living to be 100 years old According to the Lifespan Perspective, changes in adulthood are just as important as the changes in childhood There are great changes in body, personality, and abilities during adulthood The traditional approach to the study of development was to emphasize considerable change from birth to adolescence, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in later life.

8 Average Human Life Expectancy (in Years) at Birth, from Prehistoric to Contemporary Times
77 70 Years 54 1900 USA 47 1620 Mass. Bay Colony 41 35 33 Ancient Greece 20 18 Middle Ages, England 19th Century England 1915 USA 1954 USA 2002 USA Prehistoric times Time Period Figure 1.1

9 Americans over 65 (in millions)
The Aging of America Female Male 40 30 Americans over (in millions) 20 10 It took 5,000 years to extend the lifespan from 18 to 41 years, and in during the 20th century, it increased by more than 30 years. However, the maximum lifespan has remained consistent at 122. As the number of people living to older age continues to increase, so does the number of older people living without a spouse or children to support them. Additionally, the number of people who are unmarried, childless, or living alone continues to increase, increasing demands on social supports for older populations. 1900 1940 2000 2040 Year Figure 1.2

Karakteristik perspektif rentang kehidupan

11 No age period dominates development
Characteristics of the life-span perspective Development is lifelong No age period dominates development Biological, cognitive, and socioeconomic dimensions of experiences and psychological orientation are very important to study Development is multidirectional: some aspects of dimensions shrink and some expand Example of multidirectional development (page 8) – while practice and experience may increase during older adulthood, the speed of processing may decline.

12 psychologists sociologists anthropologists neuroscientists
Development is plastic: it has the capacity for change Development is multidisciplinary: it is of interest to psychologists sociologists anthropologists neuroscientists medical researchers

13 Development is influenced by sociohistoric conditions
Historical embedness Development is influenced by sociohistoric conditions Development is contextual: a person acts on and responds to contexts such as Normative Age-graded influences: Biological processes and environmental experiences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group. Normative History-graded influences: Common to a group of people because of the historical circumstances they experience. Nonnormative Life Events: Life events or unusual circumstances impacting on the specific individual Normative Age-graded influences: Include things like puberty and menopause as well as entering formal education and retiring from work. Normative History graded influences: include things like war, the 9/11 attacks, women’s changing roles, etc.

14 Parenting: the impact of issues like divorce and child maltreatment
Some contemporary concerns (topics from newspapers and magazines that appear daily): Health and well-being: the power of lifestyles, and issues like drug and alcohol use Parenting: the impact of issues like divorce and child maltreatment Education: the U.S. system and issues such as bilingual education, poverty, and cooperative learning Re: health and well-being – note research discussed in text (page 10) that the decline in brain tissue with aging was substantially lower I adults who exercised regularly and were aerobically fit (Colcombe and others, 2003). Re: parenting: Maltreated children were much more likely to be mistreated by their peers (Bolger and Patterson, 2001) – predominantly due to their high rate of aggressive behavior.

15 Sociocultural contexts and diversity: concepts of SES, gender, context, culture, and ethnicity
Culture: The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation. Ethnicity: A characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race (which is a person’s biological heritage), religion and language. Socioeconomic Status (SES): The grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics. Social policy: national government’s course of action and politics affect the welfare of citizens Gender is more than biological sex; It is the psychological and sociocultural aspect of being male or female. Differing access to educational opportunities, economic resources, levels of power to influence community’s institutions and levels of occupational prestige contribute to differing opportunities for children.

16 Around the World: Children (Aged 7–18) Who Have Never Attended a School of Any Kind
Girls Boys 20 15 Percentage 10 5 From page 13 – This analysis by UNICEF (2004) – suggest that more girls than boys around the world grow up with limited access to education, especially in Africa. The US, Canada and Russia have the highest percentages of educated women. In developing countries, 67% of women (compared to 50% of men) have never been to school. Women are twice as likely to experience depression in the US as adolescents or adults – and women are the victims of the vast majority of partner abuse (page 14). Nonpoor Poor Figure 1.4

17 Children Exposed to Six Stressors Middle-income children
73 Children Exposed to Six Stressors Poor housing quality 49 Excessive noise 45 Crowding Exposure to violence 32 Child separation Family turmoil 24 21 16 14 Poor children are more likely to be exposed to any of these six stressors (see Evans and English, 2002, page 14). – More than 15% of kids are being raised in poverty – and ½ of all ethnic minority children are raised in poverty – Lifespan Development Researchers hope to advocate for the rights of children – especially those living in poverty. Most social care programs are only available to those who already have serious problems. As the population ages, more people are in need of medical care later in life, costs are escalating and access to care is decreasing. There is a concern of generational inequity, however, which suggests that the aging population is taking too large a share of resources from the younger populations. Groups like the Gray Panthers (founded by maggie Kuhn in 1970) are working to advance the rights of the rapidly increasing population of older adults in the US. Percentage 12 7 3 Poor children Middle-income children Figure 1.5

18 Hormonal changes of puberty Cardiovascular decline
Developmental Processes and Periods Life-span psychologists focus on shared characteristics, not individual uniqueness Biological processes focus on Physical nature and genetic influences Height and weight Brain development Motor skill changes Hormonal changes of puberty Cardiovascular decline Biological research seeks to slow the aging process and extend the human life span

19 Cognitive processes focus on changes in individual thought, intelligence, and language
Responsiveness in caregivers is important in a child’s cognitive development In many instances, biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes are bidirectional because each can affect the other

20 Socioemotional processes
Developmental Changes Are a Result of Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes Biological processes Socioemotional processes Cognitive processes Figure 1.6

21 Socioemotional processes focus on
Changes in individual relationships with others Emotional changes Personality changes The most important process for research and study is marital relations and Satisfaction in sex, romance, passion Quality of the couple’s friendship Roles that each person fulfills Child-rearing practices within the family

22 Periods of development focus on time frames:
Prenatal period Infancy and Toddlerhood Early childhood (Preschool Years) Middle and late childhood (Elementary School) Adolescence Early adulthood (20s and 30s) Middle adulthood (40s and 50s/early 60s) Late adulthood (65+) Young old (65-84) Old old (85+)

23 Mean number of words recalled
Memory, Age, and Time of Day Tested 7.0 Traditional-aged college students 6.5 Older adults Mean number of words recalled 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 Traditional aged college student performed better than the older adults in both the morning than the afternoon. However, the performance of the older adults was significantly better in the afternoon. Also, older adults are much better at remembering information that is meaningful to their lives, as compared to meaningless info. Suggests its important to consider the unique characteristics of older adults when interpreting research findings about their cognitive and other abilities. 4.0 A.M. P.M. Time of test Figure 1.7

24 Age and Happiness No specific age group reports more happiness or satisfaction than another, because each age period has its own stresses, advantages, and disadvantages; for example: Adolescents must cope with identity development, feelings of competency, and self-perceptions Older adults must cope with reduced income, less energy, decreasing physical skills, concerns about death, more leisure time, and accumulation of life experiences

25 Age and Happiness Happy people (%) 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 +
100 Happy people (%) 80 60 40 20 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Age range (years) Figure 1.9

26 Chronological age: number of years since birth
Conceptions of age: Chronological age: number of years since birth Biological age: age in terms of biological health/functional capacities of organs Psychological age: adaptive capacities compared with those of the same chronological age Social age: roles and expectations related to a person’s age. The life-span perspective considers all of the above Perhaps we are becoming an age-irrelevant society (Neugarten, 1988) Re: psychological age, motivation, flexibility in learning, control of emotion and ability to think clearly may determine psychological age. Chronological age is becoming a less accurate predictor of social age in our society.

27 Conceptions of age Chronological age Number of years since birth
Age in terms of physical health Biological age Conceptions of age Adaptive capacity compared with others of the same chronological age Psychological age Social roles and expectations relative to chronological age Social age Figure 1.10

28 Nature versus nurture A debate about whether development is influenced most by biological heredity or environmental experiences Nature proponents argue that genetic blueprints produce commonalities in growth and development Nature proponents acknowledge the influence of extreme environments on development Psychologists emphasize the importance of nurture and that the range of environments can be vast

29 Continuity and discontinuity:
The continuity–discontinuity issue focuses on whether development is A gradual, cumulative quantitative change process (continuous) A set of distinct stages that are qualitatively different from each other (discontinuous)

30 Stability and change: The assumption that nothing much changes in adulthood The concept of plasticity, ongoing change Major changes were believed to occur only in the first 5 years of childhood (early experience doctrine); we are no longer able to ignore the rest of the life span There is still a lot of controversy over both sides of this issue

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