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Lifespan Development. Maturation The sequential unfolding of genetically influenced behavior and physical characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "Lifespan Development. Maturation The sequential unfolding of genetically influenced behavior and physical characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lifespan Development

2 Maturation The sequential unfolding of genetically influenced behavior and physical characteristics

3 Determining Gender Roles Determining Gender Roles Determining Gender Roles Determining Gender Roles

4 From Conception

5 NOVA – Life’s Greatest Miracle NOVA – Life’s Greatest Miracle

6 The Three Pre-Birth Stages Germinal Stage (Zygote) Germinal Stage (Zygote) Embryonic Stage Embryonic Stage Fetal Stage Fetal Stage

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8 Harmful influences that can cross the placenta barrier include German measles, radiation, toxic chemicals, sexually transmitted diseases, cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, prescription and nonprescription drugs. These are collectively known as Teratogens. Teratogens

9 One thing to remember is that as an individual grows, they go through a variety of critical periods. Critical periods are specific windows of time after which it is very difficult to acquire a skill. One thing to remember is that as an individual grows, they go through a variety of critical periods. Critical periods are specific windows of time after which it is very difficult to acquire a skill.

10 The Newborn’s Physical Abilities

11 Reflexes Rooting – when something touches an infants cheek, they instinctively open their mouths and “root” for a nipple Rooting – when something touches an infants cheek, they instinctively open their mouths and “root” for a nipple

12 Palmar Reflex – grasping objects that are placed in the hand Palmar Reflex – grasping objects that are placed in the hand Babinski Reflex – toes splaying outwards when the foot is stroked Babinski Reflex – toes splaying outwards when the foot is stroked Moro Reflex – limb splaying when a loud noise occurs Moro Reflex – limb splaying when a loud noise occurs Newborn Abilities Newborn Abilities

13 Newborns and their Temperaments

14 Temperament A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

15 Temperament A baby’s temperament is apparent after just a few hours of birth A baby’s temperament is apparent after just a few hours of birth “easy” babies – eat and sleep regularly “easy” babies – eat and sleep regularly “difficult” – unpredictable, intense, & irritable “difficult” – unpredictable, intense, & irritable

16 Newborns and Attachment

17 Attachment the bonding between child and caregiver that provides a secure base from which children can explore Attachment the bonding between child and caregiver that provides a secure base from which children can explore

18 Harry Harlow One wire monkey with a milk bottle, one soft cloth monkey One wire monkey with a milk bottle, one soft cloth monkey Baby monkeys preferred the softer mother figure when they were scared Baby monkeys preferred the softer mother figure when they were scared Physical Comfort is a key to attachment Physical Comfort is a key to attachment Harry Harlow’s Experiment Harry Harlow’s Experiment

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21 Ainsworth devised an experimental method called the Stranger Situation in which the babies behavior is observed when the mother leaves the baby with a stranger Ainsworth devised an experimental method called the Stranger Situation in which the babies behavior is observed when the mother leaves the baby with a stranger Stranger Situation Experiment Stranger Situation Experiment

22 Securely attached children are clearly more attached to the mother. They explore while a parent is present, are distressed when they leave, and go to the parent upon return Securely attached children are clearly more attached to the mother. They explore while a parent is present, are distressed when they leave, and go to the parent upon return

23 Insecurely Attached children don’t particularly like to be held, may explore with or without the parent around, may show a lot of stress when their parents leave though they may or may not go to the parent upon return Insecurely Attached children don’t particularly like to be held, may explore with or without the parent around, may show a lot of stress when their parents leave though they may or may not go to the parent upon return

24 Parenting Styles

25 Authoritarian Parents set strict standards and apply frequent punishment Authoritarian Parents set strict standards and apply frequent punishment Permissive Parents do not set clear guidelines and the rules are constantly changing Permissive Parents do not set clear guidelines and the rules are constantly changing

26 Authoritarian styles produce children are more likely to distrust others and are more socially withdrawn Authoritarian styles produce children are more likely to distrust others and are more socially withdrawn

27 Permissive style reared children tend to have more emotional control problems and are more dependent Permissive style reared children tend to have more emotional control problems and are more dependent

28 Authoritative Parents have set and consistent rules of behavior, and those rules are reasonable. Praise and punishment, independence and control. Authoritative Parents have set and consistent rules of behavior, and those rules are reasonable. Praise and punishment, independence and control.

29 Authoritative style produces the most desirable and beneficial home environment. Children are more capable and perform better academically Authoritative style produces the most desirable and beneficial home environment. Children are more capable and perform better academically

30 Infancy and Early Childhood Development

31 Language Infant Speech Development Infant Speech Development

32 Noam Chomsky Noam Chomsky Every child is born with the biological predisposition to learn language, any language. Every child is born with the biological predisposition to learn language, any language.

33 “Motherese” “Motherese” Infant Directed Speech – the phenomenon that across cultures we speak to infants in a particular style. Small words, higher pitches, exaggerated intonation and expression. Infant Directed Speech – the phenomenon that across cultures we speak to infants in a particular style. Small words, higher pitches, exaggerated intonation and expression.

34 Stages of Language Development Cooing (3 mos.) – repeated vowel sounds Cooing (3 mos.) – repeated vowel sounds “aaaaa, oooooo” “aaaaa, oooooo” Babbling (5 mos.) – adding in consonants, stringing together vowel sounds Babbling (5 mos.) – adding in consonants, stringing together vowel sounds “da-da-da, ma-ma-ma, ba-bab-ba” “da-da-da, ma-ma-ma, ba-bab-ba”

35 Stages of Language Development Babbling, Pt. II (9 mos.) – babbling in sounds specific to their language Babbling, Pt. II (9 mos.) – babbling in sounds specific to their language One-Word Stage (1 year) – typically, single concrete words used One-Word Stage (1 year) – typically, single concrete words used “dada, mama, baba” “dada, mama, baba”

36 Stages of Language Development Two-Word Stage (2 years) – two word sentences, all content Two-Word Stage (2 years) – two word sentences, all content “Where kitty? No potty !” “Where kitty? No potty !” By age 3, children begin to add in articles and prepositions and have a vocabulary of over 3,000 words. By age 3, children begin to add in articles and prepositions and have a vocabulary of over 3,000 words.

37 Stages of Language Development Phonemes – the smallest units of sounds used to differentiate meanings and words Phonemes – the smallest units of sounds used to differentiate meanings and words Skill, Still, Spill Skill, Still, Spill Kit, Skill Kit, Skill Morpheme – the smallest, meaningful parts of a single word Morpheme – the smallest, meaningful parts of a single word Governmental – govern + ment + al Governmental – govern + ment + al Predict – pre + dict Predict – pre + dict

38 Piaget and Thinking Infant Cognitive Development Infant Cognitive Development

39 Thinking Assimilation-adding new information into our present system of knowledge, belief and schemas through experience Assimilation-adding new information into our present system of knowledge, belief and schemas through experience Accommodation-we must change or modify existing schemas to accommodate new info that does not fit with the old Accommodation-we must change or modify existing schemas to accommodate new info that does not fit with the old

40 Piaget’s proposed that there are four stages of cognitive growth that humans go through, from birth through to adulthood. Each stage marks a new way in which a person learns new information and is able to think about the world around them. Piaget’s proposed that there are four stages of cognitive growth that humans go through, from birth through to adulthood. Each stage marks a new way in which a person learns new information and is able to think about the world around them.

41 Sensorimotor Stage (Preconventional) (Birth to 2 years old) (Birth to 2 years old) Infants learn through concrete actions; “thinking” consists of coordinating sensory info with bodily movement – experience the world through looking, touching, mouthing, and grasping Infants learn through concrete actions; “thinking” consists of coordinating sensory info with bodily movement – experience the world through looking, touching, mouthing, and grasping

42 Begin to understand object permanence at around 6 months; involves understanding that things exist even they are not perceived Begin to understand object permanence at around 6 months; involves understanding that things exist even they are not perceived Object Permanence Object PermanenceObject PermanenceObject Permanence

43 Preoperational Stage (Ages 2-6 Years) (Ages 2-6 Years) The time period in which a child learns to use language to learn about the world The time period in which a child learns to use language to learn about the world Egocentrism – Children at this age cannot perceive things from another’s point of view- the world revolves around them and them alone Egocentrism – Children at this age cannot perceive things from another’s point of view- the world revolves around them and them alone Artificialism – Children at this age may believe that all things are human made Artificialism – Children at this age may believe that all things are human made Animism – Children at this age may believe that all things are living Animism – Children at this age may believe that all things are living

44 Concrete Operational Stage (Ages 7-11) (Ages 7-11) Conservation is the understanding that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects Conservation is the understanding that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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46 Formal Operations Stage (Age 12 to adulthood) (Age 12 to adulthood) Beginning of abstract reasoning Beginning of abstract reasoning Can reason systematically, think about the future, think about situations they have not experienced firsthand Can reason systematically, think about the future, think about situations they have not experienced firsthand

47 The Development of Morals

48 Lawrence Kohlberg Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Reasoning is the thinking that occurs as we consider the ideas of what is right and what is wrong, and what guides our judgments and behaviors Moral Reasoning is the thinking that occurs as we consider the ideas of what is right and what is wrong, and what guides our judgments and behaviors There are three stages of moral growth There are three stages of moral growth

49 Level 1 – Preconventional Morality Level 1 – Preconventional Morality Choosing what is right or wrong is based on the fear punishment for disobedience, or the promise of rewards Choosing what is right or wrong is based on the fear punishment for disobedience, or the promise of rewards Children often do what is in their own best interest Children often do what is in their own best interest

50 Level 2 – Conventional Morality Level 2 – Conventional Morality Beginning to care for other’s feelings, and understanding that there are laws and social rules to follow Beginning to care for other’s feelings, and understanding that there are laws and social rules to follow Choices are also made based on social acceptance as adolescence begins Choices are also made based on social acceptance as adolescence begins

51 Level 3 – Postconventional Morality Level 3 – Postconventional Morality Abstract reasoning is used Abstract reasoning is used Broader, ethical themes of justice and human rights Broader, ethical themes of justice and human rights An internal struggle between your personalized morals, and those of society An internal struggle between your personalized morals, and those of society

52 Social Development Social Development Social Development

53 Erik Erickson’s psychosocial theory says that all people go through eight stages in their lives, resolving a “crisis” at each one while learning to deal with the rest of society. How we resolve the “crisis” is the basis for our social interactions. Erik Erickson’s psychosocial theory says that all people go through eight stages in their lives, resolving a “crisis” at each one while learning to deal with the rest of society. How we resolve the “crisis” is the basis for our social interactions.

54 Trust vs. Mistrust Trust vs. Mistrust Who do I trust and who can’t I trust? Is the world friendly or hostile? Who do I trust and who can’t I trust? Is the world friendly or hostile? Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt A child begins to develop a sense of control over their environment and their bodily functions. A child begins to develop a sense of control over their environment and their bodily functions. Initiative vs. Guilt Initiative vs. Guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and assert themselves socially. Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and assert themselves socially.

55 Industry vs. Inferiority Industry vs. Inferiority Children gain a sense of accomplishment and pride in their work. They begin to understand their potential. Children gain a sense of accomplishment and pride in their work. They begin to understand their potential. Identity vs. Role Confusion Identity vs. Role Confusion This involves a sense of identity. Who am I? What do I stand for? Am I an individual or a just a reflection of society? This involves a sense of identity. Who am I? What do I stand for? Am I an individual or a just a reflection of society? Intimacy vs. Isolation Intimacy vs. Isolation Forming close relationships and looking for intimate love and mates. Forming close relationships and looking for intimate love and mates.

56 Generativity vs. Stagnation Generativity vs. Stagnation The struggle between being both productive at home and at work, and figuring out how to best contribute to the next generation. The struggle between being both productive at home and at work, and figuring out how to best contribute to the next generation. Integrity vs. Despair Integrity vs. Despair Reflecting on my life and my legacy, and have I had a successful life or am I a failure? Reflecting on my life and my legacy, and have I had a successful life or am I a failure?

57 Adolescence

58 Adolescence is the transitional period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence Adolescence is the transitional period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

59 Puberty – the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing Puberty – the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing Girls usually begin at age 11 Boys usually begin at 13

60 Puberty Landmarks Puberty Landmarks Menarche – the first menstrual cycle for females Menarche – the first menstrual cycle for females The first ejaculation for boys The first ejaculation for boys

61 Primary Sex Characteristics – the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make reproduction possible Primary Sex Characteristics – the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make reproduction possible Secondary Sex Characteristics – non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality and facial hair, and pubic and underarm hair in both sexes Secondary Sex Characteristics – non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality and facial hair, and pubic and underarm hair in both sexes

62 Identity – One’s sense of self; according to Erickson, the adolescent task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles – trying new things to discover the answer to the question “Who am I?” Identity – One’s sense of self; according to Erickson, the adolescent task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles – trying new things to discover the answer to the question “Who am I?”

63 Intimacy – the ability to form close, loving relationships Intimacy – the ability to form close, loving relationships

64 Carol Gilligan – studies suggest that women are naturally more concerned with making connections (interdependent) than men (independent) Carol Gilligan – studies suggest that women are naturally more concerned with making connections (interdependent) than men (independent)

65 Independence begins to occur as teens become young adults, go off to colleges or the world of work Independence begins to occur as teens become young adults, go off to colleges or the world of work

66 Adulthood

67 To measure the mental and physical changes that take place over a lifetime, researchers typically use either a cross-sectional or longitudinal study. To measure the mental and physical changes that take place over a lifetime, researchers typically use either a cross-sectional or longitudinal study.

68 Cross-sectional – a study in which people of different ages are compared with another Cross-sectional – a study in which people of different ages are compared with another Longitudinal Study – research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time Longitudinal Study – research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period of time

69 Living Longer Living Longer Living Longer Living Longer Slowing The Aging Process Slowing The Aging Process Slowing The Aging Process Slowing The Aging Process Human Hibernation? Human Hibernation? Human Hibernation? Human Hibernation? Can We Live Forever? Can We Live Forever? Can We Live Forever? Can We Live Forever? Facing Death Facing Death Facing Death Facing Death

70 Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, cardiac output all peak by the mid-twenties Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, cardiac output all peak by the mid-twenties

71 Women and Menopause Women and Menopause The end of menstruation The end of menstruation Only about 10% of all women have severe physical symptoms Only about 10% of all women have severe physical symptoms

72 Men and Sexuality – Gradual decline in sperm count, lowering testosterone levels, slower speed of erections and ejaculation Men and Sexuality – Gradual decline in sperm count, lowering testosterone levels, slower speed of erections and ejaculation

73 Contrary to popular belief, recent studies found that people over 60: Contrary to popular belief, recent studies found that people over 60: 39% were satisfied with the amount of sex that they were having 39% were satisfied with the amount of sex that they were having 39% wanted sex more frequently 39% wanted sex more frequently

74 Visual sharpness declines Visual sharpness declines Distance perception declines Distance perception declines Less adaptation to light changes Less adaptation to light changes Hearing declines Hearing declines The immune system weakens The immune system weakens Slower reaction times Slower reaction times Short-term memory decreases Short-term memory decreases

75 Aging and Memory Aging and Memory Aging and Memory Aging and Memory

76 Recognition declines slower than recall information Recognition declines slower than recall information Overall, intelligence does not sharply decline with age Overall, intelligence does not sharply decline with age

77 Fluid Intelligence decreases slowly up to the age of 75, and then rapidly thereafter Fluid Intelligence decreases slowly up to the age of 75, and then rapidly thereafter One’s ability to reason speedily and abstractly One’s ability to reason speedily and abstractly Crystallized Intelligence increases up to old age Crystallized Intelligence increases up to old age One’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills One’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills

78 The Marriage Phenomena The Marriage Phenomena Lasts longer for those that marry after the age of 20 and are educated Lasts longer for those that marry after the age of 20 and are educated Those that lived together prior to marriage have a higher rate of divorce than those that didn’t Those that lived together prior to marriage have a higher rate of divorce than those that didn’t

79 Midlife Crisis – As people enter middle age, they realize that life will very soon be mostly behind then instead of ahead of them. The crisis is a question of whether to continue on their current path, or to change while there’s still time? Midlife Crisis – As people enter middle age, they realize that life will very soon be mostly behind then instead of ahead of them. The crisis is a question of whether to continue on their current path, or to change while there’s still time?

80 Over-65? It’s presumed that depression sits in and we wait for death…… Over-65? It’s presumed that depression sits in and we wait for death…… Studies suggest that those over-65 report that they are 80% “satisfied” with their life at that age, a greater percentage than other age bracket Studies suggest that those over-65 report that they are 80% “satisfied” with their life at that age, a greater percentage than other age bracket


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