Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Creation of the Group: Place, Time, Size, Preparation"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 10: Creation of the Group: Place, Time, Size, Preparation The Theory and Practice of Group PsychotherapyIrvin Yalom, Ph.D.
2Policy about the Lifespan of the Group Open or Closed GroupClosed group - accepts no new members and usually is time limitedCan be long term but you would need a captive audienceOpen group – accepts new members in order to sustain a consistent size
3Policy about the Lifespan of the Group Duration and FrequencyGeneral principle is that the larger the group the longer time necessary.6-10 members generally minutesFrequency is usually once a week, but twice a week can be more intensive because the themes can be carried over better.
4Policy about the Lifespan of the Group Then there are the Time Extended Group or Marathon GroupHas anyone in the class participated in such a group?’s groups which experimented with the variable of time and its effects on inhibitions, defense mechanisms, disclosure and cohesiveness.There was a claim that the social microcosm effect developed more quickly.
5Policy about the Lifespan of the Group During this time, the mass media presented these groups as being equivalent to several years of therapy.These groups produced affect laden experiences, however they may not generalize to other life experiences in general.It was also considered state learning, however you need to be in the state to generalize.
6Policy about the Lifespan of the Group In Yalom’s experience, he with colleagues noticed that there were no measurable effects on the process of individual therapy.Hence, the generalizing/ transfer of learning requires an irreducible amount of time – relapse cycle – hard wiring
7Policy about the Lifespan of the Group Brief Group TherapyThe most common of groupsIn one study, only 8% of a long term group attended for the duration of the group which lasted 1 year.These groups:Strive for efficiencySet and pursue goalsPresent orientedFocus more on interpersonal than intrapersonalHomogeneous for a problem
8Policy about the Lifespan of the Group Brief Groups :Aren’t truncated groupsGoals must be clarifiedBrief groups are less forgiving of errors than long term groups.The leader needs to keep group focused because they can tend to deny their limits.Must keep time limitations in the forefront like Carl RogersMust focus on getting pts to transfer their learning.Research on brief group is limited.
9Group SizeIn studies with four or fewer members resulted with the following conclusions:Limited interactionPassivityNegative group imagePoor group developmentGroups should begin with a larger group in order to account for dropouts.
10PreparationAccording to Yalom, the more a pt is seen prior to group the less % for premature termination.This builds the therapeutic alliance.It uses the therapist as a transitional object (the mutual identification with a shared object).It decreases misconceptions leading to increased willingness and possibly motivation.
11PreparationRationale Behind of PreparationUnavoidable anxiety
12Preparation“The research findings on preparation, though not as secure and specific as we might hope, are nonetheless significant. We have substantial evidence from a variety of sources that indicates that pregroup training can have a significant effect on both group process and client outcomes.”
13Preparation A study in which 60 patients were observed. Half were prepared = more faith in therapy, more interactionOther studies show that preparation= more expressed emotion, more personal responsibility in group and lower drop out, more disclosure, work oriented participation, more popular to others in group,etc etc