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THE HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE UNIT 1. HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE Introduction Why is it important to understand the history of health care?

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Presentation on theme: "THE HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE UNIT 1. HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE Introduction Why is it important to understand the history of health care?"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE UNIT 1

2 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE Introduction Why is it important to understand the history of health care?

3 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE Introduction You have an infected finger and the doctor orders leeches to treat the infection.

4 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE Introduction Is this an ancient or modern treatment? Does it work?

5 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 4000 BC BC Primitive Times -Illness & disease caused by spirits and demons -Average life span = 20 years

6 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 3000 BC -300 BC Ancient Egyptians -Believed body was system of channels (ducts) -Bloodletting was used when channels were “blocked” -Average life span = years

7 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 1700 BC - AD 220 Ancient Chinese -Used acupuncture to relieve pain and congestion -Average life span = years

8 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 1200 BC -200 BC Ancient Greeks -Hippocrates – Father of Medicine  Developed organized method to observe human body  Recorded Signs & Symptoms

9 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 1200 BC -200 BC Ancient Greeks -Hippocrates – Father of Medicine  Created high standard of ethics: “The Hippocratic Oath” used by physicians today.

10 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 1200 BC -200 BC Ancient Greeks -Aristotle – Dissected animals; founder of what is known today as anatomy -Avg. life span= years

11 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 753 BC - AD 410 Ancient Romans -First to provide medical care for injured soldiers -Physicians cared for ill people in their homes -Hospitals established in religious institutions

12 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 753 BC - AD 410 Ancient Romans -Began public health & sanitation systems  Aqueducts to carry clean water to cities  Sewers to carry waste away from cities

13 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 753 BC - AD 410 Ancient Romans -Claudius Galen: physician; body is controlled by a balance of fluids (humors), blood, phlegm and bile. Imbalance in fluids lead to illness. -Average life span = years

14 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time AD 400- AD 800 Dark Ages -Prayer & divine intervention used to treat illness & disease -Study of medicine was prohibited -Average life span = years

15 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time AD 800- AD 1400 Middle Ages -Medical universities were created -Pandemic killed ¾ of the population of Europe & Asia -Arab physicians required to pass exam before getting license to practice -Average life span = years

16 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time AD AD 1650 Renaissance -Body dissection was performed -Michelangelo & Leonardo da Vinci drew human body -Printing press allowed for distribution of information -First anatomy book published

17 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time AD AD 1650 Renaissance -Average life span = years

18 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 16 th & 17 th Centuries -Cause of diseases still not known -Ambrose Pare: Father of modern surgery -William Harvey: described circulation to and from the heart

19 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 16 th & 17 th Centuries -Anton van Leeuwenhoek: invented microscope -Average life span = years

20 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 18 th Century -Gabriel Fahrenheit: invented first mercury thermometer

21 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 18 th Century -Benjamin Franklin: invented bifocals -Edward Jenner: developed vaccination for smallpox

22 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 18 th Century -Average life span = years

23 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 19 th Century -French barbers: acted as surgeons by extracting teeth, using leeches for treatment and giving enemas

24 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 19 th Century -1 st Blood transfusion (1818)

25 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 19 th Century -Rene Laennec: invented stethoscope (1819)

26 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 19 th Century -Elizabeth Blackwell: first female physician in the U.S. (1849)

27 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 19 th Century -Florence Nightingale: Founder of modern nursing; -Began education for nurses (1850’s & 1860’s)

28 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 19 th Century -Joseph Lister: began use of disinfectants and antiseptics in surgery to prevent infection (1865)

29 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 19 th Century -Louis Pasteur: “pasteurized” milk to kill bacteria -Created rabies vaccine (1885)

30 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 19 th Century -Dimitri Ivanofski: discovered viruses (1892)

31 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 19 th Century -Wilhelm Roentgen: discovered x-rays (1895)

32 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 19 th Century -Average life span = years

33 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Most rapid growth in modern healthcare occurred during this time period -Many diseases were specifically identified, treated and cured

34 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Standards of care were established -Technology is integrated into healthcare and is used in every aspect of medical care today

35 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Carl Landsteiner: Classified ABO blood groups (1901)

36 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Sigmund Freud: formed the basis for psychology & psychiatry (early 1900’s)

37 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Frederick Banting & Charles Best: discovered & used insulin to treat diabetes (1922)

38 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Sir Alexander Fleming: discovered the antibiotic penicillin (1928)

39 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -George Papanicolaou: developed the “pap smear” to detect cervical cancer in females

40 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Jonas Salk: developed the polio vaccine using dead polio virus (1952)

41 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Francis Crick & James Watson: discovered the structure of DNA, our genetic blue- print (1953)

42 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Christian Barnard: Performed 1 st heart transplant (1968)

43 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -CAT Scan: developed (1975)

44 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Louise Brown: first “test- tube” baby, conceived in a laboratory (1978)

45 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): first identified as a disease (1981) HIV (1984)

46 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Ben Carson: First to separate conjoined twins; has pioneered many new procedures (1987)

47 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century -Sheep Cloned: “Dolly” the sheep was cloned by Dr. Ian Wilmut (1997)

48 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 20 th Century Average life span = years

49 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE I. Health Care Through Time 21 st Century -What impact will YOU have on the history of health care? -What will YOU discover? -What will YOU cure? -Average life span = 100 yrs plus?

50 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care Cost Containment

51 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A. Cost Containment: controlling the rising cost of health care - Reasons high costs: 1)Technological advances 2)Aging population (Rx) 3)Lawsuits (malpractice Ins.)

52 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care B. Diagnostic Related Groups: DRG’s place a limit on the cost of health care. Example: (?) Surgery $5,000 Limit If hospital costs are less than $5,000 then hospital makes $$, otherwise hospital loses $$

53 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care B. Diagnostic Related Groups: 1) Combination of Services: health care facilities shop for services (laboratory, x-ray, etc.) to save $$.

54 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care C.Outpatient Services: Patients receive care and are discharged home without being admitted to the hospital. Examples: Surgical Centers, Physical Therapy, etc.

55 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care D.Energy Conservation: Energy is a large expense for health care facilities. - Energy Efficient Bulbs - Consolidating Work Areas - Recycling

56 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care E.Summary: The quality of health care should not be lowered simply to control costs. - Provider responsibility: provide the best health care while being conscious of costs

57 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care E.Summary: The quality of health care should not be lowered simply to control costs. - Personal responsibility: take preventative measures to avoid or limit injury, illness & disease

58 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care Home Health Care

59 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Home Health Care: Created mainly as a result of DRG’s. History shows that this is not a new concept.

60 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Home Health Care: Services include: - Nursing care - Physical/occupational therapies - Respiratory therapy - Social services - Nutrition & food services

61 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care Geriatric Care

62 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Geriatric Care: Care of the elderly. People are living longer.

63 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Geriatric Care: Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA) Government Act which requires states to establish competency standards which nursing assistants must meet. (Exam)

64 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Geriatric Care: Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA) Requires long-term health care workers to attend continuing education courses

65 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Geriatric Care: Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA) Loss of license/certificate can occur if compliance is not maintained. Facility can also be fined and even shut down.

66 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Geriatric Care: Types of Facilities: - Adult day care centers - Retirement communities - Assisted living care centers - Long-term care centers

67 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care Telemedicine

68 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Telemedicine: Involves using technology to provide care Methods: - Computerized (EKG’s) - Remote (robotics) - Video (surgery) - Phone/Fax (Reports)

69 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care Wellness

70 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Wellness: A state of being in optimum health as it relates to physical, mental and social health. Preventative measures: diet, exercise, rest, stress reduction, habit cessation

71 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care Alternative & Complementary Methods of Health Care

72 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Alternative Medicine: Involves evaluating and treating illness and disease in ways which may differ from current, modern medical treatment; or enhance medical treatment being used.

73 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Alternative Medicine: Practitioners: - Ayurvedic: harmonizing body and mind - Chinese: Acupressure Acupuncture; Life Energy (Chi)

74 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Alternative Medicine: Practitioners: - Chiropractors: energy through nerves; spinal alignment - Homeopaths: body can heal itself with immune system

75 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.Alternative Medicine: Practitioners: - Hypnotist: trance-like state; verbal suggestions; follow - Naturopaths: natural therapies only; fasting, diets, lifestyle changes

76 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care National Health Care Plan

77 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.National Health Care Plan: Nationalizing health care is being considered as a result of rising health costs.

78 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.National Health Care Plan: - Government Health Care - taxes to help pay - Health Care Co-op - grouping of health care providers which provide care at lower costs

79 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.National Health Care Plan: - Managed Care - employers provide ins. & government helps pay for poor - State-run Health Care - Each state develops plan

80 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE II. Trends In Health Care A.National Health Care Plan: Goal: Health Care For All Potential Drawbacks: - Insured paying for uninsured - Limited choices of providers - Limited care

81 HISTORY OF HEALTH CARE End of Lecture


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