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© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 The dilemma of our times: Lifespan physical activity and the obesity crisis The dilemma.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 The dilemma of our times: Lifespan physical activity and the obesity crisis The dilemma."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 The dilemma of our times: Lifespan physical activity and the obesity crisis The dilemma of our times: Lifespan physical activity and the obesity crisis Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Daryl Siedentop

2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 2 The dilemma of our times What physical activity opportunities did you have growing up? Do you believe these opportunities to be different for people from different backgrounds? Discussion Questions

3 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 3 The dilemma of our times Describe three new facilities or programs that you have seen first hand, that are typical of the current boom in sport and fitness. Discussion Questions

4 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4 The dilemma of our times Describe five private sector facilities for sport and fitness in your region. What socio-economic groups use these facilities most? Discussion Questions

5 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5 The dilemma of our times What specific experience have you had or what evidence can you present that shows gender, race or age discrimination or stereotyping in sport, fitness and Physical Education? Discussion Questions

6 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6 The dilemma of our times Did the women in your family (mother, aunts, sisters, etc.) have ample opportunity for physical activity when they were growing up? How much did they actually take advantage if the opportunity was there? Discussion Questions

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 7 The dilemma of our times If you have children or when you do have children, do you expect that they will have physical activity opportunities that are substantially different from the ones you had growing up? Why? Discussion Questions

8 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 8 The dilemma of our times It is possible and desirable. It is possible and desirable. It is not just for children and youth, but... It is not just for children and youth, but... EVERYONE! EVERYONE! It has strong protective effects on one’s It has strong protective effects on one’s health. health. What do we know about the role and place of physical activity?

9 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 9 The dilemma of our times  Prevalence of overweight and obese persons and its impact on public health (see Box 1.3). its impact on public health (see Box 1.3).  It occurs across age groups.  More common in children and youth from lower SES groups, minorities (especially blacks and SES groups, minorities (especially blacks and Latinos), and those who have disabilities. Latinos), and those who have disabilities. We face a health crisis... What are some of the critical indicators?

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10 The dilemma of our times  Physical educators.  Fitness professionals (e.g., health clubs, personal trainers). trainers).  Recreation leaders (e.g., Boys & Girls clubs, Parks & Recreation programs. & Recreation programs.  Club sport programs. Reaching the national health goals cannot be achieved by one single group of professionals. Which groups need to team up?

11 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 11 The dilemma of our times  Emergence of “lifestyle management” within the wellness movement. wellness movement.  Policymakers pushing for high-quality, daily Physical Education in schools. Physical Education in schools.  2004 Renewal of the 1966 Child Nutrition Act >>> School Wellness Policy required in each >>> School Wellness Policy required in each school district. school district. What current efforts are aimed at reversing the health crisis?

12 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 12 The dilemma of our times  State legislation that increases minimum requirements for nutrition, nutrition education requirements for nutrition, nutrition education and Physical Education/physical activity. and Physical Education/physical activity.  Establishment of National Health objectives: >> Healthy People 2000 (1991) & Healthy People 2010 (2000) (2000) >> Primary Goals: >> Primary Goals: 1. Increase life expectancy & quality of life for all 1. Increase life expectancy & quality of life for all 2. Decrease / Eliminate health disparities 2. Decrease / Eliminate health disparities What current efforts are aimed at reversing the health crisis? (continued)

13 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13 The dilemma of our times In our culture, what are the common stereotypes for a) who is active? b) what activities do they engage in? (moderate or vigorous intensity?) (moderate or vigorous intensity?) Lifespan Physical Activity A revolution for public health... : Moderate intensity physical activity for ALL across the lifespan

14 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 14 The dilemma of our times ► Early Years ► Youth ► Young Adults ► Older Adults Lifespan Physical Activity What might it look like... ?

15 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 15 The dilemma of our times  Movement & motor play = Learning about surroundings and life. about surroundings and life.  Informal, less structured, & less goal directed. directed.  Largely dependent on parents... during Early Years? (Birth – Age 7) Lifespan Physical Activity

16 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 16 The dilemma of our times ► Early Childhood PA Programs (see Box 1.4) > Mostly commercial (i.e., fee-based). > More in affluent/suburban areas. > Less accessible to lower-income groups. > Facilities and equipment are modified. > PA habits are formed in childhood. > Their importance is well accepted.... during Early Years? (Birth – Age 7) Lifespan Physical Activity

17 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 17 The dilemma of our times ► Children’s Sport Opportunities > Dramatic increase in recent years. > Emergence of “age-group” programs. > Variance in organization (recr. v. competition) > Variance in support (volunteer parents v. organizations such as Kiwanis) v. organizations such as Kiwanis) > Well-designed programs can provide positive sport experiences. sport experiences.... during Early Years? (Birth – Age 7) Lifespan Physical Activity

18 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 18 The dilemma of our times ► Elementary-School Physical Education > While importance is recognized, status is marginal (e.g., time in PE; who teaches it). marginal (e.g., time in PE; who teaches it). > K-2: Focus on fundamental motor skills; adventure activities, coop. games & team adventure activities, coop. games & team building. building. > Grade 3-5: Increased focus on modified versions of sport. versions of sport.... during Early Years? (Birth – Age 7) Lifespan Physical Activity

19 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 19 The dilemma of our times  Middle and High schoolers either become more active or more sedentary. more active or more sedentary.  HS Phys. Educ. requirements are 1-2 semesters. semesters.  Involvement in other activities (e.g., band, school sport; dance team) may exempt school sport; dance team) may exempt students from Physical Education students from Physical Education... for Youth? (ages 10-18) Lifespan Physical Activity

20 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 20 The dilemma of our times  Fitness centers in HS are becoming more common (w/ access for communities) more common (w/ access for communities)  Access for public during after school hours and evenings hours and evenings  Physical activity venues are now more accessible for youth year round accessible for youth year round... for Youth? (ages 10 – 18) Lifespan Physical Activity

21 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 21 The dilemma of our times ► High School Interschool Sport Program > Participation has steadily increased in the last decade (~7, students). last decade (~7, students). > Booster clubs for many sports to supplement funding. supplement funding. > Coaches may come from outside of the ranks of licensed teachers. of licensed teachers. > Most expect year round strength conditioning, & have an athletic trainer. conditioning, & have an athletic trainer.... for Youth? (ages 10 – 18) Lifespan Physical Activity

22 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 22 The dilemma of our times ► Out-of-School Sport > Students will engage in sports not typically seen in HS programs. seen in HS programs. > Practice and competition involvement equals that of athletes in HS programs. that of athletes in HS programs. > Involvement and accomplishment may well go unnoticed at school. go unnoticed at school.... for Youth? (ages 10 – 18) Lifespan Physical Activity

23 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 23 The dilemma of our times... for Young Adults? (Age 18 and over)  Entry into the workforce or furthering education. education.  Establishing patterns of work and play. Lifespan Physical Activity

24 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 24 The dilemma of our times ► University Recreation & Fitness programs programs > Attractive facilities help attract and retain students. students. > Extensive choice in sport and fitness programs & activities. (see Box 1.5) programs & activities. (see Box 1.5)... for Young Adults? (Age 18 and over) Lifespan Physical Activity

25 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 25 The dilemma of our times ► University Recreation & Fitness programs (cont’d.) programs (cont’d.) > Extensive array of Sport Clubs for regional and national competition. and national competition. > Outdoor Adventure program offerings are common. common. > Intramural programs and elective “General Physical Activity” courses are popular with Physical Activity” courses are popular with students. students.... for Young Adults? (Age 18 and over) Lifespan Physical Activity

26 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 26 The dilemma of our times ► Community recreation > Municipal and private fitness facilities offer fee-based PA opportunities (e.g., YMCA, Parks fee-based PA opportunities (e.g., YMCA, Parks & Recreation). & Recreation). > Community rec. programs cater to all ages. > Availability of such programs can attract new community residents. community residents. > Municipality-maintained parks, and trails offer additional access for PA (often free). offer additional access for PA (often free).... for Young Adults? (Age 18 and over) Lifespan Physical Activity

27 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 27 The dilemma of our times ► Informal Participation > Very popular among young and older adults. > Can contribute to health and quality of life. > Popular examples include: Cycling, swimming, walking, jogging skating, tennis, and golf. walking, jogging skating, tennis, and golf. > Other (less visible) include mountain biking, rock climbing, and backpacking. biking, rock climbing, and backpacking.... for Young Adults? (Age 18 and over) Lifespan Physical Activity

28 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 28 The dilemma of our times... for Older Adults? Lifespan Physical Activity  Myths about the dangers of (vigorous) physical activity for older adults physical activity for older adults  1980’s brought about a gradual shift  Today, older adults are learning to be more active (preferring low impact more active (preferring low impact activities) activities)

29 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 29 The dilemma of our times ► Master Athlete Programs > Hail from Europe > Increasingly popular > Track & Field, Swimming... for Older Adults? Lifespan Physical Activity

30 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 30 The dilemma of our times ► Physical Activity Forever > Increased life expectancy increases need for PA in older adults > maintain health. for PA in older adults > maintain health. > Inactive lifestyle adds to health care cost. cost. > Previous generations never viewed fitness and active lifestyle as essential.... for Older Adults? Lifespan Physical Activity

31 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 31 The dilemma of our times ► Sport Clubs (fee-based, caters to different ages and skill levels) ► Sport Medicine Centers (specializes in injury treatment, rehab, independent from hospitals, caters to all ages) independent from hospitals, caters to all ages) ► Home Fitness (homes now often include a fitness room) ► Worksite programs (reduced health care insurance cost) ► Sport / Games Festivals (offers competition for all ages and skill levels). skill levels). New Settings for Sport, Fitness, and Physical Education

32 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 32 The dilemma of our times ► An early start helps ► Breakdown of gender and age stereotypes ► Emphasis from youth to adults ► Increased role by private sector ► New professionals ► Increased availability of information ► Role of technology What are the emerging characteristics of Lifespan Physical Activity?*

33 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 33 The dilemma of our times ► Increased opportunities for PA vs overweight/obesity crisis ► Disparities between groups relative to access and opportunity for PA, Sport, Fitness. opportunity for PA, Sport, Fitness. ► Role of “built environment” in suppressing vs increasing PA ► Poor infrastructure to support PA for ALL ► Having professionals become “boundary-crossers” Major issues and what to do about them?


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