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Development Through the Lifespan

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1 Development Through the Lifespan
Chapter 10 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Erikson’s Theory: Industry versus Inferiority
Born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1902 Son of Jewish mother and unknown father As a child, does not feel accepted by either Jewish or Gentile community Leaves home at 18 to live as itinerant artist, wandering Europe for 7 years

3 Erikson’s Theory: Industry versus Inferiority
In Vienna, is introduced to psychoanalysis by Anna Freud, who becomes his analyst Graduates from Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute Lacking an academic degree, accepts research position at Harvard Medical School in 1933 Publishes Childhood and Society in 1950 Also taught at Yale, Berkeley, and several other institutions Professor of Human Development at Harvard in 1960 Died in Cape Cod in 1994

4 Erikson’s Theory: Industry versus Inferiority
Erikson postulated eight stages of psychosocial development through which people progress. Although he differed from Freud in his emphasis on the ego and on social influences, his theory is an extension, not a negation, of Freudian psychoanalysis.

5 The Ego in Post-Freudian Theory
One of Erikson's chief contributions to personality theory was his emphasis on ego rather than id functions. According to Erikson, the ego is the center of personality and is responsible for a unified sense of self. It consists of three interrelated facets: the body ego, the ego ideal, and ego identity.

6 The Ego in Post-Freudian Theory
Body Ego The body ego refers to experiences with our body. (a way of seeing our physical self as different for other people) We may be satisfied or dissatisfied with the way our body looks and functions, but we recognize that it is the only body we will ever have.

7 The Ego in Post-Freudian Theory
Ego Ideal The ego ideal represents the image we have of ourselves in comparison with an established ideal. (it is responsible for our being satisfied or dissatisfied not only with our physical self but with our entire personal identity)

8 The Ego in Post-Freudian Theory
Ego Identity Ego identity is the image we have of ourselves in the variety of social roles we play. Although adolescence is ordinarily the time when these three components are changing rapidly, alterations in body ego, ego ideal, and ego identity can and do take place at any stage of life.

9 The Ego in Post-Freudian Theory
Society's Influence The ego develops within a given society and is influenced by child-rearing practices and other cultural customs. All cultures and nations develop a pseudospecies, or a fictional notion that they are superior to other cultures.

10 The Ego in Post-Freudian Theory
Epigenetic Principle The ego develops according to the epigenetic principle; that is, it grows according to a genetically established rate and in a fixed sequence. Epigenetic development implies a step-by-step growth of fetal organs. The embryo does not begin as a completely formed little person, waiting to merely expand its structure and form. Rather it develops, or should develop, according to a predetermined rate and in a fixed sequence.

11 The Ego in Post-Freudian Theory
If the eyes, liver, or other organs do not develop during that critical period for their development, then they will never attain proper maturity. In similar fashion, the ego follows the path of epigenetic development, with each stage developing at its proper time. One stage emerges from and is built upon a previous stage, but it does not replace the earlier stage. This epigenetic development is analogous to the physical development of children, who crawl before they walk, walk before they run, and run before they jump.

12 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Basic Points of Stage Approach Growth follows epigenetic principle Every stage has an interaction of opposites-that is, a conflict between a syntonic (harmonious) element and a dystonic (disruptive) element. Conflict produces ego strength (basic strength) Too little strength at one stage results in core psychopathology at a later stage Stages are also biological in nature Earlier stages do not cause later personality development From adolescence on, personality development involves identity crisis

13 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Infancy Erikson's view of infancy (the 1st year of life) was similar to Freud's concept of the oral stage, except that Erikson expanded the notion of incorporation beyond the mouth to include sense organs such as the eyes and ears. The psychosexual mode of infancy is oral-sensory, which is characterized by both receiving and accepting.

14 Oral-Sensory Mode Erikson’s expanded view of infancy is expressed in the term oral-sensory, a phrase that includes infants’ principal psychosexual mode of adapting. The oral-sensory stage is characterized by two modes of incorporation, or receiving and accepting what is given. Infants can receive even in the absence of other people; that is, they can take in air through the lungs and can receive sensory data without having to manipulate others. The second mode of incorporation, however, implies a social context.

15 Oral-Sensory Mode Infants not only must get, but they also must get someone else to give. This early training in interpersonal relations help them learn to eventually become givers. In getting other people to give, they learn to trust or mistrust other people, thus setting up the basic psychosocial crisis of infancy.

16 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Trust Versus Mistrust Infants’ most significant interpersonal relations are with their primary caregiver, ordinarily their mother. If they realize that their mother will provide food regularly, then they begin to learn basic trust. If they consistently hear the pleasant, rhythmic, voice of their mother, then they develop more basic trust. If they can rely on an exciting visual environment, then they solidify basic trust even more. In contrast, they learn basic mistrust if they find no correspondence between their oral-sensory needs and their environment.

17 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Trust Versus Mistrust Infants must develop both attitudes. Too much trust makes them gullible and vulnerable to the vagaries (erratic, unpredictable, or extravagant) of the world, whereas too little trust leads to frustration, anger, hostility, suspicion, or depression. Hope Hope emerges from the conflict between basic trust and basic mistrust.

18 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Early Childhood The 2nd to 3rd year of life is early childhood, a period that compares to Freud's anal stage, but it also includes mastery of other body functions such as walking, urinating, and holding. The psychosexual mode of early childhood is anal-urethral-muscular, and children of this age behave both impulsively and compulsively. The psychosocial crisis of early childhood is autonomy versus shame and doubt. The psychosocial crisis between autonomy on the one hand and shame and doubt on the other produces will, the basic strength of early childhood. The core pathology of early childhood is compulsion.

19 Anal-Urethral-Muscular Mode
During the 2nd year of life, children’s primary psychosexual adjustment is the anal-urethral-muscular mode. At this time children learn to control their body, especially in relation to cleanliness and mobility. Early childhood is a time of contradiction, a time of stubborn rebellion and meek compliance, a time of impulsive self-expression and compulsive deviance, a time of loving cooperation and hateful resistance. This obstinate insistence on conflicting impulses triggers the major crisis of early childhood.

20 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt As the child stubbornly expresses their anal-urethral-muscular mode, they are likely to find a culture that attempts to inhibit some of their self-expression. Ideally, children should develop a proper ratio between autonomy and shame and doubt, and the ratio should be in favor of autonomy. Too little autonomy transgresses in the child having difficulty in later stages.

21 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Autonomy grows out of basic trust. Basic trust and autonomy=world remains intact in a mild psychosocial crisis. No autonomy=shame and doubt=serious psychosocial crisis. Shame=feeling of self-consciousness Doubt=feeling of not being certain Will Beginning of freewill and willpower. Basic strength of early childhood

22 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Play Age From about the 3rd to the 5th year, children experience the play age, a period that parallels Freud's phallic phase. Unlike Freud, however, Erikson saw the Oedipus complex as an early model of lifelong playfulness and a drama played out in children's minds as they attempt to understand the basic facts of life. The primary psychosexual mode of the play age is genital-locomotor, meaning that children have both an interest in genital activity and an increasing ability to move around.

23 Stages of Psychosocial Development
The psychosocial crisis of the play age is initiative versus guilt. Begin to adopt initiative in selection and pursuit of goals. Many goals, such as marrying their mother or father or leaving home must be repressed or delayed. The consequence of these taboo and inhibited goals is guilt. The conflict between initiative and guilt helps children to act with a purpose (strength of Play Age) and to set goals. But if children have too little purpose, they develop inhibition, the core pathology of the play age. (antipathy or opposite of purpose)

24 According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is industry versus inferiority, which is resolved positively when children develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks. In industrialized nations, the beginning of formal schooling marks the transition to middle childhood. School entrance brings the beginning of literacy training. In school, children discover their own and others’ unique capacities, learn the value of division of labor, and develop a sense of moral commitment and responsibility. The negative outcome of this stage is inferiority, reflected in the pessimism of children who have little confidence in their ability to do things well. Erikson’s sense of industry combines several developments of middle childhood: a positive but realistic self-concept, pride in accomplishment, moral responsibility, and cooperative participation with agemates.

25 Erikson’s Theory: Industry versus Inferiority
Developing a sense of competence at useful skills School provides many opportunities Inferiority Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well Family environment, teachers, and peers can contribute to negative feelings

In middle childhood, especially between ages 8 and 11, children refine their me-self, or self-concept, organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions. They emphasize competencies rather than specific behaviors. They can clearly describe their personality, including both positive and negative traits, rather than describing themselves in all-or-none ways. School-age children frequently make social comparisons—judgments of their appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others.

27 Self-Concept Cognitive development affects the changing structure of self. Children are now able to coordinate several aspects of a situation when reasoning about their physical world. In the social realm, they combine typical experiences and behaviors into psychological dispositions, blend positive and negative characteristics, and compare their own characteristics with those of many other peers.

28 Self-Concept Another influence on the content of self-concept is feedback from others. Mead proposed that a well-organized psychological self emerges when the child’s I-self adopts a view of the me-self that resembles others’ attitudes toward the child. Perspective-taking skills, especially an improved ability to infer what others are thinking, are crucial for the development of a self-concept based on personality traits. School-age children become better at interpreting others’ messages and incorporating these into their self-definitions. \

29 Development of Self-Esteem
As children enter school and receive much more feedback comparing their performance to that of peers, the high self-esteem of the preschool years differentiates and adjusts to a more realistic level. A Hierarchically Structured Self-Esteem By age 6 to 7, children have formed at least four broad self-esteems—academic, social, physical competence, and physical appearance—that become increasingly refined with age. Viewing the self in terms of stable dispositions permits school-age children to combine these self-evaluations into an overall sense of self-esteem. This general psychological image of themselves takes on a hierarchical structure, reflecting the greater importance children attach to certain self-evaluations than to others. Perceived physical appearance correlates more strongly with overall self-esteem than any other factor.

30 Changes in Level of Self-Esteem
Self-esteem declines during the first few years of elementary school as children evaluate themselves in various areas. Most children appraise their characteristics and competencies realistically while maintaining self-respect. From fourth grade on, self-esteem rises for the majority of children, especially in terms of their peer relationships and athletic capabilities.

31 Influences on Self-Esteem
Culture Child-rearing Practices Attributions Mastery-oriented Learned Helplessness

32 Mastery-Oriented Attributions
Attributions are common, everyday explanations for the causes of behavior. School-age children who are high in academic self-esteem and motivation make mastery-oriented attributions. They credit their successes to ability (which they can improve through trying hard and can rely on when facing new challenges) and their failures to factors that can be changed, such as insufficient effort. Students who make mastery-oriented attributions take an industrious, persistent approach to learning and are willing to tackle challenging tasks.

33 Learned Helplessness Children who develop learned helplessness attribute their failures to ability but, when they succeed, conclude that external factors, such as luck, are responsible. Learned-helpless children believe that ability is fixed and cannot be changed by trying hard. On difficult tasks, they experience an anxious loss of control and give up without really trying. Over time, the ability of learned-helpless children no longer predicts their performance, because they do not develop the metacognitive and self-regulatory skills necessary for high achievement.

34 Achievement-Related Attributions
Reason for Success Reason for Failure Mastery Ability Controllable factors Can change by working hard Learned Helplessness External factors Can NOT be changed by working hard

35 Influences on Achievement-Related Attributions
Parents Too-high standards Believe child incapable Trait statements Teachers Learning vs performance goals Gender SES, Ethnicity

36 Emotional Development in Middle Childhood
Self-conscious emotions more governed by personal responsibility Pride and guilt Emotional Understanding Explain emotion using internal states Understand mixed emotions Rise in empathy Supported by cognitive development and social experience Emotional Self-Regulation Motivated by self-esteem & peer approval Emotional self-efficacy

37 Coping Strategies Emotion-Centered Coping Problem-Centered Coping
Used if problem-centered coping does not work Internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about outcome Problem-Centered Coping Situation is seen as changeable Difficulty is identified Decision made on what to do

38 Selman’s Stages of Perspective Taking
Level 0 Undifferentiated 3 – 6 years Level 1 Social-informational 4 – 9 years Level 2 Self-reflective 7 – 12 years Level 3 Third-party 10 – 15 years Level 4 Societal 14 years to adult

Self-Conscious Emotions In middle childhood, the self-conscious emotions of pride and guilt become clearly governed by a sense of personal responsibility and no longer depend on adult monitoring. Children now report guilt only for intentional wrongdoing, not for an accidental mishap, as younger children do. Pride motivates children to take on challenges, while guilt prompts them to make amends and strive for self-improvement. Harsh reprimands from adults can lead to intense shame, which is particularly destructive, potentially causing a sharp drop in self-esteem that can trigger withdrawal, depression, and anger.

Emotional Understanding School-age children, unlike preschoolers, are likely to explain emotion by referring to internal states rather than to external events. Around age 8, children become aware that they can experience more than one emotion at a time, and that the different emotions can be either positive or negative and can differ in intensity. Children now realize that people’s expressions may not reflect their true feelings, and they become aware of self-conscious emotions and can reconcile contradictory facial and situational cues in figuring out someone else’s feelings. Gains in emotional understanding are supported by cognitive development and social experiences, especially adults’ sensitivity to children’s feelings and willingness to discuss emotions—factors that also lead to a rise in empathy. As children approach adolescence, advances in perspective taking allow them to have an empathic response to people’s general life condition, not just immediate distress—for example, to imagine how people who are chronically ill or hungry might feel.

Emotional Self-Regulation Rapid gains in emotional self-regulation occur in middle children as children engage in social comparison and care more about peer approval. By age 10, most children are able to shift adaptively between two general strategies for managing emotion, because of an improved ability to reflect on thoughts and feelings. In problem-centered coping, they appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it. If this is unsuccessful, they engage in emotion-centered coping, which is internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome.

Through interacting with parents, teachers, and peers, school-age children become more knowledgeable about socially approved ways to display negative emotion. They increasingly prefer verbal strategies to crying, sulking, or aggression. By third grade, children begin to emphasize concern for others’ feelings as the reason for these more mature displays of emotion. When emotional self-regulation has developed well, school-age children acquire a sense of emotional self-efficacy—a feeling of being in control of their emotional experience. This fosters a favorable self-image and an optimistic outlook, which help children face emotional challenges. Emotionally well-regulated children are upbeat in mood, empathic, and prosocial. Poorly regulated children, in contrast, impulsively unleash negative emotion, which interferes with peer acceptance.

Middle childhood brings major advances in perspective taking, the capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling—changes that support self-concept and self-esteem, understanding of others, and many social skills. Robert Selman’s five-stage sequence describes changes in perspective-taking skill. Selman asked children from preschool age through adolescence to respond to social dilemmas in which characters have differing information and opinions about an event. At first, children have only a limited idea of what other people might be thinking and feeling. Over time, they become more aware that people can interpret the same event differently.

Soon, they can “step into another person’s shoes” and reflect on how that person might regard their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior—a level similar to second-order false belief. Finally, older children and adolescents can evaluate two people’s perspectives simultaneously, both from the vantage point of a disinterested spectator and in terms of societal values. Children gain in perspective taking as a result of experiences in which adults and peers explain their viewpoints. Good perspective takers are more likely to display empathy and sympathy and to handle difficult social situations effectively—and, as a result, are better liked by peers.

Children with poor social skills have great difficulty imagining others’ thoughts and feelings. They often mistreat others without feeling guilt or remorse, because they lack awareness of the other person’s viewpoint. Interventions that provide coaching and practice in perspective taking help reduce antisocial behavior and increase empathy and prosocial responses.

46 MORAL DEVELOPMENT Moral reasoning advances greatly in middle childhood as the result of several factors. By middle childhood, children who have received the consistent guidance and example of caring adults internalize rules for good conduct; as a result, they are more independent and trustworthy, and are able to take on many more responsibilities. From a cognitive-developmental perspective, school-age children now have the capacity to think actively about right and wrong. Children’s expanding social world also plays a role.

47 Development of Distributive Justice
Strict Equality: 5 to 6 yrs Merit: 6 to 7 yrs Equity and Benevolence: around 8 yrs

48 Distributive Justice Distributive justice refers to beliefs about how to divide material goods fairly. William Damon traced children’s changing concept of distributive justice over early and middle childhood. Strict equality: Children in the early school grades (age 5 to 6) focus on making sure that each person gets the same amount of a treasured resource. Merit: At age 6 to 7, children say that extra rewards should be given to someone who has worked especially hard or otherwise performed in an exceptional way. Equity and benevolence: Around age 8, children believe that special consideration should be given to those at a disadvantage. Older children rely more on equality when interacting with strangers, more on benevolence with friends. The give-and-take of peer interaction makes children more sensitive to others’ perceptions, supporting their developing ideas of justice.

49 Changes in Moral Views By age 7 to 8, children no longer believe that all truth-telling is good and all lying bad, but also consider prosocial and antisocial intentions. As their ideas about justice advance, children begin to clarify and link moral imperatives and social conventions. They distinguish social conventions with a clear purpose from those with no obvious justification. They realize that the moral implications of violating a social convention depend partly on people’s intentions and the contexts of their actions. Children in Western and non-Western cultures reason similarly about moral and social-conventional concerns.

50 Understanding Individual Rights
When children challenge adult authority, they typically do so within the personal domain, concerning choices such as hairstyle, friends, and leisure activities. As early as age 6, children view freedom of speech and religion as individual rights—even if laws exist that deny those rights. They also regard laws that discriminate against individuals as wrong and worthy of violating. Older school-age children place limits on individual choice. When moral and personal concerns are in conflict, fourth graders typically decide in favor of kindness and fairness. As a result, prejudice usually declines in middle childhood.

51 Understanding Inequality
By school age, children associate power and privilege with white people Assign stereotyped traits to minorities With age, reduce prejudice Consider inner traits Individual differences based on Fixed view of personality traits Overly high self-esteem Social world in which people are sorted into groups

52 Peer Groups Formed from proximity, similarity Peer Culture
Behavior, vocabulary, dress code Can include relational aggression and exclusion

53 Friendship in Middle Childhood
Personal qualities, trust become important More selective in choosing friends Choose friends similar to self Friendships can last several years Learn to resolve disputes Type of friends influences development Aggressive friends often magnify antisocial acts

54 Bullies and Victims Victims Bullies
Passive when active behavior expected Give in to demands Lack defenders Inhibited temperament Physically frail Overprotected, controlled by parents Bullies Most are boys Physically, relationally aggressive High-status, powerful Popular However, most eventually become disliked

55 Gender Typing in Middle Childhood
Gender Stereotypes Extend stereotypes to include personalities and school subjects More flexible about what males and females can actually do Gender Identity (3rd-4th grade) Boys strengthen identification with “masculine” traits Girls’ identification with “feminine” traits declines Influence of cultural and social factors

56 Gender Identity Self-evaluations affect adjustment
Gender typicality- the degree to which the child feels that he or she “fits in” with others of the same gender—is related to psychological well-being. Gender contentedness- the degree to which the child feels satisfied with his or her gender assignment—also promotes happiness. Felt pressure to conform to gender roles can lead to distress in children who feel that parents and peers disapprove of their gender-related traits.

57 Family Relationships Parents
Coregulation- a transitional form of supervision in which parents exercise general over­ sight while permitting children to be in charge of moment-by-moment decision making—grows out of a cooperative relationship between parent and child; it supports and protects children while preparing them for the greater freedom of adolescence. Siblings Rivalry Companionship Assistance

58 Only Children High in self-esteem, achievement motivation
Closer relationships with parents Pressure for mastery Peer acceptance may be a problem Lack of practice in conflict resolution

59 Consequences of Parental Divorce
Immediate Instability, conflict, drop in income Parental stress, disorganization Consequences affected by Age Temperament Sex Long-Term Improved adjustment after 2 years Boys & children with difficult temperaments more likely to have problems Father’s involvement affects adjustment

60 Blended Families Mother-Stepfather Father-Stepmother Most frequent
Boys usually adjust quickly Girls adapt less favorably Older children and adolescents of both sexes display more problems Father-Stepmother Often leads to reduced father-child contact Children in fathers’ custody often react negatively Girls & stepmothers slow to get along at first, more positive interaction later

61 Maternal Employment and Child Development
Benefits Higher self-esteem Positive family and peer relations Fewer gender stereotypes Better grades More father involvement Drawbacks Less time for children Risk of ineffective parenting

62 Support for Working Parents
Flexible schedules, job sharing Sick leave Involvement of other parent Equal pay and opportunities Quality child care

Fears and Anxieties As children begin to understand the realities of the wider world, media events and the possibility of personal harm often trouble them, along with worries about academic failure, parents’ health, physical injuries, and peer rejection. Exposure to negative information in the media is the most common source of fears in middle childhood, followed by direct exposure to frightening events. Most children can handle fears constructively, using emotional regulation strategies; as a result, fears decline with age, especially for girls. About 5 percent of school-age youngsters develop a phobia—an intense, unmanageable fear; children with inhibited temperaments are at especially high risk. School phobia is severe apprehension about attending school. It is often accompanied by physical complaints that disappear once the child is allowed to remain home. Other childhood anxieties may arise from harsh living conditions—for example, in inner-city neighborhoods and war-torn areas of the world.

64 Prevention and Treatment
Child Sexual Abuse Characteristics of Victims More often female Reported in middle childhood of Abusers Usually Male Parent or known by parent Consequences Emotional reactions Physical symptoms Effects on behavior Prevention and Treatment Prevention: education Treatment: long-term therapy

65 Resilience Only a modest relationship exists between stressful life experiences and psychological disturbances in childhood. When negative conditions pile up, the rate of maladjustment is multiplied. Resilience is not a preexisting attribute but a capacity that develops, enabling children to use internal and external resources to cope with adversity. Families, schools, communities, and society as a whole can enhance or undermine school-age children’s supportive relationships and sense of competence.

66 Factors Related to Resilience
Personal Characteristics Easy temperament Mastery orientation Warm parental relationship Supportive adult outside family Community resources

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