Presentation on theme: "EDUC 682 – Chapter 2 and 15 Theory and D.O.T. Dr. William M. Bauer Way to GO PIONEERS!!! MC 40 Dubuque 7."— Presentation transcript:
EDUC 682 – Chapter 2 and 15 Theory and D.O.T. Dr. William M. Bauer Way to GO PIONEERS!!! MC 40 Dubuque 7
Reason for Theories 1. Facilitate the Understanding of the forces that influence career choice and development. 2. Stimulate research that will help us better clarify the career choice and development process. 3. Provide a guide to practice in the absence of empirical guidelines.
2 sets of Theories Positivist- Human Behavior measured with valid instruments Human Behavior can be studied outside the context in which it occurs Research processes should be value free. If researcher’s values enter into the process, then flawed Cause and effect relationships occur and can be measured Random sampling, reliable instruments then you can generalize to other people in similar settings. Career counselors should maintain objectivity and base practice on well designed empirical research (what happed with me?)
2 sets of Theories Postpositivist (post modern)- depart from old way (positivist way of theorizing). 1. Human behavior is nonlinear and thus cannot be studied objectively. 2. Cause and effect relationships cannot be determined. 3. Individuals cannot be studied outside the context of which they function. 4. Research Data cannot be generalized. 5. Research is not a value-free process. The researchers values should in fact guide the research process. *Check this out CareerDev(Insert).pdf
2 sets of Theories 6. Stories that the students tell are legitimate source of data. 7. Research is goal free: Random sampling is replaced with purposeful sampling. 8. Career counselors focus on stories of their clients, use qualitative assessment procedures.
Trait and Factor Theories Holland’s Theory of Vocational Choice Individual’s personality is primary factor in vocational choice. Interest inventories are in fact personality inventories. Stereotypical views of occupations play a role in vocational choice. Daydreams about occupations often are precursors to occupational choices. Identity is related to having a small number rather than focused vocational goals. To be successful one must choose an occupation that is congruent with one’s personality.
Holland Factual Stuff Children shape their own environment to an extent, and they are exposed to a number of people who reinforce certain types of performance.
Six personality types from Holland 1. Realistic-objective, concrete, and physically manipulative. Avoid goals that demand subjectivity intellectual or artistic expressions or social abilities. Agriculture, technical, skill trade, or engineering. Motor skills, equipment, machines tools, and structure, such as athletics, scouting, crafts, and woodwork. Masculine, unsociable, emotionally stable, and materialistic.
Six personality types from Holland (cont) 2. Investigative-deal with environment by using intellect: ideas, words and symbols. Scientific vocations, theoretical tasks, reading, collecting, algebra, foreign languages, creative art, music and sculpture. Avoid social situations and see themselves as unsociable, masculine, persistent, scholarly and introverted. Achieve in academics and science but have poor leadership skills.
Six personality types from Holland (cont) 3. Artistic-deal with environment by creating art forms and products. Rely on subjective impressions and fantasies in seeking solutions to problems. Vocations in music, art, literature and drama. Dislike masculine activities such as auto repair and athletics. See themselves as unsociable, feminine, submissive, introspective, sensitive impulsive, and flexible.
Six personality types from Holland (cont) 4.Social-use skills to interact and relate to others. Need social interaction. Educational, therapeutic, and religious vocations. 5. Enterprising-adventurous, dominant, enthusiastic and impulsive. Persuasive, verbal, extroverted, self-accepting, self-confident, aggressive. Sales, supervisory, and leadership. Need dominance, verbal expression, recognition and power. 6. Conventional-choose goals and activities that carry social approval. Stereotypical, correct, and unoriginal. Neat, sociable, conservative impression. Clerical or computational tasks, identify with business, and put a high value on economic matters. See themselves as masculine shrewd, dominant, controlled, rigid, and stable and have more mathematical than verbal aptitude.
Additional Holland Environment Stuff Investigative-abstract and creative abilities rather than personal perceptiveness. Work revolves around ideas instead of people. Research lab, diagnostic case conference; library, work of scientists, mathematicians and engineers. Artistic-creative and interpretive use of art forms. Draws on knowledge, intuition, and emotional life in solving problems. Play rehearsal, concert hall, dance studio, a study, library and art or music studio
Additional Holland Environment Stuff Social-the ability to interpret and modify human behavior and an interest in caring for and interacting with people. School and college classrooms, counselors, mental hospitals, churches, educational offices, and recreational centers. Enterprising-verbal skill in directing or persuading others. Car lot, real estate office, political office, or advertising
Additional Holland Environment Stuff Conventional-systematic, concrete, routine processing of verbal and mathematical information. bank, accounting firm, post office, file rooms, and business office Holland says, a person-environment match presumably results in more stable vocational choice.
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) Two types of needs Biological (survival) needs Psychological needs (social acceptance) Assumptions Behavior satisfied then reinforcement occurs and behavior strengthened. Environment-needs of individuals in work and those in the environment match then success. If reinforced in work and matches the need of the worker then success in place.
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA) Three variables of TWA Skills-what the person can do already for the job. Aptitude-potential an individual has to do a job. Personality structure-determined by the combination of aptitude and values. Values are attached by the importance of the job to the person: pay raises, trust, independent functioning.
Developmental Theories Focus on biological, psychological, sociological and cultural factors that influence career choice, adjustments to and changes in careers, and withdrawal from careers. Focus of stages of development.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory Donald Super-based in differential psychology, developmental psychology, sociology, and personality theory. 10, then 12 then 14 facets of his theory.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (14 facets) 1. People differ in their abilities and personalities, needs, values, interests, traits, and self-concepts. 2. People are qualified, by virtue of these characteristics, each for a number of occupations. (every person has within his or her makeup the requisites for success in many occupations). 3. Each occupation requires a characteristic pattern of abilities and personality traits—with tolerances wide enough to allow both some variety of occupations for each individual and some variety of individuals in each occupation.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (14 facets) 4. Vocational preferences and competencies, the situations in which people live and work and, hence, their self-concepts change with time and experience, although self-concepts as products of social learning, are increasingly stable from late adolescence until late maturity, providing some continuity in choice and adjustment.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (14 facets) 5. Maxi-cycle stages Growth-physical and psychological Exploratory-Occupation is a fact of life. Establishment-early encounters of work life (find the niche) Maintenance- continue or improve occupational situation Decline-pre-retirement period-focus on keeping the job and maintaining satisfactory output.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (14 facets) 6. The nature of the career pattern is determined by the individual’s parental socioeconomic level, mental ability, education, skills, personality characteristics (needs, values, interests, traits, self-concepts), and career maturity and by the opportunities to which he or she is exposed.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (14 facets) 7. Success in coping with the demands of the environment and structure of the job at any life-career stage depends on the readiness of the individual to cope with these demands (if has career maturity). 8. Career maturity-hypothetical construct (emotional intelligence).
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (14 facets) 9. Development through life stages can be guided partly by facilitating the maturity of abilities and interests and partly by aiding in reality testing and in the development of self-concepts. Help to develop abilities and interests Helping understand strengths and weaknesses.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (14 facets) 10. The process of career development is essentially that of developing and implementing occupational self-concepts. Synthesizing and compromising process in which the self-concept is a product of the interaction of inherited aptitudes, physical makeup, opportunity to observe and play various roles, and evaluations of the extent to which the results of role playing meet the approval of superiors and fellows.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (14 facets) 11. The process of synthesis of or compromise between individual social factors, between self concepts and reality, is one of role playing and learning from feedback. 12. Work satisfaction and life satisfactions depend on the extent to which the individual finds adequate outlets for abilities, needs, values, interests, personality traits, and self concepts.
Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (14 facets) 13. The degree of satisfaction people attain from work is proportional to the degree to which they have been able to implement self- concepts. 14. Work and occupation provide a focus for personality organization for most men and women, although for some persons it may be incidental or non-existent (social traditions, gender-based stereotyping, racial and ethnic biases)
Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription and Compromise Concerned with how career aspiration develop. Assumptions Career development begins in childhood Career aspirations are attempts to build self- concepts Career satisfaction is dependent on the degree to which the career is congruent with self-perceptions People develop occupational stereotypes that guide them in the selection process.
Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription and Compromise He believes that people develop cognitive maps of occupations that are organized along the following dimensions. a. Masculinity/Femininity of the occupation. b. The prestige of the occupation. c. Fields of work * As children grow, and develop perceptions of themselves, they begin to narrow or circumscribe their range of occupations based on their estimates of compatibility (sex-type, prestige and interest).
Theories Based in Learning Theory Focus on the learning processes that lead to self-efficacy beliefs and interests and how these impact the career decision making process. Krumboltz’ Social Learning Theory
Krumboltz’ Social Learning Theory Four Factors that influence career decision making; 1.Genetic endowment and special abilities 2.Environmental conditions and events. 3.Learning experiences 4.Task approach skills *Individual is born into this world with certain genetic characteristics. As time goes one changes happen and career changes may happen tool.
Socioeconomic Theories Economic forces that influence jobs. Race and culture influence jobs.
Status Attainment Theories The Socioeconomic status of ones family influence education, which in turn affects the occupation entered. Family status and cognitive variables combine through social-psychological processes to influence education attainment, which in turn impacts occupational attainment and earnings.
Dual Labor Market Theory Core and Peripheral Core firms have internal labor markets that have well developed career paths and offer opportunities for upward mobility. Technology and tools to enhance their positions. Peripheral firms make no long-term commitment to their employees. Paid per job and when job done you’re done.
Race, Gender and Career Theories Stigmatized jobs and people have generalized themselves. African-American earn less than whites Women earn less than men People with disabilities earn less than all of them.
Variables that influence Career Choice and Satisfaction Values-beliefs that are experienced by the individual of how he or she should function. Categories of values: Human Nature Person-Nature Relationship Time orientation Activity Self-Control Social Relationships Collateral Allocentrism- putting group ahead of individual How do values develop?
Classifying Occupations Dictionary of Occupational Titles- DOT still used but abandoned in some areas for O*NET. Guide for Occupational Exploration (GOE) Companion for DOT 12 interest factors (p ) O*NET (Occupational Information Network)-creates database for jobs 6 domains of O*NET Roe’s Field and Level Classification System Holland’s Classification System World of Work Map- Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)