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Personal Needs and Development across Lifespan

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1 Personal Needs and Development across Lifespan
Enriching Knowledge for the Health Management and Social Care Curriculum Series (9) : Individual Health and Well-being (Compulsory Part) (Refreshed) 27 Jan 2015 Personal Needs and Development across Lifespan Booklet(1)

2 Curriculum Framework

3 S4 – Concepts and Framework
Booklet (1) Personal development Booklet (2) Health and well-being S4 – Holistic Health Booklet (3) Physical Booklet (4)Mental Booklet (5) Social S5 – Macro Level Health Management Booklet (6) (8) (9) (10) Social Care Booklet (7) (11) Round-up:Booklet(13) Health and Social Care Policies

4 Learning Targets Values and attitudes Skills Knowledge 1.1 / 1.3
Develop positive attitude towards changes, life events and adversities Values and attitudes Learn how to deal with life events that affect health and personal development Skills Recognize the lifespan perspectives on physical growth and development Identify the features of physical, intellectual, emotional and social development at different stages of life Knowledge 1.1 / 1.3

5 Learning Targets Knowledge 1.2 1.4 / 1.5 1.6 / 1.7
Understand the needs and care of people at various stages of life Knowledge 1.2 Explore how the family, peers, school education and the community influence personal health and development Identify and understand the positive factors and risk factors towards personal development 1.4 / 1.5 Understand that transitions and changes across lifespan are inevitable Realize that real-life problems often have more than one solution 1.6 / 1.7

6 Key Questions Life Stages Factors Relationships Life Events Booklet(5)
What are the important features of personal growth and development at various stages of life? Life Stages What are the factors affecting personal growth and development? Factors How do human relationships influence personal growth and development? Relationships How do life events influence personal growth and development? Life Events Booklet(5) Social Well-being Booklet (4) Mental Well-being

7 Scenario Gordon is a primary 2 student. Gordon spends around 3 hours every day on computer games after school, and is often not able to complete his homework before midnight. Sometimes his mother will help him complete his homework, despite she is not happy with his behavior.

8 1. Physical growth and development
Curriculum and Assessment Guide Topic 1 - Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan 1C Transitions and changes in the course of the lifespan 1C The various stages of life:infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and elderly To recognise the lifespan perspectives on human development and the important features at different stages of life

9 1.1Physical Growth and Development– Features
Personal Development Physical Growth Skills development Intellectual Emotional Social I E S P Important features

10 Personal Growth and Development
Stages Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Physical development Intellectual development Social development Emotional development

11 Personal Growth and Development
Stages Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Physical development Intellectual development Social development Emotional development Sequence of growth / development Different features of a life stage

12 Physical Development Physical development Infancy Childhood
Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Physical development The senses are developed early at the fetal stage of prenatal development. Physical growth in the first year is the marked by quickly gaining in body height and weight. The upper part of the body grows faster than the other parts. A child is expected to learn to control his/her body and its movements. Assimilation in metabolism is greater than alienation – need for sufficient intake of nutrients for rapid growth and development Control body movement and develop better balance / muscle grows with better coordination Improper sitting, standing or walking postures can cause scoliosis, humpback and other skeletal deformities Rapid growth of the skeletal and muscular systems caused by hormonal activities Secondary sexual characteristics and maturity of the reproductive organs as a result of increased hormone production Girls show puberty signs earlier while boys last longer 20 to 30 is the golden period as the body systems and conditions (e.g. physical functioning, brain and body coordination, reproductive organs) are the fittest。 By the age of 40, there are signs of decline of metabolism and deteriorating body functions Menopause are typical for women who are in the age range of 45 to 55 years old. Deterioration of body systems leading to higher risks of chronic diseases Signs of deterioration in terms of vision, hearing, smell and taste, eye-hand coordination and the like Changes in appearance:wrinkles, grey hair Poor balance due to weak muscles leading to risk of fall Being harder for the body to keep warm

13 Intellectual Development
Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Intellectual development Language development from single words to combined words, simple questions and short sentences Babies understand the world through senses and motor actions. They think that objects do not exist if they do not see them. By the end of infancy, a child learn that the objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen. Able to use simple reasoning to figure out how things work and why things happen Able to work out logical problems only if concrete examples are given / only able to understand familiar situations or concrete examples Imaginative and more able to understand abstract ideas Develop problem solving skills like adults Need to learn decision making skills Wisdom accumulated through plenty of experience. Some elderly may become less able at solving problems and coping with intellectual challenges due to their deteriorating health Elderly with good health often retain their mental abilities and are able to make sensible decisions and judgements.

14 Emotional Development
Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Emotional development Need to develop sense of security Become depressed or frustrated when being separated from parents or care givers if they lack sense of security Do not know how to explain their own feelings and emotions as their language and thinking abilities are not fully developed Feelings of self-worth and self-esteem: feeling of being valuable to friends and family is important High emotional tension due to the influence of physical and hormonal changes Become emotionally unstable and easily aroused by self-consciousness Search for intimate and secure relationship Separation often creates severe emotional strain, stress and depression Positive attitude: after retirement, spending more time with people and enjoying life Negative attitude: stereotyped by others as useless or a burden of the family / negatively impact on emotion and self-esteem

15 Social Development Social development Infancy Childhood Adolescence
Adulthood Elderly Social development Develop attachment with family members/ care givers rely entirely on adults, usually parents or caregivers in the first 18 months unable to receive proper care or being abused negatively impacts on the ability to form other relationships later in life Develop relationships outside family Most children engage in same-sex friendship groups Friendship groups influence the individual child’s values, beliefs and behavior. Peers become more influential in shaping their social values, attitudes and behaviour than family members Try to build intimate relationship Establish own social networks Choose life partners and develop into marriage and parenthood Adapt to different roles and relationships, such as being a partner, parent and an employee Able to spend more time on taking care of grandchildren and young members in the family Retirement provides them an opportunity to establish new social relationships and expand their social network Some who are disabled or have poor health condition may not be able to maintain a healthy social life Inadequate social support due to death of relatives or lost of social network

16 1.1Physical Growth and Development– Theories
Personal Development Physical Growth Skills development Intellectual Emotional Social Piaget Erikson Moral Freud Kohlberg

17 Physical Development Physical development
Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Physical development The senses are developed early at the fetal stage of prenatal development. Physical growth in the first year is the marked by quickly gaining in body height and weight. The upper part of the body grows faster than the other parts. A child is expected to learn to control his/her body and its movements. Assimilation in metabolism is greater than alienation – need for sufficient intake of nutrients for rapid growth and development Control body movement and develop better balance / muscle grows with better coordination Improper sitting, standing or walking postures can cause scoliosis, humpback and other skeletal deformities Rapid growth of the skeletal and muscular systems caused by hormonal activities Secondary sexual characteristics and maturity of the reproductive organs as a result of increased hormone production Girls show puberty signs earlier while boys last longer 20 to 30 is the golden period as the body systems and conditions (e.g. physical functioning, brain and body coordination, reproductive organs) are the fittest。 By the age of 40, there are signs of decline of metabolism and deteriorating body functions Menopause are typical for women who are in the age range of 45 to 55 years old. Deterioration of body systems leading to higher risks of chronic diseases Signs of deterioration in terms of vision, hearing, smell and taste, eye-hand coordination and the like Changes in appearance:wrinkles, grey hair Poor balance due to weak muscles leading to risk of fall Being harder for the body to keep warm Freud’s stages of psychosexual development Oral Stage Mouth is the focus of the drive for physical pleasure. For example, sucking. Anal Stage Libido becomes focused on the anus. For example, toilet training. Phallic Stage Libido becomes focused on the genitals. Identification with same-sex parents can help resolve the Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex Latency Stage Libido on genitals has been suppressed. Genital Stage Achieving mature sexual intimacy

18 Intellectual Development
Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Intellectual development Language development from single words to combined words, simple questions and short sentences Babies understand the world through senses and motor actions. They think that objects do not exist if they do not see them. By the end of infancy, a child learn that the objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen. Able to use simple reasoning to figure out how things work and why things happen Able to work out logical problems only if concrete examples are given / only able to understand familiar situations or concrete examples Imaginative and more able to understand abstract ideas Develop problem solving skills like adults Need to learn decision making skills Wisdom accumulated through plenty of experience. Some elderly may become less able at solving problems and coping with intellectual challenges due to their deteriorating health Elderly with good health often retain their mental abilities and are able to make sensible decisions and judgements. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development Sensorimotor (Aged 0-2 ) The baby understands the world through his/her sense and motor actions. Preoperational (Aged 2-7) The child can use symbols both to think and communicate Self-centered: use personal views to understand and explain things Concrete operational (Aged 7-11) Begins to think logically and becomes capable of solving problems. However, these abilities are confined to things that he/she could see in daily life. They could not think through imagination of things which they have not encountered before. Formal operational (Aged 11-16) Able to manipulate ideas and think hypothetically / Able to manage a variety of “what-if” questions, analysis and recall of things, abstract ideas and logical thinking

19 Emotional and Social Development
Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Emotional development Need to develop sense of security Become depressed or frustrated when being separated from parents or care givers if they lack sense of security Do not know how to explain their own feelings and emotions as their language and thinking abilities are not fully developed Feelings of self-worth and self-esteem: feeling of being valuable to friends and family is important High emotional tension due to the influence of physical and hormonal changes Become emotionally unstable and easily aroused by self-consciousness Search for intimate and secure relationship Separation often creates severe emotional strain, stress and depression Positive attitude: after retirement, spending more time with people and enjoying life Negative attitude: stereotyped by others as useless or a burden of the family / negatively impact on emotion and self-esteem Social development Develop attachment with family members/ care givers rely entirely on adults, usually parents or caregivers in the first 18 months unable to receive proper care or being abused negatively impacts on the ability to form other relationships later in life Develop relationships outside family Most children engage in same-sex friendship groups Friendship groups influence the individual child’s values, beliefs and behavior. Peers become more influential in shaping their social values, attitudes and behaviour than family members Building intimate relationship with opposite sex Establish own social networks Choose life partners and develop into marriage and parenthood Adapt to different roles and relationships, such as being a partner, parent and an employee Able to spend more time on taking care of grandchildren and young members in the family Retirement provides them an opportunity to establish new social relationships and expand their social network Some who are disabled or have poor health condition may not be able to maintain a healthy social life Inadequate social support due to death of relatives or lost of social network

20 Emotional and Social Development
Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Emotional development Need to develop sense of security Become depressed or frustrated when being separated from parents or care givers if they lack sense of security Do not know how to explain their own feelings and emotions as their language and thinking abilities are not fully developed Feelings of self-worth and self-esteem: feeling of being valuable to friends and family is important High emotional tension due to the influence of physical and hormonal changes Become emotionally unstable and easily aroused by self-consciousness Search for intimate and secure relationship Separation often creates severe emotional strain, stress and depression Positive attitude: after retirement, spending more time with people and enjoying life Negative attitude: stereotyped by others as useless or a burden of the family / negatively impact on emotion and self-esteem Social development Develop attachment with family members/ care givers rely entirely on adults, usually parents or caregivers in the first 18 months unable to receive proper care or being abused negatively impacts on the ability to form other relationships later in life Develop relationships outside family Most children engage in same-sex friendship groups Friendship groups influence the individual child’s values, beliefs and behavior. Peers become more influential in shaping their social values, attitudes and behaviour than family members Building intimate relationship with opposite sex Establish own social networks Choose life partners and develop into marriage and parenthood Adapt to different roles and relationships, such as being a partner, parent and an employee Able to spend more time on taking care of grandchildren and young members in the family Retirement provides them an opportunity to establish new social relationships and expand their social network Some who are disabled or have poor health condition may not be able to maintain a healthy social life Inadequate social support due to death of relatives or lost of social network Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development Trust versus mistrust Autonomy versus shame and doubt Initiative versus guilt Industry versus inferiority Identity versus role confusion Intimacy versus isolation Generativity versus stagnation Integrity versus despair

21 Moral Development Kohlberg
Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Kohlberg Pre-conventional concentrate on personal benefits and satisfying his/her own needs Conventional Rules or norms of a group to which the individual belongs become the basis of moral judgments, whether the group is the family or peer group. Adolescents identify themselves with others. Heinz Dilemma - Kohlberg's stages of Moral Development (Interactive Animation) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5czp9S4u26M Post-Conventional an individual makes choices and judgments based on self-chosen principles

22 Scenario Gordon is a primary 2 student. Gordon spends around 3 hours every day on computer games after school, and is often not able to complete his homework before midnight. Sometimes his mother will help him complete his homework, despite she is not happy with his behavior. According to the theory suggested by Jean Piaget, what is Gordon’s current stage of cognitive development? State TWO distinct features of this stage of development.(3 Marks)

23 1.2 Human needs Curriculum and Assessment Guide
Topic 1 - Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan 1C Transitions and changes in the course of the lifespan 1C7 - Special needs and care throughout the life cycle To understand the needs and care of people at various stages of life

24 Maslow - Hierarchy of Human Needs

25 Needs at different stages across lifespan– Examples
Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Physiological Needs Physical growth in the first year is the marked by quickly gaining in body height and weight. (growth) Regular checks by professionals to keep track of the pace of growth (care) Assimilation in metabolism is greater – need for sufficient intake of nutrients for rapid growth and development (growth) Diets that are rich in protein and calcium are essential for rapid growth (care) Rapid growth of the skeletal and muscular systems caused by hormonal activities (growth) Balanced diets for growth needs (care) By the age of 40, there are signs of decline of metabolism and deteriorating body functions (physical) Develop healthy lifestyle – i.e. healthy diets and regular aerobic exercises to prevent chronic diseases(care) Poor balance due to weak muscles leading to risk of fall (physical) Knowledge of home safety should be learnt at this stage, including getting up slowly (care)

26 Needs at different stages across lifespan– Examples
Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Safety If secure attachment is developed in the first year, the babies will have sense of security with their family members. (emotional) Training and seminars on parenting skills / family-friendly policies (care) Develop relationships outside family (Social) Provide group activities to develop social skills (care) Emotional tension due to the influence of physical and hormonal changes (emotional) Anger management - training and counselling (care) Adapt to new roles and relationships in family and society (social) Stress management / Learn to strike a balance between family and work (care) Deterioration in body systems results in the changing roles – from care giver to being cared (social) Counselling and training – to adapt the changes in physical health and the roles (care) Love and Belongingness Enjoy social activities (social) Develop social skills such as interpersonal skills / communication skills / conflict management skills (care) Establish own social networks (Social) Relationship building skills (care) Inadequate social support due to death of relatives or lost of social network (social) Activities to extend social network(care)

27 Needs at different stages across lifespan– Examples
27 Need Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Elderly Esteem / Feeling of being valuable to friends and family (emotional) Provide help / guidance to learning (care) Becoming independent from family (social) as well as exploring and learning different values to form self concepts (emotional) Counselling and training on parenting skills –how to allow and encourage adolescents to think independently and express their opinions (care) Securing economic stability for the present and future, maintaining a positive self-image, and evaluating or redesigning career options (social) Strategies in promoting mental wellness, appropriate stress management and social supporting network are essential (care) Retirement / no income - stereotyped by others as useless or a burden of the family, negatively impact on emotion and self-esteem (social) Spending more time for own hobby (care) Integrate achievements in earlier life stages and develop a sense of integrity and self-acceptance (care) Self-actualisation

28 Maslow - Hierarchy of Human Needs
Self-concept Interpersonal Relationships

29 1.4 Interpersonal relationships (Booklet 5 – Social Well-being)
29 1.4 Interpersonal relationships (Booklet 5 – Social Well-being) Curriculum and Assessment Guide Topic 4 - Promotion and Maintenance of Health and Social Care in the Community 4D Social care, healthy relationships, social responsibility and commitment in the family, community and groups 4D1 Healthy relationships - Positive and negative effects of relationships on personal development To respect each and every relationship

30 1.4 Self Concept Curriculum and Assessment Guide
Topic 1 – Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan 1A Biological, social, psychological, spiritual, ecological and cultural perspectives and dimensions 1A4 – Psychological perspective:Self-esteem and self concept

31 Self-concept – 3 dimensions
How one perceives and understand oneself How one feels and judges oneself (feeling) 1. Self-image 2. Ideal self 3. Self-esteem A person that one would like to be

32 Self-image (How one perceives and understands oneself) Looking-glass Self
Significant other Imagine how others see us Perceive how others criticize us How we feel towards the criticism by others

33 1.5Factors influencing self-concept and interpersonal relationship
Curriculum and Assessment Guide Topic 1 – Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan 1B Factors which influence personal development Family /education and schooling/Peer/community influence To explore how the family, peers, school education and the community influence personal health and development

34 Concept :Socialization
Curriculum and Assessment Guide Topic 1 – Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan 1BFactors which influence personal development 1B1 Family Family as a socializing agent and the role of family

35 Socialisation The process of inheriting and performing the roles (e.g. as a student / gender / occupation) necessary for participating in the society with “appropriate” actions and behaviours. Significance: Each stage has its own standard of behavior, enabling people to understand and express themselves. Through socialization, people understand their roles and others’ expectations on them in the culture they grow up.

36 Socialisation The relationships formed in the first few years of life
Primary The relationships formed in the first few years of life Family Secondary The relationships formed with friends or peers outside home Tertiary the relationships formed within other formal groups in the society

37 Concept:Parenting Style
Curriculum and Assessment Guide Topic 1 – Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan 1BFactors which influence personal development 1B1 family:Parenting Style

38 Impacts on Personal Development
Low Demand High Demand Low response Neglecting Parents Neither demanding nor responsive Even actively reject and neglect their responsibilities of rearing children Children Not concerned about their own growth and development Less competent and easily give up Authoritarian High levels of demand and control but relatively low levels of warmth and communication Focus on obedience – provide orderly environment with a clear set of regulations / all activities of children are monitored High self-expectation and work hard continuously Poor in expressing themselves if being overly obedient More negative self-concepts and a stronger sense of inferiority High response Permissive Responsive but with relatively low levels of control More self-centered Confident in exploring their surrounding Rank low in self-regulation Authoritative High levels of control and acceptance Setting clear regulations but also responding to the child’s individual needs Better logical thinking High in self-regulation More cooperative Are achievement oriented

39 Scenario Gordon is a primary 2 student. Gordon spends around 3 hours every day on computer games after school, and is often not able to complete his homework before midnight. Sometimes his mother will help him complete his homework, despite she is not happy with his behavior. Name and describe the parenting styles Gordon's mother has adopted. Give evidence to support your answer. State ONE pros and cons of this parenting style.

40 1.6 Effects of life events on personal development
Curriculum and Assessment Guide Topic 1 – Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan 1C Transitions and changes in the course of the lifespan 1C4 –Crucial examples of life events / experience To understand that transitions and changes across life span are inevitable

41 Concept:Life events life experiences or events that have positive or negative effects on personal development Childhood and adolescence:education Adulthood:employment、change of job、promotion and resignation Elderly:retirement Anticipated Illnesses leading to disabilities Separation and reunion Bereavement Unanticipated Personal development

42 1.7 Responses to life events across lifespan
Curriculum and Assessment Guide Topic 1 – Personal Development, Social Care and Health Across the Lifespan 1C Transitions and changes in the course of the lifespan 1C5 – Positive responses to different life events To develop positive attitude towards changes and life events To learn how to deal with life events that affect personal development and health To realize that real-life problems often have more than one solutions

43 1.7 Responses to life events across lifespan
1.7A Coping strategies Identifying the reactions, thoughts and feelings that the change is bringing 1.7 B Hopson – seven stags in building up positive thinking Do something to support / cope with the change 1.7B Adopt the positive thinking instead of the negative thinking Adapt to the life after the change Related Topic: Booklet 4 – Stress management /maintenance of good mental health


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