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2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 1 Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood PowerPoint Presentations Produced by: Joe Rizzo - Professor of Behavioral Sciences Rick Lizotte - Curriculum Developer Felix Rizvanov - Instructional Designer Development Through the Lifespan 2nd edition Laura E. Berk Northern Essex Community College
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 2 Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Development Through the Lifespan 2nd edition Berk
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 3 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 4 LIFE EXPECTANCY Average life expectancy –Number of years an individual born in a particular year can expect to live United States is nineteenth of the world's nations. America in – years – years Improved nutrition, medical treatment, sanitation, safety, and declines in infant mortality Women live 4 to 7 more years than men. Varies substantially by SES, ethnic group
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 5 LIFE EXPECTANCY (cont.) Maximum lifespan –The genetic limit to length of life for a person free of external risk factors Varies between 70 and 110 for most people, with 85 to 90 average; the oldest verified age is 122 years. Active lifespan –For Americans, 64 years Figure 13.1
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 6 THEORIES OF BIOLOGICAL AGING Aging DNA and Body Cells –Programmed effects of specific genes –Cumulative effects of random events damaging genetic material –Longevity is a family trait.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 7 Aging of DNA and Body Cells Programmed theory –Aging genes control biological changes. Menopause, gray hair, and deterioration of body cells Human cells have a lifespan of 50 divisions plus or minus 10. Random view –DNA is damaged by mutations. Free radicals, naturally occurring, are highly reactive chemicals that form in the presence of oxygen. –Genes for longevity defend against free radicals. –Vitamins C and E and beta-carotene
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 8 Aging of Organs and Tissue Cross-linkage theory –Protein fibers in connective tissue form bonds, or links. –Tissue becomes less elastic. –Reduced by regular exercise and vitamin-rich, low-fat diet Gradual decline of endocrine system and immune system
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 9 Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems Hypertension occurs 12% more often in American blacks than whites. Death from heart disease occurs more often in blacks than whites, over 47%. Figure 13.3
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 10 Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems (cont.) Heart shows decline when stressed by exercise. Atherosclerosis –Heavy deposits of plaque containing cholesterol and fats on walls of main arteries It is hard to separate biological aging from individual genetic and environmental influences. Heart disease decreased over the last 15 years due to changes in diet, exercise, cigarette smoking, and treatment. Lungs show changes during exertion. –Respiratory volume decreases and breathing rate increases.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 11 Motor Performance Biological aging in motor skills is hard to separate from decreases in motivation and practice. Upper limit of motor capacity is reached in the first part of early adulthood. Lower performance in older healthy people results from a less physically demanding lifestyle. Figure 13.4 Age of Peak Performance for Olympic Athletes
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 12 Immune System Immune response –Specialized cells neutralize or destroy antigens. T cells –Originate in bone marrow, mature in the thymus, attack antigens directly B cells –Originate in bone marrow, secrete antibodies into the bloodstream that multiply, capture antigens, and permit the blood system to destroy them –Capacity of the immune system increases through adolescence; after age 20 it declines. The capacity of the immune system increases through adolescence; after age 20 it declines. Stress can contribute to its decline.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 13 Reproductive Capacity First births to women in their thirties increased over the past two decades. The proportion of women who experience fertility problems increases from age 15 to 50. Age affects male capacity, especially after age 40. Figure 13.5 First Births
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 14 HEALTH AND FITNESS Nutrition –Obesity (a 20 percent increase over average body weight) is increasing in US. Heredity and environment Lives are sedentary. Calories and fat consumed have increased. –Weight gain from age 25 to 50 normal Basal metabolic rate (BMR) declines as number of active muscle cells drop.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 15 Nutrition (cont.) Moderate weight loss reduces health problems substantially. 95 percent of individuals who start weight-loss programs return to original weight within 5 years.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 16 Nutrition (cont.) Treatment for adult obesity –Low-fat diet plus exercise –Keeping an accurate record of what they eat –Social support –Teaching problem-solving skills –Extended intervention Sensible body weight predicts physical and psychological health and longer life.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 17 Dietary Fat National health goal –Reduce dietary fat to 30%, no more than 10 % from saturated fat Fat linked to breast cancer, colon cancer, and cardiovascular disease Saturated fat –Meat and dairy products, solid at room temperature Unsaturated fat –Most vegetable oils, liquid at room temperature
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 18 Exercise Frequent exercise of moderate intensity –reduces body fat, builds muscle and immune response. –reduces obesity. –implies other healthful behaviors. –inhibits growth of cancerous tumors and enhances cardiovascular functioning. –Reduces anxiety and depression and enhances alertness and energy. –Is associated with lower death rates from all causes Exercise should be 20 minutes, 3 to 5 times a week, with vigorous use of large muscles; heart rate should be elevated to 60 to 90 percent of maximum
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 19 Cigarette Smoking Down from 40 percent of American adults in 1965 to 25 percent in 1997 Most of drop among college graduates The earlier people start, the greater their cigarette consumption.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 20 Cigarette Smoking Nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and other chemicals damage body. –Mortality is dose related. –Quitting returns disease risks to nonsmoker levels in 3 to 8 years. Treatment programs or cessation aids often fail.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 21 Alcohol 13 percent of men and 3 percent of women in US are heavy drinkers. One-third of these alcoholics Genetic contribution, but 50% of alcoholics have no family history Chronic alcohol use does widespread damage. Costs to society enormous Treatments –Comprehensive, with individual and family counseling, group support, and aversion therapy –60 percent of alcoholics relapse within 3 months.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 22 Sexuality Heterosexual Attitudes and Behavior –National Health and Social Life Survey (1994) Americans are less sexually active than expected. –33% of 18- to 59-year-olds have intercourse twice a week. –33% have it a few times a month. –33% have it a few times a year or not at all. Happy with sex lives As number of sex partners increases, satisfaction declines. –Satisfying sex is more than technique, attained in the context of love, affection, fidelity
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 23 Sexuality Homosexual Attitudes and Behavior –AIDS increased homosexual visibility in US. –Attitudes, though still negative, are beginning to change. –Homosexual sex life follows many of the same patterns as heterosexual sex. –Homosexuals often live where others have their orientation, providing a social network.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 24 Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) One in four Americans contracts an STD. The contraction is higher among women. AIDS declined among homosexuals due to changing practices, but not among drug users and their sexual partners. Containment –Through sex education and access to health services, condoms, and clean needles and syringes for high-risk individuals
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 25 Sexual Coercion 14 to 25 percent of women have been raped by means of force, threats of harm, or when incapable of giving consent. Majority of victims under age 30 Rapists are mostly men the women know. Not SES and ethnic group dependent Rapists –accept traditional gender roles. –approve of violence against women. –accept rape myths.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 26 Consequences of Sexual Coercion Psychological reaction is similar to other extreme trauma. One-third to one-half of victims are physically injured. Some contract STDs. Pregnancy results in about 5 percent of cases.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 27 Prevention and Treatment of Sexual Coercion Therapy and contact with other survivors Other features for recovery –Routine screening for victimization –Validation of the experience –Safety planning
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 28 Menstrual Cycle Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) –Physical and psychological symptoms usually appear days prior to menstruation. 40 percent of women have some form, usually mild. 10 percent have severe symptoms. Biological phenomena; no cure is known.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 29 Psychological Stress Stress is related to a variety of negative health outcomes. Social support is a vital health intervention throughout the lifespan.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 30 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 31 CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OF THOUGHT Postformal thought –Cognitive development beyond Piaget's formal operational stage Perry's Theory –Interviewed students at end of each year of college. –Younger students—dualistic thinking Dividing information, values, and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they –Older students—relativistic thinking No absolute truth—multiple truths, relative to context –Adaptive cognition: less need to find one answer; more responsive to context
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 32 Schaie's Theory –Acquisitive stage (childhood and adolescence) Knowledge acquisition, from concrete to formal operational thought –Achieving stage (early adulthood) Adapt skills to situations for achieving long-term goals applying knowledge to real life. –Responsibility stage (middle adulthood) Responsibility to others on job, home, and community; most advanced form Executive stage, in which responsibilities have become highly complex –Reintegrative stage (late adulthood) Reintegration of interests, attitudes, and values; elderly more selective in expending cognitive energies
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 33 Labouvie-Vief's Theory Pragmatic thought –Structural advance in which logic becomes the tool to solve real- world problems Pragmatic thinkers accept inconsistencies as part of life and develop thinking that thrives on imperfection and compromise.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 34 INFORMATION PROCESSING Expertise –Extensive knowledge in a field or endeavor Experts remember and reason more quickly and effectively. Experts approach problems with underlying principles in mind. Create to fulfill a social or aesthetic need. Problem solving to problem finding in post-formal thought Creativity –Rooted in expertise, but not all experts are creative
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 35 CHANGES IN MENTAL ABILITIES Intelligence tests not adequate for assessing competencies relevant to many adults Cross-sectional studies show a peak in intelligence at age 35, then a steep drop into old age. Figure 13.7
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 36 Seattle Longitudinal Study Schaie applied longitudinal- sequential design. –Five mental abilities showed typical cross-sectional drop. –Longitudinal trends: Modest gains appeared into the fifties and early sixties, then performance decreased gradually. –Cohort effects: Improvements in education and health are responsible for drops in performance in cross- sectional studies. Figure 13.7 Verbal Ability
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 37 COLLEGE EXPERIENCE Psychological Impact –Gains in problem-solving and moral development –Greater self-understanding, enhanced self-esteem, firmer sense of identity –Determined by involvement in activities and the richness of the campus
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 38 Dropping Out of College 40 percent of freshmen drop out. –Nonacademic and academic reasons Typical problems of early adulthood More likely to stay if sense the college is concerned about them
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 39 Selecting a Vocation Fantasy period (early and middle childhood) Tentative period (early and middle adolescence) –Young teens evaluate in terms of interests; middle adolescents, in terms of abilities and values Realistic period (late teens and early adulthood) –Options narrowed based on realities –Further exploration, then focus on vocational category
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 40 Influence of Personality Six personality types affect vocational choice (Holland). –Investigative person enjoys working with ideas; selects a scientific occupation –Social person likes interacting with people; selects human services –Realistic person prefers real-world problems; selects a mechanical occupation –Artistic person is emotional and high in need for individual expression; selects an artistic field –Conventional person likes well-structured tasks, values material possessions and social status; selects business fields –Enterprising person is adventurous, persuasive, a strong leader; selects sales and supervisory positions
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 41 Influence of Personality (cont.) Many people are blends of personality types and do well at more than one kind of occupation. Decisions are made in the context of family background, educational opportunities, and life circumstances.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 42 VOCATIONAL CHOICE Family Influences –Jobs of parents correlate with vocational choices. –Higher-SES parents have more information and connections for high-status jobs. –Parenting practices also shape work-related values.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 43 Influence of Teachers High school teachers are mentioned most often by college freshmen when asked who had the greatest impact on their choice of a field. The power of teachers as role models could serve as a source of upward mobility for low- SES students.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 44 Gender Stereotypes Young men's career preferences are strongly gender stereotyped, but not women's. Women's progress in male- dominated professions has been slow. Table 13.2
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 45 Gender Stereotypes Gender-stereotyped messages from environment play a key role. During secondary school and college, the career aspirations of academic females decline. A need exists for programs that sensitize school personnel to the problems women face in developing and maintaining high career aspirations.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 46 Access to Vocational Information Youths of all SES levels and ethnicities are ambitious. –Half unaware of what is involved in reaching goals Those with high ambition/low knowledge are at risk for becoming drifting dreamers. Young people need to learn about the work that interests them.
2001 Allyn & Bacon, Berk 2/e 47 Vocational Prep of Non-College-Bound High school graduates have more work opportunities than dropouts. –But less than decades ago Most high school graduates are limited to low-paid, unskilled jobs. School to work programs are needed.