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Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 1 Learning objectives
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 2 Figure 4.1 Effect of socioeconomic status on birth weight in humans. Social class I- professionals, class II- clerical workers, class III- skilled manual or nonmanual workers, class IV- unskilled workers, class V- unemployed.
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 3 Figure 4.2 Influences upon fetal growth. The growth trajectory of the fetus is determined by the genotype. Genetically determined growth rates may be constrained by influences from the mother or placenta. These can act directly on the fetal tissues, for example, maternal hormones crossing the placenta, or indirectly by modifying the range or concentration of nutrients reaching the fetal tissues.
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 4 Figure 4.3 The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. Maternal Undernutrition promotes fetal undernutrition, which in turn will slow fetal growth rates. The relationship between fetal undernutrition and disease in later life may be directly the result of fetal adaptations to undernutrition, or may be related to the restriction of fetal growth and organ development.
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 5 Figure 4.4 Global protein availability statistics. Data extracted from 2004 FAO Food balance sheets. Food balance methods only determine the protein available (i.e., produced through agriculture or imported) per head of population. Actual consumption will be below the figures shown and highly variable within each region (e.g., affluent versus poor, urban versus rural). Sixty-five percent of the world population are likely to consume protein at less than the UK Reference Nutrient Intake, and are therefore at risk of low protein intake during pregnancy. Many in developing countries rely on lower quality plant protein sources.
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 6 Figure 4.5 The thrifty phenotype hypothesis. (Source: Adapted from Hales and Barker (2001).)
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 7 Research Highlight 4 Thrifty phenotype or thrifty genotype?
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 8 Figure 4.6 The principle of tissue remodeling. During embryonic and fetal life, progenitor cells undergo rounds of proliferative cell division. Following this proliferative phase, the cells undergo differentiation to form diverse cell types that will perform the physiological functions of the mature organ. Adverse environments during either phase will modify the cell numbers or types that appear in the mature organ.
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 9 Figure 4.7 Placental 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ßHSD2) acts as a barrier to the movement of active glucocorticoids between mother and fetus. (a) Normal gatekeeper functions of 11ßHSD2 convert active cortisol to inactive cortisone and hence protect fetal tissues from hormones of maternal origin. Only synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone may pass across the placenta unchanged. (b) In the undernourished mother, expression of 11ßHSD2 in placenta is diminished and hence the fetal tissues are overexposed to active glucocorticoids.
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 10 Figure 4.8 Programming of hepatic lipid metabolism by a maternal low-protein diet in the rat. Pregnant rats were fed a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy. (a) At 18 months of age their offspring showed histological evidence of hepatic steatosis (arrow shows white lipid deposits within the liver tissue). (b) The mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of lipid was suppressed in the low protein exposed offspring at 1 month of age, but (c) was elevated in the older animals. (Source: Data from Erhuma et al. (2007).)
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 11 Figure 4.9 DNA methylation and histone acetylation are epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene transcription. CpG islands in DNA may be methylated or unmethylated. In the unmethylated state, the histone proteins associated with the DNA tend to be acetylated and the DNA is less tightly coiled. Transcription factors and transcription machinery can access gene promoters and hence the Unmethylated genes can be expressed. Methylation leads to deacetylation of histones and prevents transcription.
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 12 Figure 4.10 Postnatal treatment with antihypertensive drugs reverse programming effects of maternal undernutrition. Pregnant rats were fed control or low-protein (LP) diets in pregnancy. On giving birth all animals were fed the same diet, but half of the litters from each group were treated with losartan, an antagonist of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor for 2 weeks. Blood pressure was measured 8 weeks later. Blood pressure of offspring from untreated LP-fed rats was elevated compared to controls, but the LP-exposed rats treated with losartan had normal blood pressure. (Source: Data from Sherman and Langley-Evans (2000).)
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 13 Figure 4.11 Programming of blood pressure across generations. Pregnant rats were fed control or low-protein (LP) diets in pregnancy. On giving birth, all animals were fed the same diet and when adult the offspring were mated to produce four separate crosses (control male x control female, control male x LP female, LP male x control female, LP male x LP female). Blood pressures of first-generation and second-generation offspring were measured at 8 weeks of age. F1: first generation. F2: second generation. (Source: Data from Harrison and Langley-Evans (2009).)
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 14 Summary Box 4
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 15 Self-Assessment Questions
Maternal and fetal nutrition Petrenko N.V., MD, PhD.
Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach, by Simon Langley-Evans. © 2009 Simon Langley-Evans. 1 Learning objectives.
Early programming hypothesis Wilfried Karmaus Reproductive Epidemiology EPI 824.
Antenatal Maternal Stress: Epigenetic Mechanisms of Developmental Programming of Diseases Ravi Goyal, MD, PhD Assistant Professor Center for Perinatal.
Epigenetics Abira Khan. What is Epigenetics? Histone code: Modifications associated with transcriptional activation- primarily methylation and acetylation-would.
Today: Development. Development: differentiating cells to become an organism.
Epigenetic Programming in utero and Later in Life Disease CNRU Retreat September 28, 2006 Ken Eilertsen, Ph. D. Stem Cell Biology Group/Epigenetics and.
STRESS AND GROWTH. Prenatal Stress and Growth F.O.A.D. : Fetal Origins of Adult Disease Fetus “learning” about nature of world outside.
Fetal Origins of Disease Hypothesis Grace M. Egeland, Ph.D. University of Bergen.
1 Day Date Subject To be read prior to this class period: Th3/12Chapter 7 T3/17 students = epigenetics Richie Th3/19students = toxicology and cancer Anna,
Griffiths, M., Marks, H. P., & Young, F. G. (1941). Influence of (Œstrogens and Androgens on Glycogen Storage in the Fasting Rat. Nature, 147 (3725), 359–359.
Homework #2 is due 10/17 Bonus #1 is due 10/24 Office hours for this week: W 10-11:30am, 2:30-4:30pm and Th 11am-2pm.
Molecules and mechanisms of epigenetics. Adult stem cells know their fate! For example: myoblasts can form muscle cells only. Hematopoetic cells only.
Cells function differently because they express different genes.
MATERNAL OBESITY MAY CONTRIBUTE TO INCREASED PLACENTAL AND FETAL INFLAMMATION Molecular indicators of stress as indicators of immune status AMANDA JONES.
The Epigenome. Introduction: Go to this linkthis link Once there play with the DNA 1.What do these different tags have to do with epigenetic expression.
General information on child nutrition. OBJECTIVES SKILL DEVELOPMENT FOR WEIGHING PREGNANT WOMEN AND PRESCHOOL CHILDREN DETECTION OF UNDERNUTRITION.
The difference between dexamethasone and betamethasone.
Slide 1 © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development 6e John W. Santrock Chapter Two: Biological.
Dr. Frances A. Champagne Department of Psychology Columbia University Epigenetic Impact of Toxins, Stress & Social Interactions: Transgenerational Perspectives.
Fig 8.19 Homework #2 is due 10/18 Bonus #1 is due 10/25 Weekly quiz online each Thursday, due each Tuesday.
In 1944 food supplies were cut off to western Holland by the Nazis, in retaliation for a railway strike Over 10,000 people died from starvation and cold,
EPIGENETICS Controlling Genes from Within. Epigenetics Literally means “above the genome” Chemical “tags” present ON gene can switch gene “ON” or.
AP Biology Control of Eukaryotic Genes.
The Importance of Epigenetic Phenomena in Regulating Activity of the Genetic Material Sin Chan.
Epigenetics Clyde Hertzman, MD Human Early Learning Partnership University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Chung S. Park Animal Science Department North Dakota State University November, 2012 Canola Oil and Breast Cancer Research Projects.
Chapter 5 Lifespan and Cultural Modifications Copyright © 2013, 2010, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1995, 1991 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1.
FETAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Erika Edwards ANS 536.
Protein Metabolism in Pregnancy. Adaptation to pregnancy involves major changes in maternal metabolism to provide for the growing demands of the conceptus.
Maternal Nutrition and Diabetes Diabetes Care at the Centre October 2009.
Low birth weight Zahra N. Sohani Supervisor: Dr. Sonia Anand.
Division of Nutritional Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham And partners.
Transcriptional - These mechanisms prevent transcription. Posttranscriptional - These mechanisms control or regulate mRNA after it has been produced.
Chapter 15 Gene Expression [control of kinds and amount of protein produced.
The Fetal Origins of Cardiovascular Disease Kimona C. Cameron Advisor: Prof. O’Hara & Dr. Aronson Depts. of Biology & Chemistry, Amherst College, Amherst,
Gene Regulation Is Necessary ~ genes exist that code for proteins in humans, but not all proteins are required By switching genes off when they.
What Mothers Eat Matters We use rats as a model for how humans work because we can control their diet and they quickly have many offspring. Rats are also.
Comparative and Differential Aging Chapter 3 Figure 3.2: Comparison of the relationship of brain weight to life span in vertebrates.
The Code of Life: Topic 4 Regulation of gene expression.
Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Origins of Adult Disease Evidence from the Dunedin Study Andrea Danese, M.D. M.Sc. Department of Child & Adolescent.
Mice mated a/a dam X Avy/a sire while the dam is on control or 3SZM diet produce Avy/a and a/a offspring. Avy/a offspring have different distributions.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carl P. Gabbard PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation revised by Alberto Cordova,
Lesson Overview Lesson Overview The Endocrine System Lesson Overview 34.1 The Endocrine System.
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