Point of Emphasis This is the only course that will address PE history, a topic included on the Praxis II exam.
Current Physical Education is the latest rendition of all the changes that have taken place over time. Throughout their history in the U.S., k-12 physical education programs have tended to reflect larger patterns in American culture, people’s needs and choices regarding physical activity, and trends in the educational system. The goals, content, and instruction in physical education have evolved and will continue to grow in ways that call for new approaches.
Ancient Times No formal PE, activity through work, dance or game play Gymnasium – Greece word for training ground (Pompeii image below) From gymnos – Greek for “naked” Palaestrae – private wrestling schools in Greece
PE in U.S. – Early American Mid 1700’s – 1900 Emphasis on physical training, also called gymnastics Many different systems German system: vigorous calisthenics with hand weights, “indian clubs”, ropes, ladders, parallel and horizontal bars, brings, vaulting poles and balance activities. Music and rhythms (usually drumbeats) accompanied the exercises.
PE in U.S. – Early American Swedish System – more scientific and thearapuetic focusing on improving heart and lung function also using much of the same equipment as the German system. Many other systems, only included two most prominent 1886 – California becomes first state to require physical training as part of public school curriculum
PE in U.S. – Early American Catherine Beecher Developed her own system that focused more on “beautiful and strong movements performed to music to help produce good posture, strength and grace.” Many light exercises that involved holding positions (yoga-esque) Did not use equipment as this not lady-like “Mother” of American PE
PE in U.S. – Early American Dudley Sargent Combined several of the systems Modified and developed adjustable exercise machines using pulley systems to lift or pull weights Fought to put physical education on par with other subject areas
1885 Adelphi Conference, NY (1885) – Participants pledge to improve the profession and increase its standing. The Association for the Advancement of Physical Education was formed (forerunner of SHAPE). Names for PE: Gymnastics, physical training, sport, physical education
Early American Period (1900- 1930) Immigration – introduced new activities Urbanization, transportation, and war dispersed activities Growth of leisure time Intercollegiate athletic conferences Curb abuses like betting (1 st one - Big Ten) Comprehensive Education John Dewey; progressive education, learn by doing and experimenting
Early American Period (1900- 1930) Noticeable shift “PE” began diversifying its content to include sports Still included militaristic, calisthenics like exercises but emphasis was waning Culture of Physical Training gave way to Physical Education Formalized PE curriculum begins to develop More states began requiring PE
Early American Period (1900- 1930) Umbrella term – Physical Education Included dance, health education, intramurals, camping, playgrounds, recreation, outdoor education, YMCA/YWCA. NEA officially recognizes physical education as curricular field.
Mid-20 th Century (1930-70) WWII – an unacceptable number of recruits were declared unfit for combat A much higher percentage of American children were unfit compared to European peers (60% v. 6%) President’s Council on Youth Fitness established,1956 John F. Kennedy publishes “The Soft American” in S.I. Pres. Johnson creates the Presidential Youth Fitness Award program, 1966 (today: President’s Challenge) Combined with Fitnessgram ~2010
Mid-20 th Century (1930-70) PE beginning to incorporate more adventure programming, lifetime activities, dance and outdoor pursuits Creation of the first instructional model - movement education in 60’s and 70’s Physical education research begins being published by university faculty
Late 20 th Century (1970-2000) Development of national standards NASPE developed a document defining what children should know and be able to do (1986) 1995 – NASPE publishes “Moving Into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education” Fruits of academic research seen in the New PE Physical Education begins splitting into sub- disciplines and various fields specialize (more later) Development of all instructional models except movement education (what are they) Cooper Institute releases Fitnessgram (1991)
Late 20 th Century (1970-2000) Adventure/Cooperative (late 60’s, 70’s) Outward bound, project adventure, team challenge Tactical or Teaching games for understanding (1986) Hellison’s model of social responsibility (1995) Sport education (1994) Wellness/fitness (1990’s) Holistic/proactive (body, mind, spirit) Lifetime activity
Late 20 th Century (1970-2000) Title IX (1972) began addressing gender inequity in sport and PE Coed classes became the norm (quite a shock for some) Q&A – when is it OK to have same-sex classes
Late 20 th Century (1970-2000) Individuals with Disability Education Act (1990) Least restrictive environment; IEPs No Child Left Behind (1991) – schools must show improvement in core subjects
Subdisciplines Anatomy The physical structure of an animal
Subdisciplines Kinesiology Study of movement (human in our case)
Subdisciplines Biomechanics Study of the human body as a mechanical system, utilizes principles drawn from physics. No specific course, incorporated throughout
Subdisciplines Physiology Functions and activities of living organisms, including all physical and chemical processes.
Subdisciplines Exercise physiology Study of bodily systems and their reactions to stress of exercise.
Subdiscplines Motor Learning Focuses on how motor skills are learned. Areas: motor learning, control, development Categories Initial Elementary Mature
Early 21 st Century (2000- Downsides: Reduction of time allotted PE Partly due to increased emphasis on high- stakes tests Disparities in instruction Roll out the ball “gym teachers” Waivers/exemptions for PE
Early 21 st Century (2000- Positives: Increased lifetime activity and fitness focus Improved status (room to grow) Seen as engine for promoting PA and reducing obesity and diabetes Greater recognition of the importance of physical activity in many facets of life Play 60, CDC recommendations, School Board
Early 21 st Century (2000- Positives: Publication of detailed national standards by grade level Refocusing mission on HPE (SHAPE) Emphasis on assessment and data collection On cusp of being listed as core subject Increased PE mandates in several states
Q&A What sports were invented in the US? Some have their roots in sports from abroad. Lacrosse (<1630, Native Americans) Baseball/Softball (Cartwright, ~1845, NYC) Football (~1820, Rutgers/Princeton 1869; Camp) Basketball (Naismth, 1891, Springfield, MA) Volleyball (Morgan, 1895, Holyoke MA) Mountain Biking (Californnia) Pickleball (Bell and Pritchard, 1965, WA state) Ultimate (1968, Joel Silver, a student at Columbia High School in Maplewood, NJ ) http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsports.htm
Brownie Points How old is West Chester’s PE program? 1889 to Today
1871 First formal PE classes were conducted by Mrs. Ann Morris, wife of Normal School principal.
1889 Principal of the Normal School, Dr. George Philips commissioned the construction of a new gymnasium. During that same time period Dr. Philips announced the creation of the department of physical training and introduced its new directors Dr Ehinger and his wife Ella. These two events mark the beginning of a formal department of physical education at West Chester University.
Dr. Ehinger and his wife served as co-directors of the physical training department for thirty years
Dr. Ehinger and his wife introduced yearly Gymnastics demonstrations in 1892, wrestling 1892, Women's Tennis 1892, Bicycling 1893, Boxing 1894, Swimming 1894, Annual Men's Field Sports Day 1894, Men's Athletic Association 1895, Women's Golf 1898, Men's Basketball 1898, Men's Gymnastics Team 1899, Women's Track and Field 1910, Compulsory Swimming for women 1914
1926 First degrees in health education were awarded
1950 Dr. Sturzebecker was appointed director of H&PE. Over the next 20 years under Dr. Sturzebecker's leadership added programs in Safety Education, Health, Recreation, Physical Education for the Disabled, and Graduate Studies.
1961 West Chester State Teachers College and the Department of Health and Physical Education gained national recognition when the Russian gymnastics team came to West Chester to compete against the USA
1971 As the university expanded, became part of the State System of Higher Education (SSHE), and enrollment increased, buildings and playing fields were lost. To compensate, South Campus was built and later renamed Sturzebecker HSC.
1990’s Faculty of the Physical Education Department voted to change its name to the Kinesiology Department. This action was taken in light of the change in programs other than teacher certification, changes in the University and Department mission, and national trends
West Chester University -- 125 Years Campus - Aerial View - 1936 Old Main: The large "T" shaped structure in the photograph. The top of the "T" is facing High Street. Old Main was demolished in the Fall of 1971 Philips Memorial Building: The large structure on the right side of the photograph. Recitation Hall: The structure opposite the base of the "T". Old Library: The structure to the left of Recitation Hall Model School: The structure to the right of Recitation Hall. The building is now known as Ruby Jones Hall Old Gymnasium: The structure between Recitation Hall and the North Wing (right side) of Old Main. The Old Gymnasium was demolished in the Fall of 1971.