2Lifespan changes in sleep. I canOutline changes in sleep patterns over the lifespan (A01)Consider implications of changes in sleep patterns over the lifespan (A02)Synoptic PointsDEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHCultural Differences
3Lifespan changes Do you ever find yourself sleeping through the day? How many hours sleep do you get per night?Do you sleep more or less than you used to?Over the next week fill in a sleep log.What ethical issues are related to this?
4Prenatal & Infant sleep. AO2/3When do sleep patterns emerge in developing foetus?Okai et al (1992):Used ultrasound scanning to investigate possible sleep patterns in unborn children of the 30 ‘normal’ pregnant women between 20 and 40 weeks (beginning of 5mths-full term).Limitations of the Research?Sample size?Methodology?Application?
5Prenatal & Infant sleep. This study was completed by:Measuring eye movement and baby movement.What instrument would they need to use?Findings:Prior to 28 weeks (7 mths) REM was hard to identify.At 32 weeks REM/NREM cycles couldbe distinguished.
6What do these findings suggest? The critical point in gestation is measured at 32 weeks.This is further supported by a correlation found between sleep changes and the development of the brain.E.g. Brain stem reaches a developmental high between 28 and 31 weeks, there is a known link between these neural systems & control of the REM/NREM ultradian cycles.
7Lifespan changes in sleep Who do you think would sleep more?A baby or an elderly person?Who would have more REM sleep?Why do you think this?Justify you reasoning
9EEGs of Sleep at Different Stages of Lifespan What do these EEG’s tell us about how sleep changes as we get older?EEGs of Sleep at Different Stages of Lifespan
10Sleep Timeline (AO1) Read p 10 Create a timeline to show how sleep changes as humans developOutline changes in sleep patterns over the lifespan (A01)
116 months 1 year 5 years Adolescence Adulthood BirthNewborn6 months1 year5 yearsAdolescenceAdulthoodOld age
12Sleep Timeline (AO1)BABIES Newborn Babies 6 months old 1 year old CHILDHOOD 5 years old ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD OLD AGE
13AO2 & AO3: Application and Implications What do we know about newborns?Why might babies sleep patterns be so different to that of an adult?
14New born babies AO2….It has been suggested that babies sleep is an adaptive mechanism to make the parents lives easier.Babies have small stomachs so need to wake to be fedThe greater amount of Active/REM sleep may be explained in terms of the considerable learning and brain development that takes placeIt is further supported by the fact that premature babies (whose brains are very immature) spend 90% of their sleep time in active sleep (REM).
15Pre TeensPre-teens seem to experience sleep-wake utopia. During the day they are bursting with energy, at night they sleep soundly and they are wide awake and fully rested from the moment they open their eyes in the morning (Dement, 1999).
16AdolescenceWhat happens to sleep patterns in adolescence? What might cause the changes?
17Adolescence-AO2The change in sleep patterns may be linked to hormonal changes.Hormones are generally released at night and so sleep patterns are disturbed leading to sleep deprivation.Hormonal changes can also explain the upset circadian clock this is described as the delayed sleep phase syndrome (Crowley et al 2003)From this some researchers have recommended that schools start their day later to accommodate poor attention spans of adolescents in early morning (Wolfson and Carskadon 2005)
18Other factors that may impact sleep patterns? Adolescents: The cause is usually the cause of social changes such asSleeping longer at weekends.Staying up later.Reduced parental influence.Several environmental factors are also responsible for changes in sleep……..
19Other factors that may impact sleep patterns? Wolfson & Carskadon (1998)Pagel (2007)Increased homeworkUsing the computerDuring adolescence the brain is going through a critical phase of cortical development & cognitive change, & sleep is crucial in ensuring that these changes occur efficiently.
20AO2 & AO3: Application and Implications Adulthood- A good nights sleep?? Increased mortality risk associated with too much sleep. Kripke et al (2002) surveyed over one million men and women and found that people sleeping for 6 or 7 hours had reduced mortality risk than those sleeping longer. Kripke’s study used correlational analysis, disadvantage of using this type of evidence?
21AO2 & AO3: Application and Implications Old age Why might old people sleep less? What type of sleep do they have less of? Why?
22Old age AO2:Reduced sleep in old age is partly a consequence of Physiological changes but may also be explained in terms of actual problems staying asleep, such as sleep apnoea or medical illnesses.SWS is reduced in old age and so the older sleep is more easily woken.The reduction of SWS leads to reduced production of the growth hormone which may explain some of the symptoms associated with old age- such as lack of energy and lower bone density (Van Cauter et al 2000)
23AO3 – Synoptic Points Look at the graph on page 11 Briefly outline the research carried out by Tynjala et al (1993) , Shin et al (2003) andGhanizadeh et al (2008)What conclusion was reached in the light of this research?
24Cultural differences-AO2 Sleep patterns also vary across cultures.Tynjala et al 1993 surveyed 40, year olds from 11 European countries.Israeli children = 8.5 hrs on averageSwiss children = 9.5 hrs on average.Shin et al 2003 found….Korean children = 6.5 hrs on averageIranian children = 7.7 hrs on averageSuggests sleep duration is shorter in Asia than Europe
28Lifespan changes in sleep. ObjectivesOutline changes in sleep patterns over the lifespan (A01)Consider implications of changes in sleep patterns over the lifespan (A02)Synoptic Points- AO3DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHCultural Differences