Presentation on theme: "JANET BELSKY’S EXPERIENCING THE LIFESPAN, 2E Chapter 1: The People and The Field."— Presentation transcript:
JANET BELSKY’S EXPERIENCING THE LIFESPAN, 2E Chapter 1: The People and The Field
What We Are Studying? Developmental Psychology Also known as lifespan development, ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Includes physical, cognitive, socio-emotional changes during the life span This field includes the study of: Infant and Child Development Adult Development Gerontology Exploration of predictable milestones in development Individual Differences Life Transitions and Practices
Questions to Ask Yourselves What are some of the changes that occur over our lives?? How have you changed? Has your thinking changed? Are your relationships different? Do you feel different?
Periods of Development Prenatal Period __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Infancy Includes the developmental period from birth to about age 2 Childhood Early- preschool years ages 3 through 5 Middle- __________________________ Adolescence Early- ages 12 through14 Middle- ages 15 through 19
Periods of Development Adulthood Early- 20’s and 30’s Issues include achieving intimacy, career choices, marriage, and potential parenthood. Middle-40’s and 50’s Issues include launching children, changing physical performance, increased freedom, and increased career success Late-60’s and Over ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________
Changing Perceptions of Childhood Historical Background Mortality rates high; poverty Childhood not perceived as a special life stage Abusive treatment common Children assume _____________________ _____________________ Norms: child labor; child abandonment among poor
Changing Perceptions of Childhood Modern view, late 19 th Century: kinder, gentler view of children Childhood protected, dependent life stage Universal education: primary school mandatory Adolescence: identified by G. Stanley Hall in early 20 th Century Stage of “_____________” between childhood and adulthood In 1930s, High school attendance became mandatory (Great Depression and President Franklin Roosevelt) Emerging Adulthood: Age 18 to late 20s Time for personal exploration
Changing Perceptions of Later Life: Adulthood and Old Age Life Expectancy Before 20 th century medical advances, average life expectancy was low Today, twentieth-century life expectancy revolution! Infectious diseases wiped out Chronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, etc.) today New Stages Young-old (60s, 70s) ____________ (80s and beyond)
Theories of Development _______________ Any perspective which attempts to explain individual behavior Allows us to predict behavior Presents ideas for interventions to improve behavior Nature/Nurture Are we shaped by biological/genetic forces or is the environment more influential?
Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Theory Freud Erickson Bolby Learning Theory (Behaviorism) Skinner Watson Bandura Humanistic Theory Maslow Rogers Cognitive Theory Piaget
Do we need to know names? And theories? And Faces? And that’s it! Freud Watson Bandura Maslow Erickson Skinner Piaget Rogers
Evolutionary Psychology: Nature Evolutionary psychologists focus on ________________________ Inborn, species-specific behaviors influence human development Speculate about the genetic roots of human behaviors Survival of the fittest!
Behavioral Genetics: Nature Field devoted to scientifically determining the role that hereditary forces play in individual differences in behavior Twin Studies (identical and fraternal) Adoption Studies Twin/Adoption Studies Heritability- 1 (totally genetic) to 0 (no genetic contribution) Statistic to summarize the extent to which a given behavior is shaped by genetics
Nature and Nurture Combined Consider both nature and nurture when studying human development! _____________ Forces Inborn talents and temperamental tendencies naturally evoke certain responses from others. Bidirectional forces in relationships Active Forces We actively select our environments based on our genetic tendencies. Person-Environment Fit crucial to flourishing in life!
Person-Environment Fit Basic goal of developmental science is to foster the correct person-environment fit The real impact of the “nature” revolution is to allow us to intervene to change the environment in order to enhance one’s quality of life.
Age-Linked Theories: Piaget Cognitive-Developmental Theory Qualitatively different stages exist in the way thinking develops (different age groups conceptualize the world in completely different ways). Schemas (cognitive structures) Assimilation, Accommodation Studies focused on children
Cognitive Development: Piaget Tried to understand the unique qualities of childhood cognition by entering children’s mental framework, setting up tests, watching children’s actions, and listening to them speak. Believed that we grow mentally through assimilation, fitting information from the outside world into our “schemas” (or current mental capacities), and accommodation, enlarging our capacities to fit in this “data” from the world.
A Preview of Piaget’s Stages
Personality Development ______________________________ Stage Focus Oral Pleasure centers on the mouth– (0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewing Anal Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder (18-36 months) elimination; coping with demands for control Phallic Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with (3-6 years) incestuous sexual feelings Latency Dormant sexual feelings (6 to puberty) Genital Maturation of sexual interests (puberty on)
Psychosocial Development: Erikson Considered “___________________________” Believed we continue to develop throughout life Exception to Freud’s idea that development ends in adolescence Identified core developmental tasks, or psychosocial tasks, for each of eight stages from infancy to old age Believed that we need to master the task of each previous stage in order to progress to the next.
A Preview of Erikson’s Stages
Research Methods Two standard research strategies: Correlations Relate two or more variables as they naturally occur Correlation does not mean causation! _____________________ Randomly assign individuals to groups Give each group a different treatment Determine if intervention produced a predicted effect Experiments can determine cause!
Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies: How do we change with age? Cross-Sectional Testing and comparing different age groups Gives differences between age groups Does not tell us the changes that occur with age ______________ Test at intervals – one group over many years Note: It’s “all statistics.” These methods are valuable, not because they apply to everyone—but because they allow us to make educated guesses about human life!
Quantitative and Qualitative Research Quantitative The typical research mode in developmental science using groups and statistical analyses to make general predictions about behavior _______________ Scientist not interested in numerical comparisons Studying through observation and interviews the life of a single person, or observing a single individual in depth