Presentation on theme: "Janet Belsky’s Experiencing the Lifespan, 2e"— Presentation transcript:
1 Janet Belsky’s Experiencing the Lifespan, 2e Chapter 1:The People and The Field
2 What We Are Studying? Developmental Psychology Also known as lifespan development, ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Includes physical, cognitive, socio-emotional changes during the life spanThis field includes the study of:Infant and Child DevelopmentAdult DevelopmentGerontologyExploration of predictable milestones in developmentIndividual DifferencesLife Transitions and Practices
3 Questions to Ask Yourselves What are some of the changes that occur over our lives??How have you changed?Has your thinking changed?Are your relationships different?Do you feel different?
5 Periods of Development Prenatal Period___________________________________________________________________________________________________InfancyIncludes the developmental period from birth to about age 2ChildhoodEarly- preschool years ages 3 through 5Middle- __________________________AdolescenceEarly- ages 12 through14Middle- ages 15 through 19
6 Periods of Development AdulthoodEarly- 20’s and 30’sIssues include achieving intimacy, career choices, marriage, and potential parenthood.Middle-40’s and 50’sIssues include launching children, changing physical performance, increased freedom, and increased career successLate-60’s and Over____________________________________________________________________________________________
7 Changing Perceptions of Childhood Historical BackgroundMortality rates high; povertyChildhood not perceived as a special life stageAbusive treatment commonChildren assume __________________________________________Norms: child labor; child abandonment among poor
8 Changing Perceptions of Childhood Modern view, late 19th Century: kinder, gentler view of childrenChildhood protected, dependent life stageUniversal education: primary school mandatoryAdolescence: identified by G. Stanley Hall in early 20th CenturyStage of “_____________” between childhood and adulthoodIn 1930s, High school attendance became mandatory (Great Depression and President Franklin Roosevelt)Emerging Adulthood:Age 18 to late 20sTime for personal exploration
9 Changing Perceptions of Later Life: Adulthood and Old Age Life ExpectancyBefore 20th century medical advances, average life expectancy was lowToday, twentieth-century life expectancy revolution!Infectious diseases wiped outChronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, etc.) todayNew StagesYoung-old (60s, 70s)____________ (80s and beyond)
12 Theories of Development _______________Any perspective which attempts to explain individual behaviorAllows us to predict behaviorPresents ideas for interventions to improve behaviorNature/NurtureAre we shaped by biological/genetic forces or is the environment more influential?
13 Theories of Development Psychoanalytic TheoryFreudEricksonBolbyLearning Theory (Behaviorism)SkinnerWatsonBanduraHumanistic TheoryMaslowRogersCognitive TheoryPiaget
14 Do we need to know names? And theories? And Faces? And that’s it! Freud Watson Bandura MaslowErickson Skinner Piaget Rogers
15 Evolutionary Psychology: Nature Evolutionary psychologists focus on ________________________Inborn, species-specific behaviors influence human developmentSpeculate about the genetic roots of human behaviorsSurvival of the fittest!
16 Behavioral Genetics: Nature Field devoted to scientifically determining the role that hereditary forces play in individual differences in behaviorTwin Studies (identical and fraternal)Adoption StudiesTwin/Adoption StudiesHeritability- 1 (totally genetic) to 0 (no genetic contribution)Statistic to summarize the extent to which a given behavior is shaped by genetics
17 Nature and Nurture Combined Consider both nature and nurture when studying human development!_____________ ForcesInborn talents and temperamental tendencies naturally evoke certain responses from others.Bidirectional forces in relationshipsActive ForcesWe actively select our environments based on our genetic tendencies.Person-Environment Fit crucial to flourishing in life!
18 Person-Environment Fit Basic goal of developmental science is to foster the correct person-environment fitThe real impact of the “nature” revolution is to allow us to intervene to change the environment in order to enhance one’s quality of life.
19 Age-Linked Theories: Piaget Cognitive-Developmental TheoryQualitatively different stages exist in the way thinking develops (different age groups conceptualize the world in completely different ways).Schemas (cognitive structures)Assimilation, AccommodationStudies focused on children
20 Cognitive Development: Piaget Tried to understand the unique qualities of childhood cognition by entering children’s mental framework, setting up tests, watching children’s actions, and listening to them speak.Believed that we grow mentally through assimilation, fitting information from the outside world into our “schemas” (or current mental capacities), and accommodation, enlarging our capacities to fit in this “data” from the world.
22 Personality Development ______________________________Stage FocusOral Pleasure centers on the mouth–(0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewingAnal Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder(18-36 months) elimination; coping with demands for controlPhallic Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with(3-6 years) incestuous sexual feelingsLatency Dormant sexual feelings(6 to puberty)Genital Maturation of sexual interests(puberty on)
23 Psychosocial Development: Erikson Considered “___________________________”Believed we continue to develop throughout lifeException to Freud’s idea that development ends in adolescenceIdentified core developmental tasks, or psychosocial tasks, for each of eight stages from infancy to old ageBelieved that we need to master the task of each previous stage in order to progress to the next.
25 Research Methods Two standard research strategies: Correlations Relate two or more variables as they naturally occurCorrelation does not mean causation!_____________________Randomly assign individuals to groupsGive each group a different treatmentDetermine if intervention produced a predicted effectExperiments can determine cause!
26 Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies: How do we change with age? Testing and comparing different age groupsGives differences between age groupsDoes not tell us the changes that occur with age______________Test at intervals – one group over many yearsNote: It’s “all statistics.” These methods are valuable, not because they apply to everyone—but because they allow us to make educated guesses about human life!
27 Quantitative and Qualitative Research The typical research mode in developmental science using groups and statistical analyses to make general predictions about behavior_______________Scientist not interested in numerical comparisonsStudying through observation and interviews the life of a single person, or observing a single individual in depth