Presentation on theme: "1501 Life-span development n Means of study longitudinal/cross- sectional n Development occurs toward differentiation –few to many –simple to complex –general."— Presentation transcript:
1501 Life-span development n Means of study longitudinal/cross- sectional n Development occurs toward differentiation –few to many –simple to complex –general to specialized –homogeneous to diverse
n Nature to nurture controversy n Maturation: –any relatively permanent change as the result of internal prompted processes, without regard to environment or personal experience.
Piaget and Vygotsky n Jean Piaget –Development depends on organization adaptation –assimilation –accommodation
–Stages Sensorimotor –spans from birth to 2 years of age –the focus is on concrete actions –development of object permanence –the beginning development of symbolic play
–Cont stages Preoperational –spans 2 to 7 years of age –the focus is on the missing abilities »egocentrism »centration »irreversibility Concrete operational –spans 7 to 11 years of age –focus on decentration, reversibility, seriation
n Cont stages –Formal operational spans 12 years and up focuses on –abstract thinking –systematic thinking –logical and reflective thinking n Evaluate Piaget
The theory of Leo Vygotsky n Social influence is more important than biological influences. n Cognitive development occurs through internalization, whereby individuals absorb knowledge from their social context.
Cont. theory of Vygotsky n Develop intelligence within a zone of proximal development (ZPD), the range of ability between a child’s developed, observable level of ability and the child’s full level, potentially hidden. n In summary, Piaget emphasized maturation(nature), while Vygotsky emphasized learning (nurture).
Physical Development n Pre-natal development –3 stages germinal embryonic fetal n Teratogens
Cont. physical development n Newborn Development –The newborn prefers to look at human faces listen to the human voice the most fully developed sense is touch motor reflexes: automatic behavior necessary for survival cephlocaudal (head to toe) See milestones in chart, pg. 313.
Emotional development n Attachment –Not insananeous –Begins around 6 to 8 months –Peaks at 14 to 18 months –Tapers and is usually resolved around 30 months.
n 3 Theories of attachment –Reinforcement theory Harry and Margaret Harlow –Biological John Bowlby –Social Mary Ainsworth’s strange situation
–3 types of personality »secure attachment »ambivalent attachment »avoidant attachment n Strength of attachment effects emotional development. Secure attachment results in obedient, persistent, curious, independent children.
Childhood n Socioemotional Development n Erikson –Trust vs. Mistrust Birth to 1 year of age Dependent for biological needs –Autonomy vs Shame/doubt 1 to 3 years of age Toilet training and other regulating behavior.
–Initiative vs Guilt 3 to 6 years of age social function within the family –Industry vs Inferiority 6 to puberty social function outside the family –Identity vs role confusion adolescence try to figure out who they are
–Intimacy vs isolation young adult develop loving intimate relationships –Generativity vs stagnation middle adult work and prepare for the next generation –Integrity vs despair late adulthood reflection on life
Gender development n 2-3 no gender constancy n 4-5 gender identity n Gender socialization –learn gender norms of culture n Gender schema –knowledge, beliefs, expectations about gender roles.
Interpersonal relationships n Follows ability to consider another’s point of view.
Adolescence Development n Physical development –Puberty n Cognitive development –Inductive reasoning Observing specifics and making hypotheses –Deductive reasoning Taking general principles and applying to specific instances.
–Personal fable Destined to fame or fortune –Invincibility fallacy Not subject to the same risks as everyone else.
n Socioemotional development –Identity crisis –Imaginary audience They feel they are the constant object of the thoughts, judgments, and observations of other people.
n Moral Development by L. Kohlberg –Preconventional Acts are right/wrong because they are punished/rewarded –Conventional Rules are necessary for social order –Postconventional Personal code of ethics n For most, depend on situation and will regress when necessary.
n Cont. Moral development –Carol Gilligan Justice vs compassion.
Adult Development n Cognitive development –Slower processes –IQ remains stable through adulthood with a slight decline after 60 years of age and a more rapid decline a few years before death primarily due to health problems. –Even though the thinking processes may slow, the decline is balanced by stabilization and even advancement of well-practiced mental functioning.
n Important milestones –Social clock –Long-term relationships/marriage Validating marriage: –Compromise and calmly resolve conflict Conflict-avoiding marriage: –agree to disagree and avoid conflict Volatile marriages –frequent conflicts
n What destroys a marriage –Attacking a partner’s character, rather than behavior –Being defensive –Failing to respond to the needs of the partner
n Career/stages –Exploration: search for a career –Establishment: begins to be identified with a particular career –Mid-career: established in career –Late-career: fully established and may even be a mentor.
n Mid-life crisis n Retirement
Language Development n 0-6 month: crying –Motherese n 6-10 month: phonemes n month: morphomes n month: 3-50 words –overextention n 18-2y begin to put 2-3 words together - –telegraphic n 18m-6y: words –overregularization