Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Understanding Life-Span Human Development.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Understanding Life-Span Human Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Understanding Life-Span Human Development

2 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  Three broad domains PhysicalCognitivePsychosocial Development

3 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  Maturation: (nature) The biological unfolding of the individual genetic plan  Learning: (nurture) Relatively permanent changes due to environmental experiences Development is due to interplay between nature and nurture

4 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  Age Grade: Socially defined age groups  Statuses, roles, privileges, responsibilities  Age Norms: Behavioral expectations by age  Social Clock: When things should be done  “Off time” vs. “On time” experiences

5 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Figure 1.1

6 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  Description  Normal development, individual differences  Explanation  Typical and individually different developmen t  Optimization  Positive development, enhancing human capacities  Prevention and overcoming difficulties

7 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Development is  A lifelong process  Involves both gain and loss  Characterized by lifelong plasticity  Shaped by its historical-cultural context  Multiply influenced

8 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 The scientific research approach is objective, systematic, and testable STEP 1 Conceptualize the Problem STEP 2 Collect Information STEP 3 Draw Conclusions & create theory STEP 4 Revise Research Conclusions & Theory

9 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Figure 1.2

10 Researcher Jane Goodall studies the behavior of wild chimpanzees in their native habitat.  Naturalistic Observation: Observing subjects in natural environments

11 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 In this experiment, preschoolers’ reactions to the puppet are monitored.  Descriptive Methods  Laboratory Observation: Observing subjects in artificially controlled environments

12 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter Case Study Is language uniquely human? Phineas Gage

13 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 13 A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people

14 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Population Unrepresentative sample Representative sample Sampling procedure

15 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Random Sampling if each member has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, we call that a random sample (unbiased). The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them. Population – all the cases in a group

16 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 16 POPULATION SAMPLE INFERENCE LO 1.9 Case studies and surveys

17 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 17  Laboratory observation – watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting. Naturalistic and laboratory settings

18 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 18 When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate. Correlation coefficient Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = Correlation Coefficient is a statistic al measure of relationship between two variables.

19 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 19 CCorrelation coefficient ranges from 0 to 1.00 CCloser to 1.00, the stronger the relationship between the variables. PPositive correlation – variables are related in the same direction. NNegative correlation – variables are related in opposite direction. CCORRELATION DOES NOT PROVE CAUSATION!!!

20 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1

21 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 21 Menu LO 1.10 Correlational technique

22 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 22 or

23 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1

24 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 24 Menu LO 1.10 Correlational technique Correlation does NOT prove causation

25 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 25 Coefficient Range Strength of Relationship Very Low Low Moderate High Moderate High Very High

26 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Figure 1.3

27 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Height and Temperament of 20 Men Subject Height in Inches Temperament Subject Height in Inches Temperament

28 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Scatterplot of Height and Temperament Temperament scores Height in inches

29 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1

30 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 30  Operational definition - definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured.  Independent variable (IV) - variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.  Dependent variable (DV) - variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment. IV: Violent TV Definition: Hitting while playing DV: Aggressive play

31 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  Operational definitions  Which of the following might be used as an operational definition of “attraction”?  A feeling of affection when two people are together. (1)  The number of minutes during which two people are touching each other over a four-hour period. (2)

32 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  Which of the following might be used as an operational definition of “assertiveness?”  The number of times a person makes requests or states his or her feelings over the course of a one- hour interaction. (1)  An appearance of confidence and ease in social situations. (2)

33 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 33 Assigning participants to experimental (Breast-fed) and control (formula-fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups. Random Assignment

34 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 34 SAMPLE Control Group Experimental Group Test for Differences LO 1.11 Experimental approach and terms Menu

35 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 35 SAMPLE Control Group Experimental Group Are differences due to manipulation or confounding variable (mood)? LO 1.11 Experimental approach and terms Menu Effect of violent tv on aggression

36 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 36 SAMPLE Control Group Experimental Group Differences due to manipulation, not an extraneous variable because mood randomly determined. LO 1.11 Experimental approach and terms Menu Effect of violent tv on aggression

37 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Sample of participants Experimental group (noise condition) Control group (no-noise condition) Measure amount of learning Scientifically compare performance of the two groups The logic of designing an experiment. The experimenter manipulates the amount of noise to which participants are exposed, measures their learning, and attempts to treat them equally in every other way. This creates an experiment group and a control group.  Experimental Method

38 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1

39 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2009 Problem: How would you test the claim that sugar makes children hyperactive? 39

40 40

41 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1

42 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 42 A summary of steps during experimentation.

43 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 43 Below is a comparison of different research methods.

44 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  A researcher wants to know if a particular herbal supple ment is helpful for improving memory. She selects 100 college sophomores who achieved an average score on a memory test, gives half of them the herb for one month, half of them an inert pill, and the re-tests them all.

45 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  An example of a claim that is NOT falsifiable:  The telephone psychic says “Next year, you will go through a big change.”  This is not falsifiable because it is too vague.

46 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  An example of a claim that is NOT parsimonious: The sun goes around the earth. Little gnomes push it around the sky every day. We can’t see them because they are invisible to the human eye. This is not parsimonious because too many assumptions must be made in order for the claim to be accepted as fact.

47 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  Is this claim falsifiable?  “You will encounter new challenges in your travels this week.”

48 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  “An oversupply of dopamine in the human central nervous system will eventually result in a decline in the number of receptors available for that neurotransmitter.”

49 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  “On March 19th, 2006, you will meet a 30-year-old millionaire who will offer you an exciting entry-level job in a growing high-tech company in Austin, TX.”

50 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  “Children whose parents divorce will eventually have serious emotional and relationship problems.”

51 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1

52 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  Cross-Sectional Designs  +1 cohorts (same generation) or age-groups studied  1 time of testing  Studying age differences at any one time  Longitudinal Designs  1 cohort (same generation)  +1 time of testing  Study changes across time in one cohort

53 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Figure 1.4

54 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  Age effects: Changes which occur due to age  Cohort Effects: Born in one historical context  Changes due to differences in society  Disadvantage of cross-sectional design  Time of measurement effects: Historical  Take place at time of data collection  Disadvantage of longitudinal design

55 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  A combination of cross-sectional and longitud inal designs  Advantages of both designs  Gives information about  Which age-related trends are age effects?  Which age-related trends are truly cohort e ffects?  Which age-related trends are a result of his torical events?

56 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Figure 1.6

57 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1

58 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1  Risk to benefit balance of the research  Researcher responsibilities  Informed consent  Debriefing  Protection from harm  Confidentiality


Download ppt "Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Understanding Life-Span Human Development."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google