Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Understanding Life-Span Human Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1 Understanding Life-Span Human Development
2Three broad domains What is Development? Development Cognitive PhysicalCognitivePsychosocialDevelopment
3Other Developmental Definitions Maturation: (nature) The biological unfolding of the individual genetic planLearning: (nurture) Relatively permanent changes due to environmental experiencesDevelopment is due to interplay between nature and nurture
4Age Grade: Socially defined age groups Statuses, roles, privileges, responsibilitiesAge Norms: Behavioral expectations by ageSocial Clock: When things should be done“Off time” vs. “On time” experiences
5Figure 1.1 Aggression among children in four cultures.
6Goals of Studying Life-Span Development DescriptionNormal development, individual differencesExplanationTypical and individually different developmentOptimizationPositive development, enhancing humancapacitiesPrevention and overcoming difficulties
7MODERN LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE Development isA lifelong processInvolves both gain and lossCharacterized by lifelong plasticityShaped by its historical-cultural contextMultiply influenced
8The Scientific Research Approach The scientific research approach is objective, systematic, and testableSTEP 4Revise ResearchConclusions & TheorySTEP 3Draw Conclusions & create theorySTEP 2Collect InformationPlease Note: The content of this slide is not in the text. If you do not wish to use it in a presentation, you may either delete or hide it.STEP 1Conceptualize the Problem
10DescriptionNaturalistic Observation: Observing subjects in natural environmentsResearcher Jane Goodall studies the behavior of wild chimpanzees in their native habitat.
11Descriptive MethodsLaboratory Observation: Observing subjects in artificially controlled environmentsIn this experiment, preschoolers’ reactions to the puppet are monitored.
12DescriptionCase StudyPhineas GageIs language uniquely human?
13SurveyA technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of peopleOBJECTIVE 3-2| Identify the advantages and disadvantages of surveys in studying behavior and mental processes, and explain the importance of wording effects and random sampling.Psychology 7e in Modules
15Survey Population – all the cases in a group Random Sampling if each member has an equal chance of inclusion into asample, we call that arandom sample (unbiased).The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.
16Random Sampling from Population LO 1.9 Case studies and surveysRandom Sampling from PopulationINFERENCEPOPULATIONSAMPLE
17Descriptive Methods Laboratory observation – Naturalistic and laboratory settingsDescriptive MethodsLaboratory observation –watching animals or humansbehave in a laboratory setting.
18(positive or negative) CorrelationWhen one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)Correlationcoefficientr =+0.37OBJECTIVE 3-4| Describe positive and negative correlations and explain how correlational measures can aid the process of prediction.Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of relationship between two variables.Indicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Psychology 7e in Modules
19Finding Relationships Correlation coefficient ranges from 0 to 1.00Closer to 1.00, the stronger the relationship between the variables.Positive correlation – variables are related in the samedirection.Negative correlation – variables are related in oppositeCORRELATION DOES NOT PROVE CAUSATION!!!
20Figure 1.7 CorrelationCorrelation, a research method used for prediction, shows how two variables are related.
24Correlation does NOT prove causation LO Correlational techniqueCorrelation does NOT prove causationMenu
25Correlation Coefficient Interpretation RangeStrength ofRelationshipVery LowLowModerateHigh ModerateHighVery High
26Figure 1.3 Plots of hypothetical correlations between the amount of TV children watch and the number of aggressive acts they display. Each dot represents a specific child who watches a high, medium, or low amount of TV and commits a high, medium, or low number of aggressive acts. Part A shows a positive correlation between television watching and aggression: The more TV a child watches the more aggressive he or she is. Part B shows a negative correlation: The more TV a child watches, the less aggressive he or she is. Finally, Part C shows a zero correlation: Amount of TV watched is unrelated to amount of aggression displayed.Figure 1.3
27Height and Temperament of 20 Men CorrelationHeight and Temperament of 20 Men12345678910111213141516171819208063617974696275776064767166737068904281394872573084SubjectHeight inInchesTemperament
28Scatterplot of Height and Temperament Correlation959085807570656055504540353025TemperamentscoresHeight in inchesScatterplot of Height and Temperament
30The ExperimentOperational definition - definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured.Independent variable (IV) - variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.Dependent variable (DV) - variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment.Definition: Hitting while playingIV: Violent TVDV: Aggressive play
31Concept Check Operational definitions Which of the following might be used as an operational definition of “attraction”?A feeling of affection when two people are together. (1)The number of minutes during which two people are touching each other over a four-hour period. (2)
32Concept Check Which of the following might be used as an operational definition of “assertiveness?”The number of times a person makes requests or states his or her feelings over the course of a one-hour interaction. (1)An appearance of confidence and ease in socialsituations. (2)
33Evaluating Therapies Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental (Breast-fed) and control (formula-fed) conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between the two groups.Sometime research participants out of enthusiasm or personal beliefs can affect the out come of an experiment. To control for such affects, a double-blind procedure is used, in which the participants and the experimenter’s assistants are not aware of which participants got real treatment and who got placebo.Psychology 7e in Modules
34Random Assignment LO 1.11 Experimental approach and terms Experimental GroupTest for DifferencesSAMPLEControl GroupMenuPsychology 7e in Modules
35Confounding Variables LO Experimental approach and termsEffect of violent tv on aggressionExperimental GroupSAMPLEAre differences due to manipulation or confounding variable (mood)?Control GroupMenuPsychology 7e in Modules
36No Confounding Variables LO Experimental approach and termsEffect of violent tv on aggressionExperimental GroupSAMPLEDifferences due to manipulation, not an extraneous variable because mood randomly determined.Control GroupMenuPsychology 7e in Modules
37Scientifically compare performance of the two groups Experimental MethodExperimental group (noise condition)Measure amount of learningScientifically compare performance of the two groupsSample of participantsControl group (no-noise condition)Measure amount of learningThe logic of designing an experiment.The experimenter manipulates the amount of noise to which participants are exposed, measures their learning, and attempts to treat them equally in every other way.This creates an experiment group and a control group.
38Figure 1.9 Elements of an Experiment The two main ingredients of an experiment are (1) that the variables in the study are controlled or manipulated and (2) that participants are randomly assigned to the conditions of the study. When these two conditions have been met, causal conclusions may be drawn.
43Below is a comparison of different research methods.
44Concept CheckA researcher wants to know if a particular herbal supplement is helpful for improving memory. She selects 100college sophomores who achieved an average score on a memory test, gives half of them the herb for one month, half of them an inert pill, and the re-tests them all.
45The Scientific Method An example of a claim that is NOT falsifiable: The telephone psychic says “Next year, you will go through a big change.”This is not falsifiable because it is too vague.
46The Scientific Method An example of a claim that is NOT parsimonious: The sun goes around the earth. Little gnomes push it around thesky every day. We can’t see them because they are invisible to the human eye.This is not parsimonious because too many assumptions must be made in order for the claim to be accepted as fact.
47Concept Check Is this claim falsifiable? “You will encounter new challenges in your travels this week.”
48Concept Check “An oversupply of dopamine in the human central nervous system will eventually result in a decline inthe number of receptors available for thatneurotransmitter.”
49Concept Check“On March 19th, 2006, you will meet a 30-year-old millionaire who will offer you an exciting entry-level job in a growing high-tech company in Austin, TX.”
50Concept Check“Children whose parents divorce will eventually have serious emotional and relationship problems.”
52Developmental Research Designs Cross-Sectional Designs+1 cohorts (same generation) or age-groups studied1 time of testingStudying age differences at any one timeLongitudinal Designs1 cohort (same generation)+1 time of testingStudy changes across time in one cohort
53Figure 1.4 Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of development from age 30 to age 70.
54Age, Cohort, and Time of Measurement Effects Age effects: Changes which occur due to ageCohort Effects: Born in one historical contextChanges due to differences in societyDisadvantage of cross-sectional designTime of measurement effects: HistoricalTake place at time of data collectionDisadvantage of longitudinal design
55Sequential DesignsA combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal designsAdvantages of both designsGives information aboutWhich age-related trends are age effects?Which age-related trends are truly cohort effects?Which age-related trends are a result of historical events?
56Figure 1.6 A sequential research design combines the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Here, we start with a cross-sectional study in 1980 and reassess the same people every 10 years.Figure 1.6