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© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 1 Developmental Psychology 9.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 1 Developmental Psychology 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 1 Developmental Psychology 9

2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 2 Developmental Psychology Focuses on development across life span – a field of psychology that focuses on development across the life span. Development –More-or-less predictable changes in behavior associated with increasing age Nature or nurture? –Nature: behavior unfolds like a plant over time –Nurture: behavior is molded by experiences Developmental Psychology

3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 3 Developmental Psychology Nature view

4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 4 Developmental Psychology What do they see?

5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 5 Basic Processes of Development Maturation –Biological process of systematic physical growth –Experience plays a role in specific contexts –McGraw’s study of toilet training twins Children change dramatically from birth to adulthood Developmental Psychology

6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 6 Developmental Psychology Age in days Success in percent Hilton Hugh Importance of maturational readiness in McGraw’s study of toilet training twin boys

7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 7 Early Experiences and Critical Periods Imprinting (Lorenz) –Inborn tendency or instinct –Sensitive period – critical period Early social deprivation –Harlow’s monkeys, social isolation, and continuing detrimental effects –Controversy over effects on children Some abnormal effects may be irreversible Developmental Psychology

8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 8 Variations in Development Normal for children to be variable in their development –Discontinuities in development are the rule –Parents make important decisions about raising children that impacts on development Raising deaf child Impact of technology and medicine Developmental Psychology

9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 9 Stage Theories of Development Stages – series of abrupt changes from one period to another – –All children must pass through in same order –Many advocate unfolds over time –More qualitative than quantitative (such as child mastering physical properties of object) Decentered thought allows conservation problem solutions Developmental Psychology

10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 10 Piaget’s Developmental Theory Identified 4 stages of cognitive development –Sensorimotor stage – infant experiences world in sensory information and motor activities –Preoperational stage – children sometimes think illogically by adult standards –Concrete operational stage – increased abilities –Formal operational stage – use of full adult logic Developmental Psychology

11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 11 Developmental Psychology Birth to 2 yrs Sensorimotor Uses senses and motor skills, items known by use; Object permanence yrsPre-operational Symbolic thinking, language used; egocentric thinking, imagination/ experience grow, child de-centers yrsConcrete operational Logic applied, objective/rational interpretations; conservation, numbers, ideas, classifications 11 yrs onFormal operational Thinks abstractly, hypothetical ideas; ethics, politics, social/moral issues explored Piaget’s cognitive development theory

12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 12 Kohlberg’s Theory Moral development –Three level, six stage theory –Premoral level – child has no sense of morality as adults understand it –Child’s moral view based on what others think until highest level of development creates independent thinking Developmental Psychology

13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 13 Kohlberg’s Theory Moral development –Gilligan critical of Kohlberg’s research results – had her own theory Morality as Individual Survival Morality as Self-Sacrifice Morality as Equality Developmental Psychology

14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 14 Developmental Psychology Level I: Preconventional moral reasoning Stage 1“might makes right” Punishment/obedience orientation: self-interest Stage 2“look out for number one” Instrumental/relativist orientation: quid pro quo Level II: Conventional moral reasoning Stage 3“good girl, nice boy” Proper behavior for the social approval Stage 4“law and order” Proper behavior of the dutiful citizen, obey laws Level III: Postconventional moral reasoning Stage 5“social contract” Mutual benefit to all, obey society’s rules Stage 6“universal ethical principles” Defend right/wrong, not just majority, all life is sacred (reflective) Kohlberg’s theory of moral development

15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 15 Development Across the Life Span Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory –Focuses on the individual’s developing relationships with others in social world –Eight stages - development continues over life span –Crisis at each stage of development Developmental Psychology

16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 16 Developmental Psychology Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Integrity vs. Despair Trust vs. Mistrust Erikson’s psychosocial theory

17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 17 Development Across the Life Span Average ages at which changes in development take place portray pattern of age-related changes –Neonatal Period –Infancy –Early childhood –Middle childhood –Adolescence –adulthood Developmental Psychology

18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 18 Development in Infancy and Childhood Neonatal period –First two weeks of life –Marks transition from womb to independence –Reflexively grasps anything placed in hand –Rooting reflex Developmental Psychology

19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 19 Development in Infancy and Childhood Infancy –Age: 2 weeks until 2 years –Time of rapid physical, perceptual, cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional growth –During sensorimotor stage – infants stare at interesting visual stimuli –Preference for human faces Developmental Psychology

20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 20 Development in Infancy and Childhood Infancy –Physical development –Cognitive development Object permanence Telegraphic speech –Rovee-Collier’s studies of memory Developmental Psychology

21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 21 Developmental Psychology Rovee-Collier’s studies tested the memory of young infants

22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 22 Development in Infancy and Childhood Infancy – emotional and social development –Visual cliff and depth perception –Attachment Strong attachments formed between infants and caregivers Separation anxiety Fear of strangers Developmental Psychology

23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 23 Developmental Psychology Gibson and Walk’s visual cliff tested infant depth perception

24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 24 Early Childhood Growth less explosive and rapid than during infancy –Lasts 2 to 7 years of age –Cognitive development Children in preoperational stage show egocentric thought Animism Transductive reasoning Developmental Psychology

25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 25 Early Childhood Emotional and social development –Most notable changes in peer relationships and types of play Solitary play Parallel play Cooperative play Developmental Psychology

26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 26 Developmental Psychology Early Childhood Solitary play Parallel play Cooperative play

27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 27 Middle Childhood Lasts from 7 to 11 years of age –Characterized by slow physical growth –Important cognitive changes occur –Conservation and reversibility –Child decenters – allows conservation problems to be solved; learns some matter changes shape but not volume Developmental Psychology

28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 28 Middle Childhood Emotional and social development –Child enters with close ties to parents –Peer relationships become increasingly important Friendships more important, last longer Cliques or groups formed, mostly same sex Terms boyfriend and girlfriend have little meaning at this stage Developmental Psychology

29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 29 Adolescent Development Adolescence –Physical changes of puberty –Adolescent growth spurt –Heightened sexual and romantic interest –Peers become more important than parents –Cognitively – capable of abstract reasoning Ponders abstract issues like justice or equality –No clear cut end to adolescence in society Developmental Psychology

30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 30 Adolescent Development Physical development –Puberty becomes production of sex hormones –Primary sex characteristics appear Females – menarche: menstruation, ovulation –Secondary sex characteristics appear Females – breasts, pubic hair, wider hips Males – testes and penis growth, facial and pubic hair, broadened shoulders Developmental Psychology

31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 31 Adolescence Cognitive development –Formal operations stage entered Ability to use abstract concepts Shift to stage varies among individuals; some never reach this stage, others reach it in early adulthood –Piaget’s classic experiment with weights Developmental Psychology

32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 32 Developmental Psychology CD AB 7-yr-old4-yr-old Piaget’s Balance Test - task: make the weight times the distance equal on both sides of center 10 kg 5 kg 8 kg 5 kg 2 kg 5 kg 14-yr-old 10-yr-old

33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 33 Adolescence Adolescent egocentrism –Imaginary audience – everyone is watching –Personal fable – belief that s/he is unique –Hypocrisy – okay for one to do it but not another –Pseudostupidity – use of oversimplified logic Social development –Time of drifting or breaking away from family Developmental Psychology

34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 34 Adolescence Emotional development –G. Stanley Hall – time of storm and stress –Most adolescents are happy, well-adjusted –Areas of problems Parent-child conflicts Mood changes - self-conscious, awkward, lonely, ignored Risky behavior - aggression, unprotected sex, suicide, use of substances or alcohol Developmental Psychology

35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 35 Adulthood Young adulthood through older adulthood –Developmental changes continue throughout adulthood: not a single phase of life –Taking on adult responsibilities in work and social relationships –Challenges: love, work, play continue changing Developmental Psychology

36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 36 Adulthood Physical development –Growth and strength in early adulthood, then slow process of decline afterwards Speed and endurance Vision and ability to see in weak lighting Hearing and detection of tones Taste – intact until later in life; men tend to lose hearing and taste earlier than women –Decline affected by health and lifestyles Developmental Psychology

37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 37 Adulthood Cognitive development –Continues throughout adulthood; some abilities improve while others decline Fluid intelligence peaks in 20s, declines therafter Crystallized intelligence improves until 30s; then declines slowly afterwards Overall, individual rates vary depending on lifestyle and health Developmental Psychology

38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 38 Adulthood Emotional and social development –Many aspects of personality are fairly stable over time, and changes are predictable On average, adults become –less anxious and emotional, socially outgoing, and creative People become more dependable, agreeable, and accepting of life’s hardships Gender differences lessen over time Developmental Psychology

39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 39 Adulthood Emotional and social development –Much disagreement about when and how changes occur during aging – differences between stages of infant/child development and adult development Not all adults go through every stage Order of stages can vary for individuals Timing of stages not controlled by biological maturation Developmental Psychology

40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 40 Stages of Adult Life Early adulthood –Erikson Intimacy versus isolation (17 to 45 years) –Levinson - Early adulthood has three stages Entry into early adulthood (17-28) Age 30 transition (28-33) Culmination of early adulthood (to age 40) –Challenges of career, marriage, and parenthood Developmental Psychology

41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 41 Middle Adulthood Erikson – –Generativity versus stagnation (40-65 years) Taking stock of what one has, who s/he is Some are happy, some are disappointed Generativity – reaching out, not self-centered Developmental Psychology

42 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 42 Middle Adulthood Levinson – four brief stages –Midlife transition (early 40s) –Entry to middle adulthood stage (45 to 50) –Age 50 transition –Culmination of middle adulthood Climactic – –Female sexual ability to reproduce declines –Not all adult development timed by social clock rather than biological clock Developmental Psychology

43 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 43 Later Adulthood Erikson (age 65 and onward) –Integrity versus despair Looks back over life as a whole: satisfying existence or merely staying alive Levinson devotes little to later years Life expectancy dramatically increased as have conceptions of old age –many have healthy years after retirement –Second careers and activism launched Developmental Psychology

44 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 44 Evaluating Stage Theories Gender differences – more focus on men Cultural differences and historical change –Few cultural comparison studies done Inconsistent evidence Questions about idea of stage theories –Mid-course correction, not mid-life crises –Predicted changes do not occur at ages indicated Developmental Psychology

45 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 45 Causes of Aging Biological – human body deteriorates Psychological –Happy or unhappy aging –Social activity and slowed intellectual decline or disengagement and isolation –Maintain healthy or unhealthy lifestyle –Optimism linked to happier, healthier, longer life Developmental Psychology

46 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 46 Death and Dying: The Final Stage Kübler-Ross – five stages –Denial –Anger –Bargaining –Depression –Acceptance Developmental Psychology

47 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 47 Application of Psychology: Parenting Parents play a key role in children’s lives –Parenting and infant attachment –Parenting and discipline style –Effect in childrearing: Two-way street –Common discipline mistakes Lax parenting, verbosity, overreactivity, and reinforcement of inappropriate behavior –Sociocultural factors in parenting –Myth of the perfect parent –Day care, divorce, and parenting Developmental Psychology

48 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 48 Baumrind: Three Parenting Styles StyleAuthoritarianPermissiveAuthoritative Warmth lowhigh Discipline strictraremoderate Expected Maturity highlowmoderate Communication: parent-child highlowhigh Communication: child-parent lowhigh

49 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 49 The End 9 Developmental Psychology


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