1Chapter 17– Emerging Adulthood: Biosocial Development The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen BergerChapter 17– Emerging Adulthood:Biosocial DevelopmentPowerPoint Slides developed byMartin Wolfger and Michael JamesIvy Tech Community College-BloomingtonReviewed by Raquel HenryLone Star College, Kingwood
2Emerging AdulthoodThe period between the ages of 18 and 25, which is now widely thought of as a separate developmental stage.
3Growth and Strength Strong and Active Bodies Emerging adults are usually in good health.Traditionally, ages 18 and 25 were a time for hard physical work and childbearing.Physical work and parenthood are no longer expected of every young adult in the 21st century.
4Growth and StrengthBecause of food availability, most emerging adults have reached full height (girls usually by age 16, boys by age 18).Muscle growth and fat accumulation continue into the early 20s, when women attain adult breast and hip size and men reach full shoulder width and upper-arm strength.Death from disease almost never occurs during emerging adulthood.
5Bodies Designed for Health By age 20, the immune system is well-developedUsually, blood pressure is normal, teeth develop no new cavities, heart rate is steady, the brain is fully grown, and lung capacity is as large as it will ever be.SenescenceThe process of aging, whereby the body becomes less strong and efficient.Begins in late adolescence
7Bodies in Balance Homeostasis The adjustment of all the body’s systems to keep physiological functions in a state of equilibrium.As the body ages, it takes longer for these adjustments to occur, so it becomes harder for older bodies to adapt to stress.Nutrition and exercise underlie health at every age.
8Unused Potential Organ reserve Maximum strength potential The capacity of organs to allow the body to cope with stress, via extra, unused functioning ability.Maximum strength potentialBegins to decline by age 25Fifty-year-olds retain 90% of muscle reserve they had at age 20
9Sexual ActivityThe sexual-reproductive system is especially vigorous during emerging adulthood.The sex drive is powerful, infertility is rare, orgasm is frequent, and birth is easy, with fewer complications in the early 20s than at any other time.Sexual-reproductive characteristics are produced by sex hormones, which peak in both sexes at about age 20.
10Growth and StrengthWith frequent intercourse and without contraception, the average woman in her early 20s becomes pregnant within three months.Globalization, advanced technology, and modern medicine have combined to produce effective contraception, available in almost every nation.As fewer infants die, people no longer need to begin childbearing before age 20 or have four or more children simply to ensure that some children will survive.
11Growth and StrengthAdvances in contraception have reduced the birth rate and have also increased the rate of sexual activity, especially among unmarried adults.Globally, emerging adults have fewer babies but engage in more sexual activity than older adults (married or not) or than people their own age once did.Half of all emerging adults in the United States have had at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI).
12Emotional StressOne consequence of current sexual patterns may be emotional stress as relationships begin and end.Attitudes about the purpose of sex (Laumann & Michael):ReproductionRelationshipRecreationIf partners have differing ideas about the purpose of sex or the nature of gender, emotional pain and frustration can occur.
13Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) STIs have always been present but the rate has reached epidemic proportions due to sexual patterns.Best way to prevent STIs is lifelong monogamy.Worldwide, globalization fuels every contagious disease.
14PsychopathologyIncidence of psychopathology increases in emerging adulthood.Rate of serious mental illness is almost double that for adults over age 25.Diathesis-stress modelView that mental disorders are produced by the interaction of genetics (diathesis) and a stressful environment and life events.
15Mood Disorders Bipolar Disorder Depression May begin in childhood but becomes more severe in adulthood.DepressionMost common mood disorderA loss of interest or pleasure for 2 weeks or more.May be rooted in imbalances in neurotransmitters and hormones
16Anxiety Disorders Evident in ¼ of all U.S. residents below 25 Panic attacks, PTSD, and OCDMore common, worldwide than depressionAge and genetics shape the symptomsHikikomoriCommon among young adults in JapanVictims isolate themselves for months or years
17Schizophrenia About 1% of adults have schizophrenia Disorganized and bizarre thoughts, delusions, hallucinations, and emotionsRisk factors: genetic, malnutrition when brain is developing, social pressure.Symptoms usually begin in adolescence
18Exercise Reduces blood pressure, strengthens the heart & lungs. Makes depression, osteoporosis, heart disease, arthritis and some cancers less likely.Those who are not fit during emerging adulthood are 4 times more likely to have diabetes and high blood pressure 15 years later.
19Eating Well At every stage of life, diet affects future development Set pointA certain body weight that a person’s homeostatic processes strive to maintain.Body mass index (BMI)The ratio of a person’s weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared.
21Taking RisksEmerging adulthood is marked by a greater willingness to take risks of all sorts, not just sexual ones.Young adults enjoydanger, drive withoutseat belts, carry guns,try addictive drugs.
22Taking Risks Edgework Extreme sports Occupations, recreational activities, or other ventures that involve a degree of risk or danger.The prospect of “living on the edge” makes edgework compelling to some individuals.Extreme sportsForms of recreation that include apparent risk of injury or death and that are attractive and thrilling as a result.
23Drug Abuse Drug abuse Drug addiction The ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user’s biological or psychological well-being.Drug addictionA condition of drug dependence in which the absence of the given drug from the individual’s system produces a drive—physiological, biological, or both—to ingest more of the drug.
25Drug AbuseDrug abuse is particularly common among those who die violently.In the U.S., between the ages of 15 and 25, almost 1 male in every 100 dies violently, through suicide, homicide, or a motor-vehicle accident.About 4 times as many young men as young women commit suicide or die in motor-vehicle accidents, and 6 times as many are murdered.
26A Way to Curb Alcohol Abuse in College Social norms approachA method of reducing risky behavior among emerging adults that is based on their desire to follow social norms.This approach publicizes survey results to make emerging adults aware of the actual prevalence of various behaviors within their peer group.