6Infants Weight Cardiovascular system Generally 6–8 pounds at birth Lose 5–10% of body weight in week 1Begin weight gain during week 2Cardiovascular systemSwitch to own vasculature system6
7Infants Pulmonary system First breath inflates lungs for first time Under 1 month, nose breathersUnder 6 months, prone to nasal congestion7
8Courtesy of Marianne Gausche-Hill, MC, FACEP, FAAP InfantsPulmonary system (cont’d)When compared to adults:Softer rib cagesHorizontally oriented ribsImmature accessory musclesLarger tongueShorter, narrower airwayFewer alveoliFragile lungsCourtesy of Marianne Gausche-Hill, MC, FACEP, FAAP8
9Infants Renal system Immune system Nervous system Consider: DehydrationElectrolyte imbalancesImmune systemPassive immunity helps protect up to 1 yearNervous systemContinues to evolve following birthBorn with:Moro reflexPalmar graspRooting reflexSucking reflex9
10Infants Nervous system (cont’d) Fontanelles allow the head to be molded.Sleep patterns vary.10
11Infants Musculoskeletal system Dental system Growth and epiphyseal plates help bones grow.Muscles account for 25% of weight.Growth charts track growth.Dental systemTeething begins at 4–7 months.Baby teeth are in by age 3 years.Permanent teeth come in around age 6.11
12Infants Psychosocial development begins at birth. Evolves as infant interacts with and reacts to the environment12
13Infants Infants typically have their own timetable for development. Bonding based on a secure attachmentAnxious avoidant attachment based on rejectionMost infants use crying as the primary method of communicating distress.13
14InfantsFor infants, a reaction to a situational crisis follows three phases:Protest phaseDespair phaseWithdrawalInfants go through trust and mistrust phase.14
15Courtesy of Howard E. Huth, III, BA, EMT-P. InfantsChildren may be:EasyDifficultSlow to warm upLet caregiver hold infants whenever possible!Courtesy of Howard E. Huth, III, BA, EMT-P.15
19Toddlers and Preschoolers Renal systemBegin bladder controlTeething process may be painful and include fever.Sensory development makes tickling fun.
20Toddlers and Preschoolers Psychosocial changesSeparation anxiety peaks.Language development occurs.Peer interactions result in:Learning control, following rules, competitivenessModeling behaviorRecognizing sexual differences
21Toddlers and Preschoolers Tips for paramedic:Always include caregiver!Position yourself at eye level.Explain what you are going to do.Save the worst for last.
22Toddlers and Preschoolers Development is a reflection of parentsStyles:Authoritarian: expects complete obedienceAuthoritative: balances authority with freedomPermissive: no imposition of rulesDivorce may affect self-esteem and well-being.
30Early Adults Psychosocial changes Work, family, and stress are main focusWant to “settle down”Seek and find loveOne of the most stable life periods, with less psychological problems than other stages
34Late Adults Cardiovascular system Atherosclerosis leads to blood vessel blockage.May lead to aneurysmsHearts are less able to deal with exercise or disease due to:Decreased pulse rateDeclining cardiac outputInability to elevate cardiac output
35Late Adults Cardiovascular system (cont’d) Vascular system becomes stiff due to:Increased diastolic blood pressureDecreased cardiac outputImpeded blood flowReduced elasticity of peripheral vesselsReduced ability to compensate for changes
36Late Adults Respiratory system Changes make breathing more difficult: Larger airway; smaller alveoliReduced lung elasticity; increased use of intercostal musclesRigid chest as ribs calcify to sternumDecrease in intercostal muscle strength
37Late Adults Respiratory system (cont’d) Changes in mouth and nose leave airway less protected.Difficult to clear secretionsCough and gag reflexes declineLess responsive to smoke and dust due to decline in cilia
38Late Adults Respiratory system (cont’d) Weakening of smooth muscles may lead to:CollapseInspiratory wheezingLow flow rates
39Late Adults Respiratory system (cont’d) Vital capacity only 50% of younger adult’sLoss of respiratory muscle massIncreased stiffness of thoracic cageDecreased surface area for air exchangeResidual volume increases causing air to hamper gas exchange in alveoli.
40Late Adults Endocrine system Diabetes related to weight gain Males lose penis rigidity; females experience atrophy of uterus and vagina
41Late Adults Renal system Functional changes of the kidneys: Declining filtration functionDecreasing kidney massDeclining number of nephronsDecreased response to hemodynamic stress
42Late Adults Gastrointestinal system Decreased sense of taste, weaker teethDecreased saliva productionSlower gastric motilityDiminishing acid secretionDecreased ability to extract nutrientsFecal incontinence
43Late Adults Nervous system Central nervous system changes: Brain weight loss of 10%–20%Loss of 5%–50% neuronsLoss of 20% frontal lobe synapsesSlower motor and sensory neural networksChange to biphasic sleep patterns
44Late Adults Nervous system (cont’d) Brains have increased risk for injury.Smaller brain may lead to movement.Bridging veins may tear.
45Late Adults Nervous system (cont’d) Peripheral nervous system changes: Diminished sensationDiminished proprioceptionDeteriorated nerve endings
46Late Adults Sensory changes: Vision changes Pupils less responsive to lightDiminished visual acuityRestricted ocular movementIncreased distortionsDecreased ability to focus at close rangeDecreased peripheral vision
47Late Adults Sensory changes (cont’d): Hearing changes Loss of high-frequency hearingDeafnessLoss of taste bud sensation and olfactory perception
48Late Adults Psychosocial changes Up until five years preceding death, most late adults retain high-level brain functionTerminal drop hypothesis
50SummaryDevelopmental stages of life include infant, toddler, preschool age, school age, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood.Each developmental stage is marked by different physical and psychological changes and characteristics.The vital signs of toddlers and preschoolers differ somewhat from those of an infant.
51SummaryFrom ages 6 to 12 years, the school-age child’s vital signs and body gradually approach those observed in adulthood.The vital signs of adolescents begin to level off within the adult ranges.Vital signs do not vary greatly through adulthood; however, the vital signs of late adults do vary depending on each person’s health.
52Summary Infants develop at a startling rate. Two important points regarding an infant’s airway are that an infant’s tongue can more easily occlude the airway, and the lungs are fragile.Infants are classified as an easy child, difficult child, or slow to warm up. Their primary means of communication is crying.
53SummaryToddlers and preschoolers learn to speak and express themselves. Toilet training is usually accomplished around age 28 months.A child’s development is affected by the parenting style employed by his or her parents. Parenting styles include authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive.
54SummarySchool-age children develop self-esteem and reasoning abilities and receive their permanent teeth.Adolescents undergo significant reproductive development, focus on creating their self-image, are self-conscious, and may engage in self-destructive behavior.
55SummaryEarly adults focus on work and family. The body should function at an optimal level.Middle adults focus on achieving life goals. Medical problems become more common.Late adults undergo significant physical changes. They also focus on their mortality.