Presentation on theme: "CONSERVING ENERGY– SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, HELIUM & KUTHALAM NATURAL GAS FIELD (ONGC), SOUTH INDIA."— Presentation transcript:
CONSERVING ENERGY– SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, HELIUM & KUTHALAM NATURAL GAS FIELD (ONGC), SOUTH INDIA
CONSERVING ENERGY ✪ Energy demand is continually increasing. ✪ Energy conservation is recognized as a national priority. ✪ Inefficient use of energy produces excess greenhouse gases. ✪ Has a negative impact on environment - regionally and globally.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY ☢ Promotion of energy efficiency and its conservation is the optimum option to reduce gap between demand and supply. ☢ Modernize energy conservation and utilization. ☢ Economically achievable Conservation – Superconducting technologies hold the greatest potential for conserving Energy.
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY Superconductivity - a phenomenon observed in several metals and alloys such as Nb-Ti. When these materials are cooled to temperatures close to absolute zero ( 0 degree Kelvin, -273 degree Celsius) to around liquid helium temperatures (4.2K) their electrical resistance drops very abruptly, down to zero.
Electrical resistance vs temperature Comparative behaviour of a normal metal and a superconductor Tc – Critical Temperature Superconductor Normal Metals Resistance 0K 0K T c Temperature
SUPERCONDUCTING POWER ✪ Superconductors when turned into electrical circuits exhibit no energy loss due to electrical resistance. ✪ Superconductors repel external magnetic fields. ✪ A magnet placed over a superconductor experiences strong forces of repulsion that lifts it, so that it floats above.
SUPERCONDUCTORS IN THE POWER SECTOR ☢ In the last 10 years, rapid improvements in superconducting materials and cooling techniques have found immense practical applications in low cost power generation, transmission and storage of electricity. Superconductivity has potential application in Fusion Technology as well. ☢ Superconductivity holds out great promise as a potential energy saving technology.
LIQUID HELIUM - FLUID OF THE FUTURE ✪ Vital element in cryogenics. Fluid that is commonly used to reach low temperatures required for standard superconducting magnets. ✪ Superconducting magnets are becoming customary features for high energy accelerators used by physicists for research on fundamental particles. ✪ Superconducting magnets (MAGLEV) are used in Magnetically levitated trains.
NOVELTY OF NOBLE HELIUM ✪ An extraordinary gas that exhibits extreme physical and chemical properties. ✪ A key element in Space Research – Pressurizing liquid fuel for rockets. Atomic Energy – Cover gas and cooling medium in nuclear reactors. Defence – Supersonic wind tunnels, lasers. Probe to Seismic Studies – Earthquakes & Volacanism, warning for ecological imbalance
Superconducting Technology – High field magnets, loss-less power transmission. Semiconductor Industry – Protective gas for crystal growth in computer technology. Fabrication Industry - Shielding gas for processing reactive metals such as titanium, molybdenum, tungsten etc. Prevents oxidation and corrosion. Medicine – Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Magneto Rheological Elastomer (MRE) to determine cancer (by blood analysis).
SOURCES OF HELIUM ☢ Exceedingly low atmospheric abundance – 5.2 parts per million (ppm). ☢ Only commercial sources are derived from natural gases. ☢ Geological distribution uneven. ☢ Present in higher concentrations (percent levels) in the gas emanations of some hot springs and geysers – but flow rates are low.
✪ Associated with natural gas in only a few regions – principally USA, Russia and Poland. ✪ ~98% of world’s commercial helium supplies come from the USA. ✪ Recently found to be a component (approx. 500 ppm) of natural gas in India at the ONGC Karaikal Asset at Kuthalam, Tamil Nadu.
Map showing locations of a few sources of helium in India W T1 B1 K B2 T2 B1 – Bakreswar (W.B) B2 – Baratang (A&N) K – Kuthalam (Tamilnadu) T1 – Tatta Pani (J&K) T2 – Tantloi (Jharkhand) Tamilnadu Andhra Pradesh Madhyapradesh Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Gujarat Orissa Punjab Haryana Himachal Pradesh Maharashtra Andaman & Nicobar
Gas ↓ Spring gas (vol %) (Bakreswar-B 1 ) Natural gas (vol%) (Kuthalam-K) He0.50 – 1.40 0.05 – 0.10 N 2 82.0 – 93.0 1.0 – 40.0 Ar 1.68 – 2.40 0.0 - 0.62 O 2 1.00 – 2.70 0.00 – 1.40 CO 2 0.03 – 1.50 0.35 – 2.90 CH 4 1.0 – 60.0 22.0 – 90.0 Flow Rate (Nm 3 /hr) 1.0 - 6.0 1000 - 7000 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF A THERMAL SPRING AND NATURAL GAS
Geochemical monitoring set up at Bakreswar GAS CHROMATOGRAPH RADON MONITOR
Pipe lines Connecting Hot Spring with Gas Holders at Tantloi, Jharkhand
Helium Enrichment Plant based on Cryo-Condensation at SINP/VECC, Kolkata
Helium Purification Plant based on Cryo-Adsorption at SINP/VECC, Kolkata
Ref: Anomalous fluctuation of He/CH 4 ratio prior to an earthquake. Nisith K. Das, Rakesh K. Bhandari, Debasis Ghose, Prasanta Sen and Bikash Sinha Current Science, (2005) vol 89, No. 8, 1399-1403
Ref: Anomalous fluctuation of gamma dose emanating from a thermal spring prior to an earthquake. Nisith K. Das, Rakesh K. Bhandari, Debasis Ghose, Prasanta Sen and Bikash Sinha Current Science, (2005) vol 89, No. 8, 1399-1403
Ref: Explosive helium burst in thermal spring emanations Nisith K. Das, Rakesh K. Bhandari, Debasis Ghose, Prasanta Sen and Bikash Sinha Appl. Rad. Isotope (2006) vol 64, 144-148
Pakistan Earthquake M 7.6 October 8, 2006 Ref : Presented at International Workshop on “Electromagnetic Studies Related to Earthquakes and Volcanoes”, Agra Nov 20 – 22, 2006 Ref : Presented at International Workshop on “Electromagnetic Studies Related to Earthquakes and Volcanoes”, Agra Nov 20 – 22, 2006
PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION (PSA) TECHNIQUE FOR HELIUM PURIFICATION ☢ Conventional helium separation from natural gas employs energy expensive gas liquefaction and cryo-adsorption techniques. ☢ Recent developments in materials have added a new low cost – low energy technique for helium separation – the P RESSURE S WING A DSORPTION (PSA) T ECHNIQUE ☢ PSA relies on differing adsorption properties of gases on adsorbents to effect helium separation from natural gas components.
ADSORBENT CONSTRAINTS The adsorbents are the proprietary items and owned by very few companies. Exact nature of the breakthrough curves are difficult to obtain experimentally. Intra-particle diffusivity crucial to the final stage of purification.
ENDEAVOUR For the past couple of years we are engaged in developing adsorption based helium separation technology exploiting the helium bearing spring gases. Recently, we are on the verge of commissioning a pilot scale helium purification plant at ONGC gas field, Kuthalam, based on Adsorption technique. A brief account of the plant is outlined here. The plant consists of four different stages as follows:
PURIFICATION STAGES OF A PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION (PSA) HELIUM PURIFIER Stage -I : Removal of 99 mol% CH 4 Stage -II : Removal of > 95 mol % N 2 Stage -III : He – concentration attains ~10 mol% Stage -IV : Helium purity ~ 99 + mol %
FOUR - BED PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION UNIT Dry feed gas II IIIIIV Purge Tank Light-Flash Product Heavy rich Product Purge Tank
DESIGN BASIS OF PSA BASED PILOT PLANT FOR HELIUM EXTRACTION FROM NATURAL GAS, KUTHALAM, TAMILNADU (M/s ADSORPTION RESEARCH INC., DUBLIN OHIO, USA) Feed gas intake – 50 Nm 3 /hr Helium concentration - ~ 500 ppm No. of PSA stages – 4 Helium yield purity - ~ 99%
OUTLOOK It is expected that successful operation of the PSA based helium separation pilot plant at Kuthalam, Tamilnadu, will lead to a full-scale commercial plant from natural gas in India in near future.