4 PETROLEUM PRODUCTS DEMAND HistoricalGoing forwardConsumption grew at a CAGR of 3.4% p.a. over the last 5 yearsProduction registered a CAGR of 12.5% p.a. during the same periodDemand expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.7% p.a. during next 5 yearsDemand registered over 5% growth during FY2003Source: Company estimates FY03 MOP&NG Sub-group report for X Plan submitted to Planning CommissionSource: PPAC, FY03 company estimates
5 CRUDE SELF SUFFICIENCY The gap being met through importsSelf sufficiency levels declined over the yearsSource: Hydrocarbon Vision 2025
7 Total – 3.3 MILLION Kms INDIAN ROAD NETWORK NATIONAL HIGHWAYS 58,112 Length ( km )NATIONAL HIGHWAYS58,112STATE HIGHWAYS1,37,119DISTRICT ROADS4,70,000RURAL ROADS26,50,000Total – 3.3 MILLION KmsINDIAN ROADS CARRY 85 % OF PASSENGER TRAFFIC & 70 % OF FREIGHT TRAFFIC
8 ROAD CONSTRUCTION SHIFTS TO HIGHER GEAR HIGHWAYS BUILT Kms / DayPROPOSED NHDP LENGTH KmsDAILY PROGRESS Kms / DayDAILY EXPENSES OF NHDP 10 ML. USDFINAL PROGRESS OF NHDP 11 Kms/DayASSURED FUNDING MECHANISM IN PLACE
9 MAJOR PROJECTSJAN 1999 – TARGET OF DEC 2004 FOR 4/6-LANING OF 5846 KMs HIGHWAY IN FIRST PHASE - GOLDEN QUADRILATERALSECOND PHASE ON 7300 KMs NE-SW CORRIDOR TO BEGIN ON JAN 2004 WITH TARGET OF DEC 07SIMULTANEOUS DEVELOPMENT OF PORT ROADS, RURAL ROADS, STATE ROADS INTENSIFIEDB.R.O. PROJECTS
14 Bitumen - An introduction LAST RESIDUE OF CRUDE OIL TREATED TO PRODUCE BITUMEN.USED IN BUILDING AND PAVING SINCE ANCIENT TIMES.OLDEST ADHESIVE KNOWN TO MAN.USED IN 3500 B.C. AS MORTAR FOR BUILDING STONES AND PAVING BLOCKS IN MESOPOTAMIA.USED FOR WATER TIGHTENING OF RESERVOIRS, CANALS, BATHING POOLS & EMBANKMENTS OF RIVERS IN INDUS VALLEY.
15 Bitumen - An introduction (Contd.) Streets of Babylon constructed in 2000 B.C. still in good shape.Used for Mummification in 300 B.C.Rock Asphalt used for flooring/sidewalks in France in 1800 A.D.First road surfacing done in New Jersey in 1870 A.D.From 1900 onwards Bitumen produced from Refineries being used extensively.
17 Production Process Produced by fractional distillation of Crude oil. Crude Oil heated to 300 – 350OC in distillation column. Lighter fractions separated at different column heights. Bottom product called long residue.Long residue heated upto 450OC in Vacuum distillation column. Bottom residue (short residue) used for manufacturing Bitumen.Hot air is blown through short residue OR blended with superior quality bottom products to achieve desired consistency / penetration.
18 Advantages of Bituminous Roads Initial saving : fast construction + low cost.Ageless – rehabilitation is inexpensive.Stage Construction - in ribbons, not in slabs.Safe: High skid resistance + Good VisibilityBetter riding quality Less wear & tear of vehicle, Low noise while cruisingCan be fully recycled.
19 Engineering Properties of Bitumen A visco-elastic material : Deformation under stress a function of temperature & loading time.At high temperature & loading it behaves as viscous liquids, whereas at very low temperature or low loading it behaves as elastic solids.In the intermediate range of temperatures / pressure, more typical of the conditions in road service, bitumen has visco-elastic behaviour.
21 Composition of Bitumen Chemical composition depends on origin of Crude Oil and refining process.Chemical composition is extremely complex. Astronomically large number of Molecules with different chemical structures. Not feasible to attempt a complete analysis of Bitumen.Elemental composition of Bitumen provides little information of the types of molecular structure present in Bitumen.
22 Properties of Bitumen IS 73 : 1992 Characteristics 80/ / /40Specific gravity at 27OCSoftening Point OC to to to 65Penetration at 25OC, 100gm, 80 to to to 405 secs., 1/10 mmDuctility at 27OC, in cm min
23 BITUMEN TESTS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE PENETRATION TEST / SOFTENING PT.INDICATES CONSISTENCYLOSS ON HEATING / THIN FILM OVEN TESTRATE OF HARDENING ON ROADDUCTILITY TESTAFFINITY FOR AGGREGATES
24 Tests….. TRICHOROETHYLENE SOLUBILITY VISCOSITY / SPECIFIC GRAVITY INDICATES PURITY OF BITUMENVISCOSITY / SPECIFIC GRAVITY
25 PenetrationTRAVEL IN dmm OF A SPECIFIED NEEDLE UNDER 100 g Wt. FOR 5 SECONDS INTO BITUMEN AT 25 C.DENOTES CONSISTENCY
26 Softening Point3.5 GM STEEL BALL PLACED ON SAMPLE OF BITUMEN IN BRASS RINGBATH TEMP RAISED AT 5 DEGREES PER MINUTE
27 DUCTILITYGives an indication of the extent to which a sample of the material can be stretched before breaking.Length in cm. at breaking point is ductility
28 FLASH POINTUsed to measure the temperature to which a sample of bitumen may be safely heatedThe flash point is the temperature reached when the vapour causes an instantaneous flash.
29 Recommended Handling Temperatures Characteristics / /70 30/40Min. Pumping Temp.27OCMixing/Coating Temp. OC to to to 175Laying Temp.OC to to to 160Spraying Temp.OCMax. Safe Hdlng. Temp. OC
30 Selection of Grade of Bitumen Choice of Bitumen is based onClimatic Conditions - Maximum & Minimum temperature & rainfall.Intensity of Traffic - Number of vehicles per day & axle load of vehicles.
31 Applications of 80/100 Grade Less viscous grade.Used in all climatic conditions.Suited for traffic load of less that commercial vehicles/day.Better suited for high altitude/snow bound regions irrespective of traffic intensity.
32 Applications of 60/70 Grade More viscous grade. Higher softening point.Suited for traffic intensity of more than commercial vehicles/ day.Can withstand heavier axle loads.Suited for areas where difference between min. & max. temp. is more than 25 o C.Reduced stripping of Bitumen from Aggregate in presence of water.Better suited for highways, expressways & urban roads.
33 Applications of 30/40 Grade Suited for traffic intensity of more than 1500 commercial vehicles/ day.Suited for areas where difference between min. & max. temp. is less than 25 o C.Used in metropolitan areas / airport runways.
35 RELATIVE PRICING OF VALUE ADDED BINDERS BITUMENEMULSION 11000CRMBNRMBPMB
36 WHY MODIFIED BITUMEN? INCREASING DEMANDS ON ROAD INSISTENCE BY CLIENTS INCREASING NUMBER OF VEHICLESINCREASING AXLE LOADINSISTENCE BY CLIENTSDESIRE TO MAINTAIN HIGHER SERVICEABILITY LEVELCHANGING PATTERN OF CONTRACTSINCLUDES LONG TERM MAINTENANCE
37 Modifiers under use Polymers Rubbers Plastics Thermoplastic Synthetic ElastomersSBS, SBR etc.PolymersRubbersPlasticsCrumb RubberNatural Rubber(Latex)PlainChemicallyTreatedThermoplasticEVA
39 CURRENT MARKET FEATURES DOMINATION BY CRMBVALUE FOR MONEY BINDERTEST TRACKS / RESEARCH WORK SHOW EXCELLENT RESULTSHIGH COST OF PMB A DAMPENERINSISTENCE BY CLIENTS ON REFINERY MODIFIED BINDERSHIGH GROWTH RATE ASSUREDEMULSION MARKET STAGNATEDTACK COAT ORIENTEDHIGH VOLUME APPLICATIONS YET TO BEGIN
42 What is Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen? Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen is Conventional Bitumen with treated Crumb Rubber Additive at high temperature which results inLower susceptibility to temp. variationHigher resistance to deformation at high temperatureBetter Age Resistance PropertiesHigher Fatigue Life of MixesBetter Adhesion Properties
43 Why Treat Crumb Rubber? Be compatible with Bitumen. Blend with Bitumen properly & thoroughly.Improve temperature resistance of Bitumen.Resist degradation of Bituminous mix.Be capable of being processed by conventional mixing plants and laying machinery.Produce coating viscosity at application temp.Maintain premium properties during storage,application and in service.Be cost-effective considering life cycle cost.
44 Test and Trials with CRMB Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.Highway Research Station, Chennai.Gujarat Engineering Research Institute, Vadodara.Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.Municipal Corporation of Delhi.Research Station, P.W (R&B) Dept., Hyderabad., Andhra Pradesh.
45 Circular Test track study conducted by Highway Research Station, Chennai
46 Tests conducted in Circular Test Track Study Surface EvaluationSkid resistanceTexture depthDepletion values
47 STUDY RESULTCRMB mixes indicate better resistance to deformation at high temperature times higher values of stability, Marshall quotient and stiffness modulus.Higher indirect tensile strength and stiffness modulus - better resistance to cracking in structural layers.Modified mixes in structural layers take higher traffic stresses due to higher values of stiffness modulus.Tensile strength ratio before and after conditioning in water is higher - superior resistance to moisture damage.
48 CIRCULAR TEST TRACK STUDY CONCLUSION The Highways Research Station has opined that the performance of modified bitumen stretch improves by 1.7 times than the conventional bitumen stretch.
49 Guidelines on use of Modified Bitumen MORTH letter No. RW/NH-34041/36/90-S&R(Vol. II) dated April 21, 1999 advised all States/UTs to use Modified Bitumen upto 10% for all works “as it has been proved by field trials that the life of the road increases by 1.5 times”.IRC released new Specifications vide publication No. IRC-SP:53:2002 FOR USE OF MODIFIED BITUMEN in road development activities in India.MORTH vide letter No. RW/NH-34041/36/90-S&R(Vol. II) dated 17, January 2000 requested all States to start using MODIFIED BITUMEN.MORTH letter No. RW/NH-34041/36/90-S&R(Vol. II) dated April 14, 2000 requested MOP&NG to start Modified Bitumen production at Refinery level.
50 Guidelines on use of Modified Bitumen MORTH vide their letter No. RW/NH-35072/1/2001-S&R( R ) dated June 21, 2001 has requested all States to encourage use of Modified Bitumen in view of its various advantages and improved performance over conventional Bitumen.MORTH vide their letter No. RW/NH-33041/3/2001-S&R dated June 13, 2002 has stated that “It has been decided that keeping in view its advantages, polymer/rubber modified bitumen may be adopted in surfacing for the whole length, subject to availability”.
63 Recommended Handling Temperatures Stage of WorkViscosity, PoiseTemp. Range, OCBinder at Mixing< 2Mix at Mixing Plant< 4Mix at Laying Site< 5Rolling at Site10 – 1,000
64 HANDLING OF CRMB CRMB should ideally be used in hot condition. When supplied in drums, it shall be agitated properly in melted condition for minutes before use.Mixing & rolling temperature should be approx. 10OC higher than conventional temperature.Pneumatic tyre rollers should be avoided.
65 Field Trials Carried on CRMB NH-1 NEAR AMBALASECUDERBAD-KUKATPALLI ROADBLR-KANAKAPURA HIGHWAYNH-4,CHENNAI-BANGALORE ROADNH-5,CHENNAI-CALCUTTANH-8 at RAJIV CHOWK,NEAR GURGAONNH0-1 A at UDHAMPUR, JAMMUNH-25,LUCKNOW-JHANSIINNER RING ROAD, HYDINSIDE HRS CAMPUS,CHENNAI
66 Satisfied Clientele P W D - Maharashtra P W D - Madhya Pradesh Major Private Contractors in MaharashtraKetan Constructions – Ahmedabad Vadodara ExpresswayContractors in Orissa, A.P. & Gujarat.
68 EMULSIONS IN DAILY LIFE MILKMEDICINESPAINTSICE CREAM
69 BITUMEN EMULSIONS ??BITUMEN EMULSION = BITUMEN+ EMULSIFIER/ADDITIVES + WATERWATER = CONTINUOUS PHASEBITUMEN = DISEPERSED PHASEFREE FLOWING DARK BROWN LIQUID
70 EMULSIFICATIONBITUMEN MILLED INTO FINE PARTICLES & HELD IN MOLECULAR SPACES OF WATERUSE OF CORRECT EMULSIFIER / CHEMICALS FACILITATE PROPER EMULSIFICATION
71 COLAS S.A. OF FRANCE LARGEST CONSTRUCTION COMPANY IN THE WORLD EXPERTS IN ROAD CONSTRUCTIONMANPOWER 40,000TURNOVER> 40, 000 CRORES
72 HINDUSTAN COLAS LIMITED INCORPORATED IN JULY 1995 AS A JOINT VENTURE COMPANY.HINCOL EMULSIONS VERY WELL RECEIVED ALL OVER INDIA:FIRST PLANT AT MUMBAI IN 1996.SECOND PLANT AT DELHI IN 1998.THIRD PLANT AT CHENNAI IN 1999.FOURTH PLANT BEING COMMISSIONED IN VIZAG.
73 PROJECTED DEMAND IN ‘000 MT BITUMEN EMULSIONYEAR DEMAND DEMAND %INTERNATIONAL NORM - 15% AVERAGE
74 WHY LOW CONSUMPTION IN INDIA ??? QUALITYAWARENESSINCLUSION OF SPECS IN DSRGEOGRAPHICAL CONSTRAINTSMYTH OF EXPENSIVENESSNO MAJOR MANUFACTURER
75 TYPICAL USES OF EMULSIONS IN FRANCE TACK COAT 12 %SURFACE DRESSING 40 %PATCH WORK 15 %GROUTING 13 %OTHER %
76 WHY USE EMULSIONS ?? ECONOMY ALL WEATHER APPLICATION (IDEAL FOR MONSOON APPLN.)WORKER FRIENDLYENVIRONMENT FRIENDLYEFFICIENCY
77 TYPES OF EMULSIONSRAPID SETTINGMEDIUM SETTINGSLOW SETTING
78 APPLICATIONS POT HOLE REPAIRS TACK COAT PRIME COAT SURFACE DRESSING PREMIX / LIQUID SEAL COAT20 MM PREMIX CARPETFOG SPRAY/FOG SEAL/SLURY SEAL
81 FUTURE ENERGY SCENARIO Gas to replace the demand for oil and is expected to constitute 20% of the energy supply by 2025
82 INITIATIVES BY GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT’S VISION : TO CREATE ROAD NETWORK WHICH IS BEST IN THE WORLD.INITIATIVES :LEVY OF Rs. 1 PER LTR. CESS ON DIESEL AND PETROL EFFECTIVE 1999 FOR CENTRAL ROAD FUND ( $1.2 BILLION PER YEAR) PLUS FUNDING BY ADB / WB PLUS PRIVATE SECTORSPECIFIC FUND ALLOCATION FOR NATIONAL HIGHWAYS, STATE HIGHWAYS, RAIL OVER BRIDGES, RURAL ROADS ETC.SPECIAL FINANCIAL INCENTIVES PACKAGE FOR TAXES AND DUTIES APPLICABLE FOR ROAD PROJECTS ANNOUNCEDHIGH TRANSPARENCY AND FAST DECISIONS
84 MAJOR CHANGES INDIAN ROAD SECTOR TILL 15 YEARS AGO - ROADS MADE BY STATE AND CONTRACTORS ONLY PROVIDED LABOUR / MACHINERY ETC.DURING 1990s GOVERNMENT INCLUDED MATERIAL PROCUREMENT IN CONTRACTOR’S SCOPECHANGES FURTHER ACCELERATED BY MASSIVE INVESTMENTS PROPOSED IN ROAD SECTOR – 1998 ONWARDS
85 COTRACTS AWARD METHODOLOGY MAJOR OVERHAUL CHANGE FROM GOVT. SUPERVISED WORKS TO REWARD ORINETED EPC (ENGG, PLNG & CONSTRN) WITH PMCINCENTIVE FOR EARLY COMPLETION - 1% - 6% : DISINCENTIVE FOR DELAYSEPARATE O&M CONTRACTS FOR MAINTENANCEANNUITY BASED PROJECTS INCLUDING MAINTENANCE EXPERIMENTED
86 NORMAL BITUMEN DEMAND ? INDIA’S ANNUAL BITUMEN DEMAND : 2800 TMT PERIODICAL RENEWALS / M&R NORMALLY NOT PER SCHEDULEADDITIONAL REQMT FOR NEW PROJECTS
87 Grades/Types of Bitumen PAVING BITUMEN : 80/100, 60/70, 30/40Used in Road Construction worldwide.Conforms to IS:73 of 1992.Industrial BitumenConforms to IS:702 of 1988.Harder grades.Used in water proofing, cable insulation, gunny bags, rubber industries, etc.Not marketed by Oil Companies.
88 CLASSIFICATION OF BITUMEN EMULSION ANIONIC - BITUMEN PARTICLE HAS NEGATIVE CHARGECATIONIC - BITUMEN PARTICLE HAS POSITIVE CHARGECATIONIC EMULSION HAS REPLACED ANIONIC EMULSION WORLDWIDE IN ROAD APPLNS.
100 ‘SS’ - SLOW SETTING APPLICATIONS PRIME COATSLURRY SEALPREMIX SEAL COATFOG SPRAY/FOG SEAL
101 PRIME COATOBJECTIVES PLUG CAPILLARY HOLES HARDENS / TOUGHENS BASE COURSE BONDS LOOSE PARTICLES ASSISTS ADHESION WITH NEXT LAYERQUANTITIES RECOMMENDED LOW POROSITY: SS TYPE KG / 10SQMT MED. POROSITY : MS TYPE KG / 10 SQMT HIGH POROSITY: MS TYPE KG / 10SQMT
102 SURFACE DRESSINGA THIN LAYER OF WEARING COURSE MADE OF SUPERIMPOSED LAYERS OF EMULSION AND METALFUNCTIONS:1. PROVIDING WEARING SURFACE REHABILITATES WORN SURFACES 3. SHOULDERS ON A HIGHWAY LOW VOLUME / LOAD OR REMOTE AREA ROADS
103 20 MM PREMIX CARPET WEARING COURSE FOR LOW VOLUME ROADS ECONOMICAL FASTER EXECUTIONEMULSIONS OBVIOUS CHOICE PREPARING PRE-MIX ON THE SITE.
104 SEAL COAT PROVIDES A SEAL TO STOP WATER ENTRY INTO ROAD LIQUID SEAL COAT RS TYPE KG / 10 SQMT ONLY EMULSIONS RECOMMENDEDPREMIX SEAL COAT SS TYPE KG / 10 SQMT
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