Presentation on theme: "Gender and Climate Change – An Introduction Leisa Perch Coordinator, Rural and Sustainable Development IPC-IG/UNDP organized for UNIFEM Brazil and Southern."— Presentation transcript:
Gender and Climate Change – An Introduction Leisa Perch Coordinator, Rural and Sustainable Development IPC-IG/UNDP organized for UNIFEM Brazil and Southern Cone
Scope of Presentation Some of the basics on climate change Language of climate change: Vulnerability, Risk Management/Risk Reduction Implications of CC for development Where does gender fit in? Does it? (gender analysis) Looking at gender through the lens of sectors (gender mainstreaming) Lessons so far (processing/communication)
Overview Statement Gender inequalities intersect with climate risks and vulnerabilities. Women’s historic disadvantages – their limited access to resources, restricted rights, and a muted voice in shaping decisions – make them highly vulnerable to climate change. The nature of that vulnerability varies widely, cautioning against generalization. But climate change is likely to magnify existing patterns of gender disadvantage (UNDP Human Development Report, 2007).
Part I: Some of the basics: ideas, concepts and issues
What do you understand about climate change? Quick round from participants………
Climate Change is Real Taken from Climate Change and Sustaining Caribbean Tourism by Mareba Scott, CC and Tourism, BVI, 2007
Best and Worst Case Scenarios for CC Best case: a warming between 1.9–5.2 degrees Fahrenheit and seas rising between 7-14 inches within approximately 100 years Worst case: a warming of 4.3–11.5 degrees Fahrenheit and increased sea levels of inches
GHGs – what is the problem? Contribution to GHGs: water vapor, which contributes 36–72% carbon dioxide, which contributes 9–26% methane, which contributes 4–9% ozone, which contributes 3–7% The seven sources of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion are (with percentage contributions for 2000–2004): Solid fuels (e.g., coal): 35%coal Liquid fuels (e.g., gasoline, fuel oil): 36%gasolinefuel oil Gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas): 20%natural gas Flaring gas industrially and at wells: <1% Flaring Cement production: 3% Cement Non-fuel hydrocarbons: < 1% The "international bunkers" of shipping and air transport not included in national inventories: 4%bunkers Source: Wikipedia, 2010
GHGs – what’s the problem 2 Activities which emit GHGs:GHGs Energy production Industrial activity Transportation – cars, airplanes Deforestation – releases carbon into the atmosphere Agriculture – animal waste significant source of methane At issue here is not just the emissions themselves but the lifetime of these gases in the atmosphere - 1, 12 years, 100 years (nitrous oxide), 500 and some even 3,000 and 10,000 (Hexafluoroethane and their global warming potential over tens of thousands for yearsHexafluoroethane
Disaster and Climate Change While clearly natural disasters are a factor of CC, the issue really is their increased intensity and frequency As we think about climate change, we must consider: consider scenarios beyond our lifetime Exponential impacts (not singular events but a chain of events and also multiple, long term impacts) Short-term (immediate crisis) and long-term (substantial change in what we do and how we do it) Uncertainty (we don’t know exactly what is going to happen, when or to whom) – while SIDS do face significant vulnerabilities, look at the US – since 2008 they have been facing disaster of one type or another – multiple hurricane impacts, seasonal and unseasonal floods, extremely cold winters etc.
Language of Climate change There are a number of concepts: Risk Vulnerability Social impacts Resilience Adaptation Mitigation
Vulnerability to CC `a la IPCC ExposureSensitivity Potential Impacts Adaptive Capacity Vulnerability to Climate Change Economic wealth Technology, infrastructure Information, knowledge, skills Institutions Equity Social capital etc Conceptualisation of vulnerability to climate change from the IPCC Third Assessment Report (2001) Re-drawn from: Ionescu, C. et al. (2005): “Towards a formal framework of vulnerability to climate change”, NeWater Working Paper 2, Osnabrueck: NeWater
Vulnerability is a multi-dimensional concept which encompasses biological, geophysical, economic, institutional and socio-cultural factors (Nicholls, 1998) and of resilience or sustainability
Vulnerability defined Embraces a number of concepts (Kambon 2005): Exposure to damage; Lack of protection and precariousness; The risk of being harmed or wounded by unforeseen events; and Concept of susceptibility
Figure 1. Construct of Social Vulnerability developed by Asha Kambon, 2005
Risk and Risk Perception Risk is the likelihood of something happening. implying…… awareness, information and belief
Risk and Vulnerability Risk – Situational (Disasters) Risk Vulnerability – Systemic/Structural (Climate Change) Who is at Risk and Who is Vulnerable?
How to apply vulnerability depends on your vision of the interactions POOR PEOPLE’S ASSET MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Human, Financial, Social, Natural and Physical assets POLICIES, INSTITUTIONS AND PROCESSES Empowerment Accountability Democracy Participation Social Movements Community Organisations Opportunity Jobs Services Markets VULNERABILITY CONTEXT Trends Shocks Seasonality Re-drawn from: Environmental Resource Management (2002), “Predicted Impact of Global Climate Change on Poverty and the Sustainable Achievement of the MDGs: Vol. 2”, DFID review, p.10. The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) LIVELIHOOD OUTCOMES Income Well-being Health Security Taken from Perch, L., Murray R., Tincani, L.,(2007). Climate Change and Human Development: A policy Review for the Caribbean. Presented at Caribbean Conference on Climate Change. Jamaica. June.
Part II: Implications for Development Applying what we know
Implications for development feature=related feature=related Between 1990 and 1998, 94 per cent of the world’s 568 major natural disasters, and more than 97 per cent of all natural disaster-related deaths, were in developing countries.
Implications for development: social justice Oxfam notes the justice issue in the context of CC on their website: drivers are inextricably linked with (high- consumption) lifestyles, climate change lies firmly outside the sphere of influence of poor communities and poor countries (limited power to affect how it will be addressed) special burdens and/or vulnerabilities such as women, ethnic minorities, indigenous peoples, and people living with HIV/AIDS Additionality of yet another pressure through global warming
Some implications for Brazil Indications are: the Amazon rain forest could become dryer, with a possibility of spontaneous fire, that coral reefs along Brazilian coastlines could suffer from bleaching (with likely impacts for tourism in the long-run) Changing rainfall patterns, especially in the drought-affected north-eastern region of the country, will mean impact on already limited water and reduce supply even further Agriculture is likely to suffer, not least due to water shortages and leading to greater food insecurity and malnutrition, Implications Floods will damage/destabilize public and private infrastructure, cause significant (Rio and Sao Paolo early 2010), movement of goods to the coast for export and also the movement from the coast Less water will impact on renewable energy efforts particularly hydropower Sourced from Brazil & climate change: a country profile by Emilio Lèbre La Rovere and André Santos Pereira (14 February 2007), SciDevNet – accessed online June 24th, 2010
Implications for Response Responding to humanitarian crises Adaptation – building resilience in communities and identifying options for sectors such as agriculture, water, sanitation Mitigation: reducing GHGs from unplanned, crisis and emergency driven responses particularly by the poor
Social Vulnerability: the additionality of climate change Health Access to water (b y 2020, between 75 and 250 million of people are projected to be exposed to increased water stress due to climate change – IPCC FAR, 2007) Increased incidence of vector-borne diseases; malaria could emerge in places it has never been Income generation Floods or droughts are both bad for small farmers and their investments Access to food and nutritious food ((By 2020, in some countries, yields from rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50%, IPCC FAR/Heinrich Boll Foundation SAR) Disasters Death Destruction of property and livelihoods Resettlement Poverty: ed ed
Part III : How does gender fit?
Gender – More than about women “Development cannot be achieved if half of the world’s population is left out” – Helen Clark Beyond sex and biology Social and cultural constructs Definitions of masculine and feminine and how these define power and access Includes focus on women’s empowerment (based on clear data on women’s disadvantage) Engagement with men and male leaders on solutions Understanding and working to adjust notions of masculinity which encourage violence and unequal advantage
Gender dimensions of development According to the best available data approximately 30% of those who live on less than a dollar each day are men. Women work two-thirds of the world’s working hours yet receive only 10% of the world’s income. Men own 99% of the world’s property. Women members of parliament globally average only 17% of all seats. 92% of all of the world’s cabinet ministers are men. Seventy-five percent of the world’s 876 million illiterate adults are women. Worldwide women received 78% of the wages received by men for the same work, although in some regions, they have a better educational background. In some parts of the world, the wage gap between women and men is close to 40%. Of the 550 million low-paid workers in the world, 40% are men. In a sample of 141 countries over the period 1981–2002, it was found that natural disasters (and their subsequent impact) on average kill more women than men or kill women at an earlier age than men. Sources: Social Watch, 2007 and 2008; Oxfam, 2007; Neumayer and Plümper, 2007; and ILO, 2008.
Lessons on Gender and Environment from Disasters IssuesFemaleMale Pre Disaster Differing Vulnerabilities - biological - social - cultural - attitudinal (risk perception) Reproductive health needs Restricted skill base Exclusion from home construction Low level of risk tolerance No special restrictions Mobile skills Exclusion from child care responsibilities High level of risk tolerance Emergency Differing coping mechanisms Suffer higher incidence of depression (crying and suicide ideation); Organizing community sing-a-longs and story telling; Alcoholism, gambling and dysfunctional behaviour; Rescuing villagers and clearing roads; Transition (rehabilitation and Recovery) Weak access to wage earning possibilities; Women prepared one-pot meals for the community; Devoted more time to community and reproductive work. Easier access to wages/income; Men engaged in ‘marooning” teams for house rebuilding; Spend more time in productive work; abandonment of families and responsibilities. Reconstruction Differing priorities Differing access to resources; Differing access to power in the public sphere Priorities for shelter, economic activity, food security, and health care; Women slower to return to Labour Market; Reconstruction programmes that embark on development without the inclusion of gender analysis tools; Women’s lack of involvement in governance mechanisms. Priorities for, agriculture, Infrastructural development and economic activity; Men easy access to the Labour Market; Reconstruction programmes in construction and agricultural development that favour male participation; Gender neutral governance mechanisms that don’t recognize changing gender roles and relationships, and favour male participation.
Gender in Climate Change There are important gender perspectives in all aspects of climate change: 60 % of the world's poorest and most vulnerable people are women who are dependent on their natural environment to earn a living and feed their families. Gender inequalities in access to resources, including credit, extension services, information and technology, must be taken into account in developing mitigation activities. Adaptation efforts should systematically and effectively address gender-specific impacts of climate change in the areas of energy, water, food security, agriculture and fisheries, biodiversity and ecosystem services, health, industry, human settlements, disaster management, and conflict and security. Referenced from the Report of the Secretary-General on overview of UN activities in relation to climate change A/62/644.
Gender and Climate Change (2) Who participates and the influence of their understanding on the issues Who participates determines the what and how of climate change response Has implications for approaches and responses for: Mitigation (majority of climate finance focused here) Adaptation (has most implications for addressing vulnerabilities and inequalities; receives much less funding) Technology (funding committed and research ongoing; most targeted towards mitigation) Finance (billions committed – mostly for mitigation; ¼ of the 5 th replenishment of GEF is targeting climate change) *e.g. EU Fast Tracking funding for (63% mitigation; 37% adaptation) /martina.html
The looking glass of key sectors Tourism – key component of the economy Agriculture – food security, safety net, nutrition Health – health is wealth Water – Water is life
Impacts on Tourism Direct Climate Impacts e.g. length and quality of tourist season, weather extremes, food and water supply and the overall impact of these on tourism demand Indirect Environment Change Impacts e.g. competition for water – domestic/tourism; bio-diversity loss [tourism products], altered agricultural production [land use/visual landscape], hotel plant at risk from coastal erosion and inundation; health risks Impacts of Mitigation Policies on Tourist Mobility: efforts to reduce GHG emission can impact on costs of travel and transport. Also on social responsibility – carbon offsetting. Indirect Societal Change Impacts: cost of mitigation could impact on macro investment in the economy including in tourism/infrastructure/marketing Who works in the tourism plant? And where? Which jobs are seasonal and more vulnerable? Whose livelihood is tied to the beach and provision of services?
Climate Change and Health Increase prevalence of disease vectors Result in heat stress or water deficiency or expose persons to even more unclean water Too little or too much water will impact on food production and food safety Impacts on food production and food security, will have impacts on nutrition – consequences for mothers, children, the elderly, youth in terms of physical resilience and ability to fight off disease. Also for children’s development In global context, more disease outbreaks likely to be epidemics and pandemics (particularly mobility of disease through travel) Who is more vulnerable to illness? Who cannot afford to be sick? Who takes care of the sick? Who leads on food safety in the household? Implications for pregnant and nursing mothers.
Climate Change and Water Availability – Droughts/Floods Food, Disease, Cost/Access Life Forced migration Social inequality Conflict and social unrest Sanitation Personal hygiene Who distributes water in the household? Who uses water most? Who is exposed to risk in water collection? Who bears the burden of care-giving? Who needs it and for what? Heavy rain: the Brazilian town of Jacuipe is swamped by floodwaters from the Jacuipe River. (AFP: Thiago Sampaio)
Climate Change and Mobility Impact of the Iceland volcano in April 2010 on travel and business in Europe (Airline industry estimated losses of USD200MN a day; Kenyan growers already lost $12 million in 4-5 days, about 3.8 million per day (April 19, 2010*). Significant losses for economies trading in perishable foods (Africa, C’bean) and likely access to some foods for others Impact of swine flu, H1N1 and bird flu on tourism, travel, business and by extension the movement of goods and people Implications for the flow and delivery of aid – economic and food aid Opportunities for innovation *Sourced from America.gov (Stephen Kaufman) –April 20, Accessed online June 27 th, 2010 and BBC news online April 21 st, 2010)
However, The integration of gender is weak in the following areas: Mitigation – which actions are critical and will not deprive the poor of livelihoods without alternatives Technology - renewable energy technologies Finance (the Copenhagen agreement includes a commitment of 30 billion over 3 years between Estimates by the UNFCCC suggest that 100 BN a year will not be enough) * Forestry (much of the movement in funding has been in reducing deforestation and degradation under the REDD framework). Billions have been committed. Agriculture – Land use is a key contribution to climate change and this sector is a key one. Agriculture is only now seriously being discussed within the GCC process.
Gender in the GCC Policy to-date In November 2007, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Women’s Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) participated in a meeting in Tepoztlán, Mexico to explore a joint collaboration on the topic of gender and climate change. This resulted in the establishment of the Global Gender and Climate Alliance (GGCA) which was formally launched on December 11, 2007 in Bali, Indonesia at the UN climate change conference. To date, more than 25 UN agencies and international civil society organizations have joined the Alliance. UNIFEM is part of GGCA.
Gender in the GCC Policy (2) The primary goal of the GGCA is to ensure that climate change policies, decision making, and initiatives at the global, regional and national levels are gender-responsive. The last full version (May/June 2010) of a negotiating text retained 8 gender references across 5 sections; now, the sections are emerging more streamlined. There is some danger of a losing interest in gender as larger (and more urgent) “numbers” discussions continue Advocacy and good advocates is a constant need 2009’s Copenhagen Conference proved to be a significant step forward with gender being integrated into the negotiating text text has advanced a bit more.
There are significant opportunities For the 70% of those who live on less than a dollar each day (women) – mitigation efforts should ideally provide them with new income-generating opportunities. For the women who work two-thirds of the world’s working hours yet receive only 10% of the world’s income – adaptation should ensure that this 10% is not further reduced. For the 1% of global women who have property climate change could damage or destroy these assets or adaptation and technology could help to protection those assets. For the 75% of the world’s 876 million illiterate adults are women and the 25% who are men, mitigation and adaptation efforts supported by education, could give them many opportunities and facilitate their contribution =player_embedded#
Part IV: Lessons so far
Why Gender and CC Improves analysis of the social and other impacts of climate change Expands our understanding of the behaviour change needed to expand renewable energy, reduce dependency on fossil fuels Will improve adaptation and mitigation – success depends on each of us individually Can help make strategic decisions for the investment of scarce resources Likely to improve human impact of climate change policy Likely to result in greater ownership by entire society of policy reform including hard choices Can reduce/eliminate ‘ additional harm’ of supposed gender-neutral policy
The need to mainstream and not just add….. mainstream gender perspectives into national policies, action plans and other measures on sustainable development and climate change, carrying out systematic gender analysis, collecting and utilizing sex-disaggregated data, establishing gender-sensitive indicators and benchmarks, developing practical tools to support increased attention to gender perspectives, More research on the social dimensions not only of climate change but about climate change responses i.e. human behaviour and social change, and Consultation with and participation of women in climate change initiatives and ensuring a role for women’s groups and networks. Involving the Gender Bureaux and Ministry of Social Development. [Policy Reform]
The Role of Communication (Framing messages within risk and uncertainty) Literacy is key – not just technical understanding but awareness and willingness to act in concert with others A study of environmental change in the US (http://www.globalchangeblo g.com/2009/11/why-dont- people-seem-to-get-climate- change-problem-1- environmental-literacy/) makes this assessment on action for climate change:http://www.globalchangeblo g.com/2009/11/why-dont- people-seem-to-get-climate- change-problem-1- environmental-literacy/ awareness –> knowledge –> literacy ( National Environmental Education and Training Foundation Report on Environmental Literacy in the US, 2005 )
Addressing Uncertainty A lot is still uncertain in terms of the exact nature of the impacts and their scope As we estimate, we are also learning about natural processes and human interactions Difficult to address climate change without focusing on human behaviour Addressing climate change requires tackling justice, equality, poverty, access issues Risk-sharing at the community and country level and between countries is also worthy of consideration
Moving forward - Joint Action
Further Reading – a small sample Climate Change and Gender Position Papers: Equity and Gender in Climate Change, Edited by Khamarunga Banda, Executive Director, NOVAFRICA t.pdf t.pdf UNEP, Progress report on the implementation of Governing Council decision 23/11 on gender equality in the field of the environment. Twenty-fourth session of the Governing Council/ Global Ministerial Environment Forum, Nairobi, 5–9 February UNDP – Adaptation work: adaptation.org/projects/websites/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2 03 ; (Samoa); adaptation.org/projects/websites/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2 03 (Bolivia)Oxfam: adaptation.org/projects/websites/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2 03 Government of Brazil, Interministerial Committee on Climate Change, Decree No of November 21, 2007, Executive Summary, National Plan on Climate Change, Brasilia, December Why people don’t seem to get the climate change problem – communication – an online discussion: engage-climate-change-problem-2-communication/http://www.globalchangeblog.com/2009/11/why-dont-people- engage-climate-change-problem-2-communication/ Communicating Climate Change: Why Frames Matter for Public Engagement by Matthew C. Nisbet in Environment –Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, March –April 2009: April%202009/Nisbet-full.html April%202009/Nisbet-full.html Adaptation Basics:
Contact information Leisa Perch Policy Specialist/Coordinator –Rural and Sustainable Development IPC-IG/UNDP Ministerio do Exercito, Esplanada dos Ministerios, Bloco O, 7 Andar, Brasilia DF Tel: