Presentation on theme: "Electric Vehicles Personal Transportation of the Future Future Public Transportation: hybrid bio-fueled buses & planes & electric trains L. David Roper."— Presentation transcript:
Electric Vehicles Personal Transportation of the Future Future Public Transportation: hybrid bio-fueled buses & planes & electric trains L. David Roper email@example.com http://arts.bev.net/RoperLDavid/ My second electric car 2012: http://www.roperld.com/science/LEAFRoper.pdfhttp://www.roperld.com/science/LEAFRoper.pdf My first electric car: Sun Roper (2007-10) My Prius Plug-In 2005/2008-2012 2013: Converted 2006 Toyota Highlander Hybrid to plug-in. When an affordable 500-miles battery is ready, say goodbye to the gasoline car.
Why Drive an Electric Car? High energy efficiency: ~90% (electric motor) vs ~25% (gasoline engine) and ~40% (diesel engine) No vehicle emissions, greatly reduced noise & heat Less total emissions versus gasoline car even for 100% coal electricity Most emissions are eliminated with solar/wind electricity or moved to a central source with fossil fuels where large-scale control is possible. Ultimate fuel source is solar, wind or any renewable electricity source. Low “fuel” cost (~25% of equivalent gasoline car) Low maintenance cost (<25% of gasoline car) High performance: high torque at low speed!
Torque Comparison electric gasoline High torque at low speed yields exhilarating acceleration!!
U.S.-Crude-Oil Extraction Area under curve is the total amount to be extracted eventually. Shale Oil Will peak in about a decade and then fall rapidly!
World Crude-Oil Extraction Area under curve is the total amount to be extracted eventually. Adding extraction from tar sands and shale oil will not change the curve by much.
Natural Gas for Vehicles? Only for ~15 years! Natural gas extraction by fracking will peak within a decade and then fall off very fast! Recent studies of reserves indicate that this curve may be optimistic. fracking
Energy Cost of Operation Comparison Electric-car operating cost is <25% of gasoline- car operating cost (fuel plus maintenance).
Solar Electric and EVs Factor of ~10 However, car batteries lose energy capacity with time; so, there is a battery replacement cost. A rough calculation indicates that the break- even battery replacement cost is ~$5000.
Electricity Production in U.S.
Exponential rise in electricity production from renewables However, the U.S. is far behind many other countries
Laundromats & Gas Stations Laundromats were mostly replaced by home washers/dryers. Gas stations will be mostly replaced by home charging stations and fast public charging stations. Roper LEAF being charged ~98% of time in Roper garage.
Safety of Electric Cars Nissan LEAF, Chevrolet Volt and Tesla S have top safety ratings.top safety ratings Battery was left intact in a burned out Nissan LEAF.burned out Nissan LEAF Two Tesla-S sedans have been burned somewhat by a fire in the battery due to massive metal in road puncturing the battery case. ~250,000 gasoline car fires/year in U.S. with ~400 deaths & ~1200 injuries. Full gasoline tank has ~10 time the combustible energy that a Tesla battery has. Batteries are in modules separated by firewalls. Battery is automatically disconnected in a collision. Manual battery disconnect is easily done. EMS manuals and training are available.
Global Warming A century of global warming A century of global warming movie Burning fossil fuels is a major cause of global warming!
USA Car Commuting Distance An electric car with a 125-miles range would work for most commuters, and for a few more who can charge it at work for a few hours. 95% 98%
Electric-Cars Terminology Gas-Electric Hybrid : Not a plug-in (E.g., Prius ) Plug-In Hybrid : motive energy partly from grid (E.g., Ford C-MAX Energi with 7.6 kWh battery) Extended-Range Plug-in Hybrid : large battery (E.g., Chevrolet Volt with 16.5/10.5 kWh battery) BEV : Battery Electric gets all energy from grid (E.g., Nissan LEAF with 24/21 kWh battery & Tesla S with 60-85 kWh battery) Plug-In : Plug-in hybrid or BEV Three charging levels (120V AC, 240V AC, 480V DC; Tesla Supercharger) Battery Exchange : few-minutes exchange V2G : Vehicle to Grid V2H : Vehicle to Home for power outage backup
Electric Cars Available 2013 Nissan LEAF (24 kWh) Ford Focus EV (23 kWh) Mitsubishi i-MiEV (16 kWh) Honda Fit EV (20 kWh) BMW i3 (22 kWh) Toyota RAV4 EV (41.8 kWh) ( 2WD only ) Chevrolet Spark EV (20 kWh) Tesla S (sedan) (60 kWh, 85 kWh) Tesla Roadster (53 kWh)(no longer made) Smart Electric (17.6 kWh) Most other brands in 2014-2015 Not all are available in every state.
Hybrid Plug-in Cars Available 2013 Chevrolet Volt (16.5/10.5 kWh) Prius Plug-In (4.4 kWh) Ford C-MAX Energi (7.6 kWh) Honda Accord Plug-In (6.7 kWh) Honda Accord Plug-In Mitsubishi Outlander AWD Plug-In (12 kWh) Mitsubishi Outlander AWD Plug-In Hybrid Plug-in Conversions A123/Hymotion for Prius (5.4 kWh) Enginer for Prius (2/4/8 kWh) Enginer Plug-In Supply for Prius (4/10 kWh), Ford Escape (6/15 kWh) & Toyota Highlander/Camry (5/10 kWh) Plug-In Supply
U.S. Tax Credits for Plug-Ins <5-kWh : $2,500. 5-kWh : $2500 + $417 = $2917 >5-kWh : Add $417/kWh Maximum : $7500 ( 16 kWh or larger)
Plug-In Car Sales Compared to Prius Entry into U.S.
Sales Techniques for Electric Cars Put butts in cars. Drive one for 100 miles. Race a 370Z at a red light! Calculate the cost per mile. Examine the very low maintenance cost
Parts Missing! Engine parts, mufflers, catalytic converters, oil & filter, gas tank, etc. Not shown here are the missing numerous transmission parts.
Electric-Car Components Large DC battery (LEAF: 24 kWh; i-MiEV: 16 kWh) Powerful AC electric motor (LEAF: 80 kW=107 hp) Regeneration of gravitational and kinetic energy Chargers ( 120V AC, 240V AC, 480V DC ) (LEAF: 6.6 kW) DC to/from AC inverter (battery to/from motor/generator) Auxiliary 12V battery & DC to DC converter Cooling systems for motor, inverter and battery Possibly heating system for battery Electric steering, brakes and climate control In-cab driver information about battery level, energy used and location of charging stations
Electric-Car Components (i-MiEV)
Nissan LEAF 24-kWh Battery Pack 48 replacable modules with 4 Lithium-ion cells each = 192 cell Under back seat Under front seat
Battery Capacity Loss with Time Lithium batteries lose ~20% of energy capacity in 5 years for typical driver. Lithium batteries lose ~30% of energy capacity in 10 years for typical driver. Drivers need to expect less range in later years; so buy larger than needed. At ~30% loss probably battery exchange with old battery used for renewable- energy storage. At ~50% loss probably recycled.
Battery Calendar Life for 70% Capacity vs Temperature
Capacity vs Depth of Discharge & Charging Cycles Longer life by keeping SOC 20%-80%.
Why To Usually Charge to 80% Charging is by constant current until the maximum voltage is reached; then constant voltage until current drops ~90%. As a battery is charged up, its internal resistance increases. The higher resistance generates more heat, raising the temperature of the battery. High temperatures cause higher capacity loss. Ions get trapped in the electrodes.
LEAF Capacity Left vs Miles Probably want to exchange battery before 30,000 miles.
LEAF Capacity Left vs Years & Place
LEAF Average Capacity Left vs Years Probably want to exchange battery before 10 years.
Battery Exchange Nissan is working on a battery- exchange program. Tesla is working on a battery- exchange program. Batteries might be exchanged temporarily or permanently. Batteries of reduced capacity can be used for renewable-energy storage.
Charging an Electric Car Level-1 : 120-Volts AC ~12-Amperes (1.15 kW) 20-kWh battery fills in ~18 hours Level-2_15A : 240-Volts AC ~15-Amperes (3.3 kW) 20-kWh battery fills in ~7 hours Level-2_30A : 240-Volts AC ~30-Amperes (6.6 kW) 20-kWh battery fills in ~3.5 hours Level-3 : 480-Volts DC ~125-Amperes (~60 kW) 20-kWh battery fills in ~0.5 hours Faster for Tesla cars via Superchargers
Tesla Fast Charging Stations
Tesla Planned Superchargers None are on I-81 in Virginia!
Charging Stations (EVSE) GE dual station at Kroger Fuel Center on University City Boulevard Blacksburg VA Schneider station in Roper garage: ~$1100 installed Eaton station at Virginia Museum of Transportation in Roanoke
Portable Charging Station Comes with car For 120-volts “trickle charging” Can be converted to 240-volts charging for $332 + ~$150 installation of 240-volts outlet.
State Programs to Install Charging Stations Tennessee : 11,200 level-2 & 260 level-3 California : 10,000 level-2 & 200 level-3 Illinois : Largest level-3 charging network Oregon & Washington : Level-3 stations along I-5, eventually with California from Canada to Mexico North Carolina, South Carolina, Indiana, Ohio & Florida installing many stations NE Electric Vehicle Network : Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont & D.C. installing many stations What is wrong with Virginia?!!!!
Virginia Charging Stations http://www.plugshare.com http://www.plugshare.com Most level-2 stations in non-urban Virginia are Nissan dealers.
Level-1 Charging Stations in SW VA 6 in Kent Square Garage in Blacksburg 1 at YMCA in Blacksburg 1 at Town Hall in Blacksburg 1 at Blacksburg Motor Company in Blacksburg Several needed at long-term parking lot at Roanoke Airport Several needed at Roanoke Civic Center Several needed at Jefferson Center in Roanoke Several needed at Salem Civic Center
Level-2 Charging Stations in SW VA 2 at Kroger Fuel Center in Blacksburg, free 1 at Shell Fuel Center in Blacksburg, $2 for 2 hours 2 at Campus Auto in Blacksburg, free 2 at The Inn at Virginia Tech, free 1 at Corporate Research Center, free 1 at Warm Hearth, $1/hour 2 at New River Nissan in Christiansburg, free for LEAFs 3 at Volvo Truck plant in Dublin, free 1 at Hotel Floyd in Floyd, get RFID wand from desk clerk. More planned. 1 at Virginia Museum of Transportation in Roanoke, $1/hr 1 at River House in Roanoke, free 2 at First Team Nissan in Roanoke, free for LEAFs Other Nissan dealers in SW Virginia, free for LEAFs A few in personal garages and driveways
Level-2 Charging Stations in SW VA Needed at Roanoke Airport short-term parking lot Needed in Center-in-the-Square garage in Roanoke Needed at Roanoke Civic Center Needed at Hotel Roanoke Needed at Jefferson Center in Roanoke Needed at Salem Civic Center Needed in Pulaski Needed in Pearisburg Needed in Martinsville or Rocky Mount Needed in Marion Needed in Lexington or Buena Vista Needed at 50-miles intervals at I-81 exits/rest-stops
Planning for Green Housing All plans for green houses should including wiring for current or future charging stations. In most cases the EVs will be charged over 95% of the time in the garage. All plans for green apartment houses should include conduit in the parking lots for current or future charging stations. All plans for green commercial buildings should include conduit in the parking lots for current or future charging stations.
Running Out of Charge?! You can use any 120-volts outlet to get enough charge to get to a faster station. Nissan will haul a dead vehicle in free for the first 3 years. All Nissan dealers have two level-2 charging stations; some will have level-3 stations AAA is developing a charging station on trucks. Businesses which have charging stations on a truck may develop.
Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Millions of electric cars connected to the national grid. Charge at early morning low-grid-load times and drive to work. Recharge at morning at work. Discharge into grid at afternoon high-grid- load times, with enough charge left to drive home. (~$3000/year profit)
Electric Cars’ Batteries as Backup Power (V2H) Backup power for the grid at high- load times. Estimates of $3000/year earnings for electric-car owners. Old batteries from electric cars in locations for grid storage. Backup power for homes when the grid is down. Nissan may market this soon. Requires a house circuit with needed devices on it.
Hybrid-Electric Cars as Backup Power (V2H) 3/4-kVa 240/120-V Plug-Out Island Prius kit ($1899/$2899) 2/3-kVa 120-V Plug-Out Island Prius kit ($799/$1499) Soon to be available for other hybrid-electric vehicles.
Game Changers Nissan LEAF Model S (2013) ~$29,500 low price (minus $7500 tax credit : ~$22,000 ) ~$1,100 extra for 6.6-kW charger 15% increase in range (EPA 73 to 84 miles) Installing level-3/480-volts DC charging stations at dealers in U.S., starting on west coast Tesla Model S Sedan 40, 60 or 85 kWh batteries Plans to put fast charging stations within range of Model S upper two versions across U.S. within 2 years. Negative: nearest dealer to Roanoke is in D.C.
Battery/Battery Hybrid Tesla has patented the concept of using a lithium-ion (LI) battery (medium energy density and high power density) with a lithium-air (LA) battery (high energy density and medium power density). The LI battery would be used to provide energy during brief driving periods requiring high power (accelerating and climbing hills) and the LA battery would be used to provide energy during periods requiring low power (cruising). The LA battery also can recharge the LI battery.
My Ideal Cars An AWD electric car with a 200-miles range (Tesla X ?).Tesla X An AWD biodiesel-electric plug-in hybrid with at least a 10-kWh battery (VW CrossBlue ?).VW CrossBlue
Nissan LEAF LEAF = L eading E nvironmentally-friendly A ffordable F amily car LEAF Roper delivered 7 May 2012 Note aerodynamic protruding headlights. Holds the record of the best selling electric car of all time.
LEAF Air Flow Protruding headlights reduce drag and wind noise due to side mirrors.
LEAF Underneath Smooth underbody reduces drag.
LEAF Specifications 24 kWh battery ( 21 kWh useable ) Battery warranty: 100,000 miles/8 years + Capacity warranty: 70% in 5 years or 60,000 miles Battery weight: 648 lbs Motor power: 80 kW=107 hp Weight: 3354 lbs ; cargo: 1400 lbs 6 air bags Heated seats front & back, steering wheel and side mirrors Smart-phone control of heating/cooling and charging
LEAF Battery Location Low center of gravity provides excellent road behavior.
2012 LEAF Range vs Speed
interstate town 2013 range increased by ~15%
LEAF Charging Ports Level-3 on left, levels 1 & 2 on right
LEAF Charging Ports
LEAF Level-1/120V Charging Cord Can be converted to level-2/240-volts. Smaller for 2013
Level-2/240V Charging Stations The one Nissan sells.The one Dave Roper has; sold by Home Depot.
Wireless Induction Charger The one Nissan is developing. Evatran in Wytheville VA is developing one that is in front; sold & installed by Sears.
Battery Charging Status Charging indicators inside windshield. This one shows that the battery is fully charged.
Pushing a button on steering wheel shows driving range and nearby charging stations.
LEAF Driver’s Display 2013 shows SOC
Quick Controls Top button shows driving range on center display. Steering-Wheel Controls 2013 has ECO mode button for less acceleration
Shifting into D twice actuates ECO mode (B mode for 2013) for more regeneration. Shift Knob
Apps for Cell Phones/Internet
2012 EPA Ratings
2013 EPA Ratings The 75-miles range is the average of 80% charged (66 miles) and 100% charged (84 miles).
LEAF Drive Through Water & Snow
Recycling Much of LEAF is made from recycled materials. Designed for high recycling of materials. Battery modules can be individually replaced. Batteries after decline can be used for grid storage. Batteries are recyclable.
Driving a LEAF in the NRV Blacksburg to Floyd & back many times Blacksburg to Roanoke & back, level-2 charging @ various places many times Blacksburg to Pulaski & back several times Christiansburg to Pearisburg & back Blacksburg to Wytheville & back, level-2 charging 4 hours at Blue Ridge Nissan Blacksburg to Grandin Village & back several times, level- 2 charging at daughter’s house Blacksburg to Mt. Lake & Cascades Park and back Blacksburg to Daleville and back, level-1 charging there Blacksburg to VWCC and back, level-1 charging there Blacksburg to Lynchburg and back, charging in Roanoke and Lynchburg Nissan in Forest
Possible LEAF Trips from Blacksburg Harrisonburg and back, charging at Roanoke, Staunton & Harrisonburg Charlottesville and back, charging at Roanoke, Staunton and Charlottesville Hot Springs or Greenbrier WV and back, charging at Covington Bluefield WV and back, charging at Cole Nissan BIG ONE: to LEAF plant at Smyrna TN (409 miles) and back, charging at 7 places along the way.
Why Lease/Buy a Nissan LEAF Reduce carbon emissions per mile traveled Reduce use of fossil fuels per mile traveled Reduce use of energy per mile traveled Reduce traffic noise Improve vehicle performance Increase driving mindfulness Increase public knowledge of electric cars Increase desirability of renewable energy Why lease: EV technology will greatly improve in 3 years.
References The 2011 Electric Car Guide: Discover the truth about owning and using electric cars. Charged Up! The Definitive Guide to Plug- In Electric Vehicles 4 th Edition 2013 http://www.owningelectriccar.com http://www.owningelectriccar.com http://www.roperld.com/science/Electric Vehicles.htm http://www.roperld.com/science/Electric Vehicles.htm http://www.roperld.com/science/NissanL EAF.htm http://www.roperld.com/science/NissanL EAF.htm http://www.roperld.com/science/LEAFRo per2013.htm http://www.roperld.com/science/LEAFRo per2013.htm