Presentation on theme: "Rich Marini Department of Horticulture Penn State University"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rich Marini Department of Horticulture Penn State University Vegetable GardenRich MariniDepartment of HorticulturePenn State University
2 Unit 1: Garden Planning (Let’s Plan) Preparing for a Vegetable GardenMaking the most of the Garden Space
3 Preparing for a Garden Develop plans in February Select a site – avoid shade, poor soil, wet and low areas, and walnut treesList the vegetable species & varieties – consider seasonDecide how much to grow – how will produce be usedMake a planting map
4 Planting Map (24’ x 50’) gr. beans (4/15) gr. beans (5/8) North pumpkinsmelons6’spinach (3/20) lettuce(3/20) radishes (3/20)Onions (4/1)gr. beans (4/15) gr. beans (5/8)carrots (4/15) peppers (5/15)2’2’3’4’corn (4/15) corn (5/1) corn (5/15)3’corn (4/15) corn (5/1) corn (5/15)3’North
5 Planning suggestions Put vine crops on the edge Plant 3 rows of corn for pollinationPut tall plants on north sidePlant small amounts several times to extent the harvest season1,000 sq. ft. takes about 1 hr per week of care
6 Other considerationsRather than rows, can plant broadcast (no rows), but rows are easier to care forConsider equipment size for row spacingDouble crop to use space efficiently – Harvest radishes, peas, lettuce early then plant late-season crops in same space (peppers, beans, summer squash)
7 Develop a Garden Calendar January – look at seed cataloguesFebruary – Order seedsMarch – Plant peppers indoors, test soilApril – plant early season cropsMay – Sept. – grow gardenOct. – clean up garden
8 Unit 2. Planting a GardenUnderstanding soils – soils provide support, water, and mineral nutrientsSoil is composed of sand, silt, clay and organic matterSoil has living organisms – worms, insects, fungi, bacteria: some are pests, some are beneficialIf too much clay, add organic matter
9 Soil Chemistry Soil pH should be slightly acid (6.0 – 6.8) Too low: macronutrients are deficientToo high: micronutrients become toxicMacros: N, P, K, Ca, MgMicros: Fe, Cu, Mn, B, S, ZnMost soils have enough of everything except N,P,K – complete fertilizer
10 Soil Physical Characteristics Sand – large particles, good for water drainageClay – very small particles, holds lots of nutrients, hard to dig, poor water movementSilt – intermediate size, water moves slowlyOrganic matter – holds water and provides nutrients and supports micro-organisms
11 Buying plants & seeds Buy current season’s seeds May have to order unusual varietiesLook for disease resistant varietiesBuy good-quality plants – look for new shipments – avoid yellow or wilted plants
12 Artificial Soil Mixes Fewer disease problems than real soil Usually contain fertilizerSome brands better than othersI like “Mirical-Gro”, but others may be goodUsually contain peat, vermiculite & perlite and fertilizer
13 Starting Plants Indoors Need warm sunny placeDon’t start too early, plants will be pot-bound and “leggy”Transplant to pots when about 1.5” tallPut outdoors as soon as possible
14 Planting in the gardenCultivate the soil and incorporate fertilizer and limeUse string to make straight rowsSmall seeds are barely covered, plant large seeds 2 times their diameter in depthThin plants to appropriate distance – follow directions on the packet
15 Transplanting “Harden” plants by growing outdoors for about a week Plant at about the same depth as in potRemove peat-pot bottom and sideWaterAvoid hot sunny, windy days
16 3. While You wait – Plant Science Seeds – a seed is an embryo, a tiny plant with root parts, a stem, and about 6 leaves. A seed coat protects the embryoHave a food supply until there is adequate foliage to produce enough carbohydrateEndosperm and cotyledons (specialized leaves) – starch (corn & wheat) or oil (beans). Coconut “milk” is liquid endosperm.
17 Two kinds of plants Monocots: one cotyledons – grasses Dicots: two cotyledons – beans, apple, maple, tomato
21 Conditions for seed germination Seeds are living organsNeed Oxygen for respiration to generate energy from food suppliesNeed Water (imbibition) for cell expansion and for photosynthesis and biochemical reactionsProper temperature – 45 degrees for lettuce, 70 degrees for pepper
22 Water and air enter through the seed coat and carbon dioxide exit through the coat. Some seeds (lettuce) require light (red light) to stimulation of hormonesIf planted too deep, leaves don’t reach light before food reserves are used up.Some seeds have hard thick seed coats and must be scarified (stratch the seed coat) to allow water in.
23 Germination requirements Seed coats also contain “inhibitors” and some need to soak to leach out inhibitors.Some seeds require a chilling period (vernalization) to break dormancy (apple seeds need 1,000 hrs below 45 degrees F)Hormones (gibberellins) may overcome dormancy
24 Common reasons for lack of germination Improper soil temperatureSoil too drySeeds planted too deepSeeds washed awayDamping-off disease (fungus)
25 Basic Plant Needs Light Water Mineral nutrients Air (oxygen & carbon dioxide)Proper temperature
26 Photosynthesis A biochemical reaction in the cells of green tissues. Chlorophyll is the green pigment in organelles called chloroplasts
27 PhotosynthesisRequires the green pigment (chlorophyll) in the chloroplast within the cell.The light cycle requires light for energy . Water is split into hydrogen and oxygen.The dark cycle occurs in the dark or light where hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide to form glucose. Oxygen is passed through the stomates.Glucose or sucrose transported through the phloem throughout the plant.
28 Light for photosynthesis Chlorophyll absorbs light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars. Oxygen is also produced. Gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide & water) pass in and out of leaves through small holes called stomates.
29 RespirationWithin specialized organelles (mitochondria) in the cells, sugars are converted to energy which is used for plant growth. Oxygen is used and carbon dioxide is produced.
30 Plant parts - RootsMay store sugars (sugar beet, carrot) or starch (woody roots, sweet potato)2 types of rootsPrimary tap root: long strong roots (some trees, carrots, dandelion)Fibrous roots: short thin roots arising from larger roots (beans & tomato)Root hairs are extensions of cells on the root surface (epidermal cells). These very small structures absorb most of the water and nutrients.
31 Root MotionRoots normally grow down. They are sensitive to gravity (geotropism).
32 StemsConnect leaves and roots, and supports leaves for light exposure. Similar to a pipe. Water and mineral nutrients move up in the xylem. Sugar solution moves down in the phloem.Some stems store food – starch in potato, starch in tree trunks in winter, sugar in sugar cane.
35 Stem function Epidermis – one layer of waxy cells Phloem – live cells Xylem – long dead cells lined up end-to-end to produce a “pipe”Vascular Cambium – a cylinder several cells thick between the phloem and xylem. Responsible for diameter increase: produces xylem cells to the inside and phloem cells to the outside
36 Geotropism A plants grow in response to gravity Positive geotropism – roots bend toward gravityNegative geotropism – stems bend away from gravityCurvature is caused by unequal growth on the 2 sides of the axis
37 Auxin – a plant hormoneProduced in young leaves, shoot tips (meristems) and seeds.Auxin moves with gravity, causes bud dormancy and causes cell elongation
41 Motion of stemsPhototropism - Stems bend toward light. Auxin is destroyed by light, so cells on the dark side elongate and cause bending toward light.Auxin produced in the shoot tip moves down the stem and accumulates on the lower side of the stem, so stems bend up.Root growth in inhibited by auxin. Auxin accumulates on lower side, so roots grow down
42 Apical dominance Buds actually are short stems with about 6 leaves. Auxin moves from the apex down and inhibits buds. Removing the apex (pinching) allows the buds below the apex to grow. This causes branching.
43 Carbohydrate transport Sugars can be used for energy or converted to structural molecules such as cellulose (cell walls), fats and proteins.Sugars move from areas of high concentration (leaves) to areas of low concentration in the phloem.
44 Flowers – modified stems At some point buds switch from vegetative to reproductive – environmental cues.Flowers are reproductive structures and attractive insects.Pollen produced on anthers is transferred to the stigma, then germinates and grows down the style to the ovary where the sperm fertilizes egg to produce a seed.
45 Types of flowersPerfect flowers have both pistils and stamens (peas, bean, tomato, apple)Imperfect flowers are either male or female (cucumbers, melons, squash).Some species have male and female plants (ginko trees).
47 FruitsAs ovules develop into seeds within the ovary, the ovary swells and becomes fleshy or hardens to protect the seeds. Fruit helps seeds disseminate.Fleshy fruit (squash, tomato, grape) have fleshy ovaries surrounding the seeds.Dry fruits have ovaries with thin, dry walls. Corn, wheat, oats and each fruit is a single seed. Beans are dry fruits with a nonfleshy pod containing several seeds.
52 How do we make new plants? Plant Propagation Sexual – from seeds: Allows a species to survive by perpetuating genetic variationAsexual or vegetative – produce new plants from parts of a plant to maintain genetic identify. Produces clones.
53 Vegetative propagation Stems – potato, bulbsCuttings – roots can be produced by leaves or stemsGrafting – join a scion variety onto a rootstockscionMatch upcambiumsrootstock
54 Plant Life Cycle Seeds geminate Plant grows, matures, and flowers Produces fruit and seedsPlant diesAnnuals live 1 year (lettuce, beans)Biennials flower second year, then die (carrot, onion)Perennials live many years (asparagus)
55 Plant improvementNatural selection: In the wild, individuals within a species differ. Those with characteristics enabling them to survive to reproductive age pass on their genes to the next generation.Man has domesticated plants and animals by selecting individuals with the characteristics we want.
56 Plant breedingPlant breeding: During the last century we have controlled pollination to develop hybrids or new varieties with outstanding characteristicsExamples include high yield, large fruit, different flower colors, disease resistance.There is some concern that we have reduced genetic variation too much, new strains of disease may devastate a crop
57 Biotechnology A set of techniques used to study and modify genes. ExamplesFLAVR SAVR tomato – doesn’t produce the ripening hormone ethylene, so it can be stored a long time before exposing it to ethylene to cause ripeningSome corn varieties contain the BT gene for resistance to worms
58 Genetic EngineeringTransferring specific genetic material from one organism to another.Examples: Put the gene from a firefly into a tobacco plant and the plant glows in the dark.Put an antibacterial gene from a moth into an apple tree to make it resistant to bacteria.
59 Preserving genetic diversity We want to save genetic variation to use in breeding programs. USDA maintains repositories for major crops; both seeds and plants.USDA funds plant collecting expeditions to “centers of origin” for major crop species
60 Interdependence (Ecology) All organisms are connected. Some plants rely on animals to transfer pollen and disseminate seed. Some plants rely on fungi to improve root function.Animals rely on plants to convert solar energy (sun light) to chemical energy (sugars)
61 Human impact on ecology Acid rain is killing the eastern forestOzone, from car emissions, injures some plant speciesPesticides and other chemicals may injure non-target organismsGlobal warming may alter the distribution of organisms and agricultural productivity
62 HydroponicsWe can provide support and nutrients for plants without soilCommercial greenhouse tomatoes are often grown hydroponically in shallow trays of flowing water containing fertilizer.Most greenhouse crops are grown in soiless mixes of sand, perlite, vermiculite, and peat
63 Unit 4. Garden CareSoil fertility – At least 2 months before planting contact local Extension office for soil testing kit. Fertilize & lime according to recommendations.Apply lime to raise soil pH and reduce acidity (about 6.2 to 6.8)Apply complete fertilizer to provide nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium
64 Organic MatterOrganic matter provides nutrients and improves soil structure and water holding capacity. Also encourages many soil organisms – worms, insects, fungi, bacteriaSources – compost, manure, bone meal
65 Garden EquipmentHoe, rake, trowel, watering can, hose, short stakes and string to mark rows, long stakes for supporting plants, hot caps, sprayer, tillerPesticides – read the labelStore locked upLeave in original containerAvoid freezing or hot environments
66 FrostSite selection – avoid low areas because cold air is heavier than warm air and flows down hill just like water.Tender plants, such as tomato, peppers, squash are killed at about 30° FCool season crops, such as cabbage, broccoli tolerate a light frost (27° F), and carrots, beets, lettuce tolerate 22° F
67 Frost protectionCover plants with hot caps, newspaper tents, or mulch with strawOverhead irrigationLate season frost – harvest as much as possible before the frost
68 How does irrigation work? As water freezes it releases heat. Ice provides little insulation, so irrigation must continue to freeze until the temperature increases above 32° F and all ice has meltedDon’t irrigate when due point is low and there is wind because evaporation requires heat and heat will be removed from plants
69 How do hot caps work? Greenhouse effect During the day short-wave solar radiation is absorbed by soil and exits the soil at night as long-wave radiation. Hot caps provide a barrier to long-wave lengths which are redirected toward the soil. Frosts are rare on cloudy nights because clouds allow short waves, but not long waves, to pass through.
70 Managing weeds Weeds are plants growing where they are not wanted Weeds compete for light, water & nutrientsBest to eliminate weeds when smallMechanical control – pull by hand, hoe, cultivation. This must be done every 10 to 14 days depending on rain. Weed seeds can remain dormant in soil for many years.
71 Mulch to control weedsCan use straw, shredded paper, thin layer of grass clippings or plasticAlso helps conserve water, reduces soil erosion and keeps plants cleanApply mulch early, before weeds come up
72 Herbicides Chemicals that control weeds May control grasses, broadleafs or bothPre-emergent herbicides prevent seeds germinationPost-emergent herbicides kill plants on contactNot recommended for home garden
73 Plant diseases Infection requires Susceptible host plantPresence of the pathogenProper environment for disease developmentPowdery mildew requires hot dry conditions, and early blight on tomato requires wet conditionsViruses spread by insect vectors
74 Managing plant diseases Caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes or virusSelect resistant varieties when possibleEncourage quick drying – avoid shade, control weeds, leave space between plants
75 Controlling diseasesCultural control – good drying conditions, resistant varieties, remove diseased plantsFungicides and antibiotics – these are preventative and must be applied before infection occurs. Apply every 10 to 14 days to protect new growth and replace residue washed off by rain.
76 Diseases of squashPowdery mildewSeptoria leaf spotVirus
77 Non-pathogenic problems Sunscald heat injury to fruitCold growing conditions can cause plants to turn purple due to poor phosphorous uptakeToo much fertilizer can burn roots and cause wiltingToo much pesticide can damage leaves
78 Insect pests Many types of insects can feed on plants. Grubs (immature beetles) feed on rootsWorms (immature moths) feed on leaves, fruit, or tunnel into stems (borers)Maggots (immature flies) feed on fruit & rootsBeetles, aphids, and true bugs feed on leaves
80 Controlling insectsNo resistant varieties, except for genetically modified varieties of corn and soybeans (BT genes)Use insecticides to kill insectsMonitor plants every weekDon’t apply until you see pestsUse “soft’ materials that protect nontarget organisms
83 Natural vs. man-made pesticides All are poisonous and should be treated with careNatural materials usually are broad-spectrum and kill nontarget species, and they must be applied more frequently because they are less residualInsecticidal soaps are effectiveMany insects are beneficial and we want to protect them
84 5. Harvest & storageImportant to harvest vegetables at proper stage. If many leafy vegetables are left too long, they will produce flowersPeppers are ready when they are full size, can wait and harvest them redTomato can be harvested when just beginning to turn redCantaloupes are harvested when stem slips off the melon
85 Other vegetablesZucchini, summer squash, and cucumbers are harvested when fairly small (before seeds enlarge) and need to be harvested every day or two.Potatoes are harvested when leaves start to die in late summerOnions are mature when leaves fall over
86 StorageHarvested plant parts are living tissues and continue to respire. We want to slow down respiration so the cells remain aliveHigh humidity for leafy vegetables – put in perforated poly bagsTemperature is most importantMost vegetables store well in the refrigerator (about 40ºF)Peppers store at about 50ºF
87 Unit 6: Careers Without a college degree Farm, greenhouse, florist workerAssistant manager, retail marketLandscape worker2-yr Associate degree in plant scienceAssistant superintendent for golf courseFarm & retail store mangerArborist, flower shop manager
89 Careers with B.S. degree Teach agriculture and science Ag. Chemical sales, exterminatorGovernment agencies (USDA, DEP, EPA)Manager of farms, retail centers, nurseries, flower shopLandscape architect, Landscape contractor, golf course superintendentPlant breeder
90 Careers with M.S. degreeResearch technician with chemical company, university, USDA, private labPlant breederProduce wholesale & marketingInternational agricultureGovernment agenciesAg sales and marketingExtension agentTeach at community collegePublic gardens & arboreta
91 Careers with Ph.D. Academia (teach, research, extension) Ag. Chemical company R&DInternational agriculturePlant breederIndustrial research – Ag. Chemicals, plastics, greenhousesMarketingGovernment agencies (USDA, EPA, DOE, DEP, PDA)
92 Other considerationsRather than rows, can plant broadcast (no rows), but rows are easier to care forConsider equipment size for row spacingDouble crop to use space efficiently – Harvest radishes, peas, lettuce early then plant late-season crops in same space (peppers, beans, summer squash)