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INGSM-15, 2014. A Squash Court in Chicago Some examples (1)

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Presentation on theme: "INGSM-15, 2014. A Squash Court in Chicago Some examples (1)"— Presentation transcript:

1 INGSM-15, 2014

2 A Squash Court in Chicago

3

4 Some examples (1)

5 Some examples (2) Early UK Magnox (schematic) UK AGR (view of graphite stack)

6 Some examples (3) Soviet-designed RBMK

7 Some examples (4) Fuel-element sleeves (UK AGR)

8 What is i-graphite?

9

10 The Problem Options are: ‘Safe Storage’ in reactor vessels or containments Progress with deep repository construction Case for shallow repository disposal Do nothing! Think laterally!

11 The Disposal Stages

12 Successful Core Dismantling Unfortunately, the graphite and fuel blocks remain in ‘temporary’ storage

13 “If your decommissioning plan involves building a new building, then it is the wrong plan”

14 Successful Core Dismantling

15

16 Remote Graphite Removal Machine

17 Contamination Control Enclosure

18 Graphite Removal (1) Note use of ‘Fixative’ for Dust and Contamination Control Note also that this graphite contains significant Wigner energy and that no problems were encountered...

19 Graphite Removal (2)

20 Transfer out by ‘Supersack’

21 ‘Supersacks’ placed in ‘Industrial Containers’ and shipped out to Nevada test site for storage

22 Official Positions

23 ANDRA is obliged (by law) to find and approve a solution for disposal of French graphite by Thus, for them, work in this topic area is dynamic and extensive!

24

25 Official Positions

26

27

28

29 The declared position, which cannot now be achieved, is to dismantle one reactor by 2016 and the second by 2020 – delayed AT LEAST six years

30 Future Core Dismantling

31 “Nibble and Vacuum”...and, if you want ground material for a subsequent process, just go to the collection-hopper stage... Even transportation of finely-ground graphite in an aqueous foam is possible.

32 Special Problems Pile 1 has distributed damaged fuel and isotope cartridges, along with a high Wigner energy content...

33 Special Problems For graphite with significant Wigner energy, a disposal route involving heating of batch quantities solves at least one problem... Offers useful experience of special problems, but also offers an excuse for delay!

34

35

36 Role of IAEA

37 Objectives of CRP

38 What are the issues?

39 Country, organisation, and researchers involved Research focus CHPRIMDI China. Tsinghua University, INET, Li Junfeng Disintegration of Graphite Matrix from the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuel Elements France. Christine Lamouroux (CEA), Gerard Laurent (EdF), Laurence Petit (Andra) Characterisation of Radionuclides in Graphite Wastes Germany. FZJ, Werner von Lensa CARBODISP. Treatment of Irradiated Graphite to Meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal. Germany. FNAG, Johannes Fachinger Graphite as a Matrix Material Lithuania. INPP. Alexander Oryšaka Integration of Waste-Management Features with Plant Dismantling Lithuania. LEI. Ernestas Narkunas, Povilas Poskas Treatment Requirements for Irradiated RBMK-1500 Graphite Russia. VNIINM, Vladimir Kascheev, FGUP RADON, Olga Karlina Methods of Irradiated Graphite Treatment – Characteristic Properties of Irradiated Graphite Spain. ENRESA, Jose Luis Leganes Nieto Measuring Techniques for 36 Cl, 99 Tc and 129 I in Graphite, and Compatibility Tests to Meet Acceptance Criteria Switzerland. PSI, Hans F. Beer Determination of Long-lived Radionuclides with Special Emphasis on Reactor Graphite Ukraine. IEG, Boris Zlobenko Investigation on the Conversion of Irradiated Graphite from the Decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP into a Stable Waste Form acceptable for Long-Term Storage and Disposal United Kingdom. NDA, Simon Norris Progression of UK Strategy Regarding Options for Long-Term Management of Irradiated Graphite United Kingdom. The University of Manchester, Abbie Jones, Tony Wickham 14 C and 3 H removal from UK Graphite Waste United Kingdom. University of Sheffield, Russell Hand Development of Composite Materials to Utilise and Dispose of Waste Irradiated Graphite United Kingdom. Bradtec, David Bradbury, Hyder/Bradtec, Jon Goodwin, Studsvik UK, Maria Lindberg, Costain, Terry Tomlinson, with Arbresle Ingéniere (France), Laurent Rahmani Retrieval Demonstration – Novel Methodology, Efficacy of Gasification, Concept Design of CO 2 Delivery System Feasibility and Suitability of the Injection of Irradiated Graphite as an Aqueous or Oily Suspension or Foam into Confined Geological Formations Chlorine Speciation United Kingdom. NNL. Martin Metcalfe, Anthony Banford Investigation into Aspects of the Production and Disposition of Carbon-14 in Magnox Reactor Graphite Cores United States. Idaho State University, Idaho National Laboratory, Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar Characterisation and Treatment of Carbon -14 in Irradiated Graphite

40 Country, organisation, and researchers involved Research focus CHPRIMDI Russia. VNIINM, Vladimir Kascheev, FGUP RADON, Olga Karlina Methods of Irradiated Graphite Treatment – Characteristic Properties of Irradiated Graphite Spain. ENRESA, Jose Luis Leganes Nieto Measuring Techniques for 36 Cl, 99 Tc and 129 I in Graphite, and Compatibility Tests to Meet Acceptance Criteria Switzerland. PSI, Hans F. Beer Determination of Long-lived Radionuclides with Special Emphasis on Reactor Graphite Ukraine. IEG, Boris Zlobenko Investigation on the Conversion of Irradiated Graphite from the Decommissioning of Chernobyl NPP into a Stable Waste Form acceptable for Long-Term Storage and Disposal United Kingdom. NDA, Simon Norris Progression of UK Strategy Regarding Options for Long-Term Management of Irradiated Graphite United Kingdom. The University of Manchester, Abbie Jones, Tony Wickham 14 C and 3 H removal from UK Graphite Waste United Kingdom. University of Sheffield, Russell Hand Development of Composite Materials to Utilise and Dispose of Waste Irradiated Graphite United Kingdom. Bradtec, David Bradbury, Hyder/Bradtec, Jon Goodwin, Studsvik UK, Maria Lindberg, Costain, Terry Tomlinson, with Arbresle Ingéniere (France), Laurent Rahmani Retrieval Demonstration – Novel Methodology, Efficacy of Gasification, Concept Design of CO 2 Delivery System Feasibility and Suitability of the Injection of Irradiated Graphite as an Aqueous or Oily Suspension or Foam into Confined Geological Formations Chlorine Speciation United Kingdom. NNL. Martin Metcalfe, Anthony Banford Investigation into Aspects of the Production and Disposition of Carbon-14 in Magnox Reactor Graphite Cores United States. Idaho State University, Idaho National Laboratory, Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar Characterisation and Treatment of Carbon -14 in Irradiated Graphite

41 Country, organisation, and researchers involved Research focus CHPRIMDI United Kingdom. The University of Manchester, Abbie Jones, Tony Wickham 14 C and 3 H removal from UK Graphite Waste United Kingdom. University of Sheffield, Russell Hand Development of Composite Materials to Utilise and Dispose of Waste Irradiated Graphite United Kingdom. Bradtec, David Bradbury, Hyder/Bradtec, Jon Goodwin, Studsvik UK, Maria Lindberg, Costain, Terry Tomlinson, with Arbresle Ingéniere (France), Laurent Rahmani Retrieval Demonstration – Novel Methodology, Efficacy of Gasification, Concept Design of CO 2 Delivery System Feasibility and Suitability of the Injection of Irradiated Graphite as an Aqueous or Oily Suspension or Foam into Confined Geological Formations Chlorine Speciation United Kingdom. NNL. Martin Metcalfe, Anthony Banford Investigation into Aspects of the Production and Disposition of Carbon-14 in Magnox Reactor Graphite Cores United States. Idaho State University, Idaho National Laboratory, Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar Characterisation and Treatment of Carbon -14 in Irradiated Graphite

42 Country, organisation, and researchers involved Research focus CHPRIMDI United Kingdom. NNL. Martin Metcalfe, Anthony Banford Investigation into Aspects of the Production and Disposition of Carbon-14 in Magnox Reactor Graphite Cores United States. Idaho State University, Idaho National Laboratory, Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar Characterisation and Treatment of Carbon -14 in Irradiated Graphite

43 Carbon-14

44 Carbon-14

45 Chlorine-36

46 Major Players in Weak β -Emitters

47 Irradiated NBG- 18 (LN 2 immersed) Irradiated POCOFoam® (LN 2 immersed) Irradiated NBG- 25 (Courtesy ISU)

48 SEM Nitrogen Nucleation Poco 1500 x NBG x Poco x Courtesy ISU

49 “An emerging consensus concludes that current regulations for radiation exposure are not only ‘based in quicksand’ but have become pernicious obstacles to the ethical goal that they purport to achieve: public health protection.... it is ethically disastrous to claim that the LNT hypothesis is an unassailable scientific conclusion, when in fact it is only an inconclusive theory, an extrapolated hypothesis, an ultraconservative exercise of prudence... Fear of radiation has proved to be far more detrimental to public health than radiation itself.... “Moreover, billions of dollars have been spent on trivial radiation risks based upon grotesque scenarios about single atoms destined to migrate through miles of desert soil to contaminate a potential water source in some distant future.” Dr. Margaret Maxey (Bio-ethicist, University of Detroit)

50 Selected innovations Pyrolysis – Steam Reforming This is the basis of the integrated gasification – sequestration process described earlier

51 Selected Innovations Incineration

52 Selected Innovations Incineration

53 Selected Innovations Incineration

54 Selected Innovations Recycling and Isotope Recovery

55 Selected Innovations Fuel-Contaminated Graphite

56 Molten-Salt Oxidation NIKIET / Rosenergoatom

57 Fuel-Contaminated Graphite Molten-Salt Oxidation NIKIET / Rosenergoatom Experimental Plant at Zarechny Borosilicate Glass Product

58 Issues: Objective: Immobilisation Chemical formulation of cement Optimum packing fraction – break up the graphite? If LLW – can go straight to near-surface disposal Cementation of Graphite

59 DIORIT 45 t Graphite treated: 60 tonnes from PROTEUS to follow Disperse the Graphite in Concrete Matrix used to Immobilise Other Radwaste

60 80% graphite, 20% glass (currently with natural graphite only) High density (2.23 g.cm -3 ) – regarded as ‘impermeable’ and non-corrodible Graphite-Loaded Glass as Matrix for other Radwaste (FNAG)

61 NSDF Release by dilution to atmosphere GDF Storage for reuse & Irradiated Graphite Waste (IGW) World inventory – tonnes Characterisation CRP: France, Lithuania, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine, UK, USA Immobilisation required Dust, Fuel leakage contaminated Non- treatable Decontamination expedient Treatment expedient Conditioning required CRP: Russia SHS, Germany Matrix. UK Glass- composite Treatment options Decontamination options CRP: All – Cement, Russia Impregnation & Cement, Switzerland Crush & Cement. CRP: China, France, Lithuania, Russia, UK Gasification, Russia MSO CRP: France, UK Thermal, Russia MSO; UK Nibble & Vacuum CRP: France, Germany, UK CRP: France, Russia, UK

62 Some Questions which were Considered...

63 DISMANTLING... DISPOSAL... Temporary Storage ? Treatment ?...or WAIT ? Useful Product ? Reduced activity or reduced waste category ? REPOSITORY OTHER HOW ?...may be decided on basis of what happens next (other boxes here)......or another reason entirely...e.g. under water

64 Interim Conclusions

65 Recommendation Key Stages towards a Responsible Solution

66 Shidaowan 12 th Dec 2012 First pouring of the concrete for HTR-PM: new generation of HTRs and future source of i -graphite


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