City’s Growth & Development Strategy, 2040 The City together with its residents and stakeholders, shaped a vision and plan for the future through the GDS 2040, focusing on four pillars: 1) economic growth, 2) sustainable services, 3) human and social development and 4) good governance. The intention is to strive toward minimal resource reliance and increased preservation of natural resources. This would include: Providing a resilient, liveable, sustainable urban environment that is underpinned by infrastructure supportive of a low-carbon economy Source: Growth & Development Strategy 2040 Report Each of these concepts are interrelated as they contribute to a resilience, sustainable and livable City
4 Resource Sustainability: A Mayoral Priority Resource Sustainability: Description and Focus Economic growth is strongly interrelated with the demand for water, energy and ecological goods & services resulting in the generation of waste (solid, gas, liquid) Managing natural resources as either pristine resources or as valuable economic commodities is the prime objective of this Priority with a focus on the consequences of using these natural resources for human activity. This means that the City has an obligation to ensure ecological sustainable development and the use of natural resources while furthering justifiable economic and social or human development for purposes of survival and prosperity. Johannesburg population will grow from 4,4 million people (2010/11) to 5,5 million in the next ten years (2020). Taking current capacity levels into consideration most of the infrastructure to support this growth must therefore still be provided in years to come. It is now the opportune time to ensure that such infrastructure are sustainable, resilient and of a low carbon nature.
5 Waste disposed: 1.6 million tonnes 2014/15 Projected annual waste disposal growth rate: 3.6% Forecast waste disposal by million tons/year Forecast waste disposal by 2030: 2.7 million tons/year Forecast waste disposal by million tons/year Operates 4 landfill sites, with average 10 years landfill space Projected waste disposal volumes
Waste Generation 2015
Waste Generation 2025
8 Where do we start as a City? Urban development - By being mindful of how and where development occurs (spatial planning for human settlements), cities can affect energy use, travel behaviours, air quality, waste generation and resource use. Own Operations - By focusing on internal processes and service delivery operations, we can make big sustainability impacts on areas such as public transport, energy efficiency for own operations such as, waste management, and waste water treatment as well as within council owned buildings. Economic Activities and Human Behaviour - private sector and communities at large within the city consumes resources for purposes of economic growth and generates waste as a by product. Whether it be mining activities or manufacturing, retail or professional services, it consumes resources and it generate waste. All these activities contribute towards climate change by the production of GHG emissions.
9 Climate Change
10 Climate Change – GHG Inventory (GPC 2007 Baseline) CoJ as a City is the largest greenhouse gas emitter in SA
Comparing Johannesburg with other Cities in South Africa (2007 figures): The per capita emissions in Johannesburg is 6,89 tons per capita Durban = 6,19 tons per capita Cape Town = 5,54 tons per capita Comparing Johannesburg with London: London has more than double the number of households than Johannesburg; London consumes more than double the electricity that Johannesburg consumes; The difference is however the following: o London consumes less per household than Johannesburg due to use of natural gas for cooking and heating; o Despite the fact that London used twice as much energy as Johannesburg, London’s GHG emissions from electricity are almost the same as Johannesburg; Climate Change – GHG Inventory (GPC 2007 Baseline)
Waste Sector Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emissions National contribution per sectorCoJ contribution per sector
Waste Sector Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) are agents that have relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere – a few days to a few decades – and a warming influence on climate; The main short-lived climate pollutants are black carbon, methane and tropospheric ozone; These short-lived climate pollutants are also dangerous air pollutants, with various detrimental impacts on human health, agriculture and ecosystems. SLCPs account for approximately 40-45% of present climate forcing; Reducing SLCPs has the potential to avoid the rise in 0.5°C global warming by 2050 and 0.7°C in the Arctic by 2040,which can cut the rate of global warming by half; Municipal solid waste, including landfills, is the third largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions globally; Municipal solid waste is also a significant source of black carbon, as well as carbon dioxide, from open burning and waste transport, creating serious air pollution in cities;
Phenomenon and direction of trend Food production & Biodiversity Water resourcesHuman Health Human Settlements, Society & Industry Hot days and nights Decrease in food production, increase insect outbreaks Decrease in water availability due to evapo- transpiration Decreased activity and economic output Increase in energy demand for cooling, deterioration of air quality Warm spells/Heat Waves Decreased food yields due to heat stress, decrease in food security and increased danger of wild fires Increased water demand and decrease in water quality e.g. algal blooms Increased risk of heat related mortality, especially for the elderly, chronically sick and socially isolated Decrease of quality of life especially for those without appropriate housing Heavy RainfallDestruction of biodiversity Potential impacts on the quality of surface and groundwater Increased risk of deaths, injuries and infectious respiratory and skin diseases Disruption of settlements, commerce, logistics and societies due to flooding. Damage to infrastructure and loss of property Dry spells/drought Loss of biodiversity & decreased food productivity Decrease in water availability for many essential services Increased risk of malnutrition, increase in food and water Water shortages for human settlements, industry and society, potential for loss of investment 7 competitiveness Thunderstorms and strong winds Wind throw/uprooting of trees Power outages disrupting water supply Increased risk of death and injuries, Post traumatic stress disorders Disruption of economic activity, loss or property, withdrawal of insurance cover for vulnerable areas, migration, Impacts of climate change per sector
16 Aim of Strategy To reduce the man-made greenhouse gas emissions through the promotion of a more sustainable use of energy, and also to enhance resilience of communities and infrastructure from most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change in the City of Johannesburg. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst improving data collection for monitoring and reporting purposes (10% Reduction in GHG emissions by 2015 (measured from 2007) To minimise exposure to risk and vulnerability of communities to inform future planning in terms of hot spots for flooding in the CoJ to protect communities, properties, infrastructure from the catastrophic impacts as a result of extreme weather events (Adaptation) To enhance resilience of communities and infrastructure from heatwave events due to the anticipated warming and flooding events (Adaptation) To understand the impacts of climate change in different sectors and o determine mitigation measures To incorporate climate change into all future actions in the CoJ especially service delivery and other developmental issues Joburg’s Draft Energy & Climate Change Strategy Short, medium & long-term objectives
17 City Innovations Towards a Low Carbon Economy
18 Green projects per Sector ENERGY Energy Plan for the City Smart meter roll-out (underway) Solar water heaters (one year left on contract) Energy storage (`virtual plants’, flexible grid) Ongoing tariff adjustment (flat fee, net metering) TRANSPORT Re-fleeting Metrobus / mini-bus in line with staged transition to green fuels Conversion of busses to dual-diesel fuel Non-motorized transport zone WATER Wastewater treatment plant upgrading Smart water meter roll-out Alternative water use program (rainwater, etc.) Stormwater attenuation WASTE Separation at Source implementation Landfill Gas to Energy Biogas to energy (WWTW, Fresh Produce Market, Zoo) Composting and pelleting Waste to energy (e.g. diversion of existing waste, biogas digester at market sites) BUILDING SECTOR Low Carbon Approach to Spatial Planning and Urban Transformation City’s buildings green audit and retrofit (JPC) Recycling at Council Buildings and Rental Housing Revision of planning requirements for building energy efficiency (Development Planning)
SectorCC MitigationCC Adaptation Energy Development of an Energy Plan for the City Smart meter roll-out (underway) Solar water heaters (one year left on contract) Energy storage (`virtual plants’, flexible grid) Review of climate change Adaptation Plan Climate cost-benefit analysis Transport Re-fleeting Metrobus / mini-bus in line with staged transition to green fuels Conversion of busses to DDF Non-motorized transport zone Green guidelines Bicycle lanes Water Wastewater treatment plant upgrading (JW) Smart water meter roll-out (JW) Alternative water use program (rainwater, etc.) (JW & EISD) Ground Water exploration Green guidelines CoJ climate change implementation strategy for the water sector Climate Change strategy for water Storm water attenuation Enhancement of early warnings systems Maintenance of stormwater drainage systems Increase on education and awareness programmes for the communities Waste Separation at Source implementation (Pikitup) Landfill Gas to Energy (PPP) Waste to energy (e.g., diversion of general waste) Biogas digester for Fresh Produce Market and Zoo (EISD) Green guidelines Building Sector City’s buildings green audit and retrofit (CP) Revision of planning requirements for building energy efficiency (Development Planning) Green guidelines Energy efficiency/renewable energy in residential areas Off-grid solutions Mitigation & Adaptation Projects per Sector
City Diversion Targets 2016: 20% landfill diversion (CoJ Integrated Waste Management Plan 2011) City currently diverts 7% of total waste to landfill 2020: 47% landfill diversion (Pikitup Waste Minimisation Plan) 2040: 93% landfill diversion (Pikitup Waste Minimisation Plan)
Innovation : Diversion : Separation at Source The City through PIKITUP is implementing separation at source at household level to facilitate waste reduction to landfill. Currently the program has been rolled out to households, but participation is only at 27% Have a waste pickers empowerment program to increase and formalise their participation and efficiency in recycling. A total of 24 cooperatives are participating in separation at source. We have now identified 10 additional cooperatives as part of CoJ’s initiative to roll out PIKITUP investigating treatment technologies for green and construction and demolition waste. (EISD in process to do feasibility for Waste to Energy)
Innovation : Diversion ProgrammeIndicator Actual Performance (2013/14) Targets 2014/152015/162016/17 Waste diversion from landfills Tons of green waste per annum 5, t t t Tons of builders rubble per annum new20 000t t t Tons of dry recyclables per annum tons30 000t tons tons Tons of food waste per annum new t t TOTAL25 000t90 000t t t
Innovation : Diversion : Waste to Energy The city is investigating the feasibility of a solid waste treatment technology plant to treat municipal solid waste. This will be developed through a "design-build-finance-maintain-operate-transfer" public private partnership (PPP) model. The following studies are close to completion: Waste characterisation study Technology option study Waste flow mode Pre -site selection studies. Financial modelling The alternative technology will treat about tons of the residual waste generated in he City, thus reducing waste disposal by more or less 30%.
Innovation : Landfill gas to electricity ( LFG) The City initiated the landfill gas-to-energy CDM project in 2007 to mitigate the harmful greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the landfills and to generate renewable energy from waste. The renewable energy generated from the project will be fed into the municipal grid, thus off- setting largely coal derived electricity. The project will offset about 362,000 tons of CO2/annum About 19MW will be generated from the project which can power approximately middle income households The extraction and destruction (flaring) of this gas has provided the City with an opportunity to receive revenue from CER’s through the CDM process and from the generation and sale of electricity. DOE selected the project as an REIPPP in October 2013 to supply 18MW and we waiting for ESKOM to finalise the PPA.
Innovation : Electricity from waste water treatment Biogas to Energy plant at Northern WWTW’s (13/14 FY) Electricity generated = 1.1MW Tons of CO2 reduction = Future developments 5 of the 6 WWTWs in Joburg will generate biogas. Commissioning of the Driefontein biogas plant was launched in February Increase digester capacity at the Southern Works (Goudkoppies, Bushkoppie and Olifantsvlei WWTWs) is planned for the 15/16 FY to 17/18 FY The electricity generated from the gas is used to power the waste water treatment plant thus reducing the dependency (BY 60%) on coal- driven electricity.
Innovation : Bio-digesters for Other Municipal Operations Fresh Produce Market (14/15 FY) Design and construction commissioned at Robinson Deep landfill site Will allow upgrade for larger volumes and other waste streams Completion of first unit expected around August/September Potential income from off-take agreement with potential customers e.g. Egoli Gas, Metrobus or Landfill Gas to Energy project Johannesburg Zoo In conceptualisation phase which includes a feasibility If business case can be proven, funding solutions will be investigated