Presentation on theme: "Term or Concept MeaningExample Biosphere Everywhere life existsPlanet Earth Biodiversity Variety of life.More biodiversity by the equator because its."— Presentation transcript:
Term or Concept MeaningExample Biosphere Everywhere life existsPlanet Earth Biodiversity Variety of life.More biodiversity by the equator because its warmer! Species Group of organisms so similar that they can breed and produce fertile offspring. Homo sapiens Orcinus orca Tursiops truncatus Biology The study of all forms of life.Bacteria -> Blue Whale Organism Individual living thingYOU!!!!! Cell Basic unit of life.Unicellular and multicellular-> bacteria to muscle cell. Metabolism Chemical process that breaks down or builds up materials. Eat a burger = energy Digestion= breaks down food.
Term or Concept MeaningExample DNA Genetic MaterialFingerprints System An organized group of related parts that work together to form a whole. Body Car Ecosystem Environment made up of living= biotic and abiotic= non-living things. Abiotic= rocks, sand, water, sun Biotic= plants and animals Homeostasis Maintain constant internal conditions. Body temp.= 98.6 F Evolution Change over timeDNA, animal populations Adaptation An inherited trait that gives an organism an advantage and is passed to future generations. Can be physical or behavioral. Webbed feet in ducks, wings, sharp teeth, whiskers, long beak, stripes, aerodynamic body.
Life is found in the deep sea, in hot acidic water in Yellowstone, in tree bark, etc It can be tiny like the honey pot ant or huge like the blue whale.
They MUST have these 8 characteristics: 1. Made up of cells 2. Metabolism 3. DNA 4. Stimulus 5. Reproduction 6. Evolution 7. Homeostasis 8. Grow and develop
The basic unit of life Multicellular – many celled like us Unicellular- one celled such as bacteria Can be microscopic or macroscopic Different cells have specialized functions. For example- your muscle cells contract and relax, while your stomach cells secrete digestive juices.
Chemical process that builds up or breaks down materials. Every cell needs energy and is either obtained by eating food or from the sun. Energy= the ability to cause a change or to do work. Where do you get energy from? Cellular respiration and photosynthesis Chemosynthesis-> uses chemicals to make food= hydrothermal vents Photosynthesis= plants
All organisms must react in order to survive. Organisms react to light, temperature, touch, sound What happens to your eyes when you go from being inside to outside into the bright sunshine?
Genetic material Passed on through reproduction Fingerprint, blood, toe print, tissue. Each organism has their own unique DNA
Change in living things over time. Fossil record Genetic comparisons of species Adaptation- an inherited trait or gene helps some individuals of a species survive and reproduce more successfully than others. The ones that don’t adapt will die off.
Goal= produce new individuals Pass DNA to offspring Two types- sexual and asexual Single celled organisms take one cell and divide it into two through binary fission, regeneration or budding-> genetic DNA is IDENTICAL to parent. Multicellular-> sexually through mitosis and meiosis.
Jawfish male holds unhatched eggs in his mouth. The male churns the eggs by spitting them out and taking them back in. Why? Remove debris, aerate the eggs, and rotate eggs for proper development. The male seahorse carries offspring Elephant gestation is 22 months Killer whale gestation is 16 months Human gestation is 10 months
Maintaining constant internal conditions in an organism. Important because cells function best within a certain range of conditions. How does a polar bear live in the arctic? How can people be outside below freezing and still maintain a body temp of 98.6 F / 37 C? Why do you shiver when you are cold? Why do you sweat when it is hot? Why is it important?-> Temperature, blood sugar, acidity, must be controlled or it can be fatal. Maintained-> negative feedback= change in a system causes a response that tends to return that system back to its original state.
Do you look the same today as the day you were born? Body grows and changes over the course of 80 + years.
What do you think of when you think of a system? How is this class a system? Teacher, students, books, materials = all interact to form a class or a system. Structure and function are directly correlated…… but how?
Car-> tires, engine, seats, etc…Different parts have different functions but they must all work together as a whole to work! Eating-> bite into food with teeth, chew it with molars, all your teeth help but each set has a certain function. Chemicals in cells-> membrane channels and enzymes are both made up of proteins. Do they have the same function / structure? Brain cells vs. Red Blood cells. Brain = carries messages, red= carries oxygen-> both work together to keep the body going. If the brain does not have oxygen it cannot work properly.
Step 1- Observe the polar bear. Step 2- What about the structure of the polar bears hair relates to how it functions? Step 3- What other observations can you make about its structure, function, and homeostasis?
Step 2= Thickness= insulation, hollow hair= traps air Step 3= Fat deposits, skin is black-> absorb heat, transparent hair-> looks white because it reflects visible light like snow does.
The Scientific Method!!!! It’s not just a boring process.
Term or conceptMeaningExample ObservationUsing the senses to study the world. Darwin drew his finches in a journal before he made any scientific gain. DataInformation gathered. Qualitative or quantitative Qualitative- descriptions like behaviors, smells, etc. Quantitative- numbers- 50 whales in a pod HypothesisProposed answer for a scientific question. See note example ExperimentStudy factors / variables to find the cause / effect relationships Independent, dependent, or control variables
Independent Variable The variable that is manipulated or changed by the experimenter. Location of plants: - window sill - Table - greenhouse Dependent Variable Observed and measured during an experiment = the experimental data - plant height - Number of leaves ConstantThe conditions that stay the same. They never change. Each plant is given a 1/4 cup of water each day. TheoryExplanation that is supported by a wide range of evidence Theory of Evolution
Used to set up an experiment in order to test a hypothesis or solve a problem.
1. Make an observation 2. Ask a question / Research 3. Form a hypothesis 4. Experimentation 5. Collect data / Results 6. Analyze and Conclude 7. Repeat
Use senses to study the world. Can also use tools such as previous biological research and computers. Inference= logical interpretation based on prior knowledge.
1. The skin is red? 2. The apple is edible. 3. There are seeds inside. 4. It can make you healthy. 5. It feels smooth.
The white shark just jumped out of the water.
Do other sharks jump out of the water or just white sharks?
Not an EDUCATED GUESS- in science we don’t like to say that we are “guessing” Prediction based on prior knowledge. Typically use the words If and Then! If a great white shark jumps out of the water when attacking their prey, then other sharks such as bull sharks should jump out of the water when attacking prey because they belong to the same family, therefore they should have similar behaviors.
Try to find the cause and effect relationship. A. Independent Variable-> What you, the experimenter changes or manipulates. Example- conditions= hot / cold B. Dependent Variable> the variable that changes because of the IV (results / data). Example- height of the plant (you, the experimenter has zero control over how high that plant grows). C. Constants and Control Variables-> constants are variables that remain the same, for example each plant receives 1 cup of water per day. Control variable= what is normal, for example- keeping the plant at room temperature.
Qualitative= descriptions using your senses Quantitative= Numbers
The orca breached out of the water. _______________ The ph remained neutral at 7.____________________ 100 C= _______________________ Aurora borealis = ________________________ Red Tide= __________________________ 35 ppt. =__________________________ The otolith of the fish had 25 rings= _______________ Dolphins are very social creatures. =_______________ A pod of 56 whales. ______________
Statistical analysis › Statistically significant= the data showed an effect that is likely not due to chance. › Nonsignificant= the data shows no effect, or an effect so small that the results could have happened by chance. Use data tables and graphs to represent data collected.
Make sense of your experiment in words, submit a journal paper to your peers for review, and if it can be duplicated / repeated with the same results then your research could become published.
Try again, revamp your procedure / experiment.
Proposed explanation for a wide range of observations and experimental results that is supported by a wide range of evidence. Provides explanations where scientific laws do not. It can be added to or disproven Ex- Theory of Evolution, Theory of Plate Tectonics
A truth that is valid everywhere in the universe. It does not provide any explanations like a theory does Ex- the law of conservation of energy- energy may change form but it can’t be created nor destroyed.
X- axis / IV Y-axis / DV
Analyze the results and to provide visual summaries
Contains the numerical results of an experiment. Compiled before you make a chart or graph. Color of M&M in a bagFrequency Red5 Green2 Blue4 Yellow1 Brown5
Shows a relationship between two variables.
Compares quantitative / qualitative data.
Show the frequency distribution of the data. The bars touch! Ex- using the numbers make a data table and histogram in your notes. › 7, 12, 12, 18, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 36, 36, 39, 43, 47
Another way to present a frequency distribution. Represents actual data point Tens= “stem” Ones= “leaves” StemLeaf
Shows data as proportions of a whole “pie chart”- percentages
IS- International System of Measurements › Used worldwide › Based on the metric system › Common units: Length- Meters (m) Volume- Liter (L) Mass- Kilograms (kg) Temperature- Kelvin (K)
What we use in the classroom- basic Several lenses to increase magnification Uses glass lenses to focus on a specimen. Can be used on living or preserved specimens Can magnify objects up to 1500 times their actual size. Specimens are often stained with chemicals so that we can see them. stoma
Stereoscope Three dimensional image / view of the specimen Essentially two compound microscopes that are focused on the same thing. Low magnification so its hard to see individual cells- used for larger cells.
Narrow beams of electrons that scan the surface of the specimen Usually the specimen is covered with a thin layer of metal such as gold that deflects the electrons from passing through the specimen and onto a computer where color is added. stoma
Passes beams of electrons through the specimen and projects it onto a computerized screen where color is added. Produces the best image because it magnifies the object so much. stoma
Nosepiece- holds the objective lenses above the stage and rotates so that all the lenses can be used. Low Power Objective- magnifies an image 10X Stage clip- holds the slide in place Stage- supports the object being looked at. Diaphragm- adjusts the amount of light passing through the slide and into the lens. Light source- lights up the specimen
Eyepiece- contains a lens that magnifies the object 10X. You look through this to view the specimen. Body- separates the lens in the eyepiece from the other lens. Arm- supports the body and this is where you hold it while supporting the base. Scanning Objective- smallest lens and magnifies 4X High Power Objective- largest lens and magnifies 40X Fine Adjustment- dial used to focus in on the object when it’s on high power. Course Adjustment- used to focus the image when it’s on scanning or low power. Base- supports the scope.
3 types- scanning, low, and high Ocular lensTotal Magnification Scanning4x10x40x Low Power 10x 100x High Power 40x10x400x
The End!!!!!!! Review Next Class Test Class After that!!!!!!!!!!!!