Presentation on theme: "Brief History Electrical Generation Methods Geothermal Power Today Major Stakeholders in Geothermal Worldwide Trends Enhanced Geothermal Systems CO 2."— Presentation transcript:
Brief History Electrical Generation Methods Geothermal Power Today Major Stakeholders in Geothermal Worldwide Trends Enhanced Geothermal Systems CO 2 EGS
A History of Geopower Geothermal power was first used to produce electricity in Larderello, Italy in 1904. – Used to light five lightbulbs – In 1911, an entire plant was built on the site In 1920’s experimental plants were built – In Beppu, Japan and the Geysers, California. 1958, New Zealand installs flash generation plant at Wairakei. 1960, the Geysers begins operating as a geothermal power plant. 1967, Russia develops the binary cycle power plant
Electric Generation Dry Steam Power Plants or Hot Dry Rock Power Plants Vapor dominated resources where steam production is not contaminated Steam is 300°F or higher Most common and most commercially attractive Used in areas where geysers do not exist Need water to inject down into rock Binary cycle power plant Uses lower-temperatures hot water resources (100° F – 300° F). Hot water is passed through a heat exchanger in conjunction with a secondary (hence, "binary plant") fluid with a lower boiling point. Binary plants use a self-contained cycle, nothing is emitted. Lower-temperature reservoirs are far more common, which makes binary plants more prevalent. Flash or Steam plants Use very hot (more than 300° F) steam and hot water resources) Steam either comes directly from the resource, or the very hot, high- pressure water is depressurized ("flashed") to produce steam.
Geothermal Power Today As of May 2010, the International Geothermal Association (IGA) reported 10,715 MW of installed geothermal power capacity in 24 countries. 70 countries currently have projects under development. According to a 1999 study by the IGA, 39 countries around the world can meet 100% of their electricity demand with geothermal resources.
Bolivia Burundi Comoros Islands Costa Rica Djibouti Dominica Ecuador El Salvador Ethiopia Fiji Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Honduras Iceland Indonesia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Martinique Montserrat Montserrat Mozambique Nicaragua Panama Papua-New Guinea Peru Philippines Rwanda Solomon Islands Somalia St. Kitts & Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent Sudan Tanzania Tonga Uganda Vanuatu Yemen
Biggest Names in Geothermal Calpine is the worlds largest producer of geothermal power, and operates 50% of the US’s installed capacity. Ormat operates 15% of US’s installed capacity. It is also the only vertically- integrated company in the geothermal industry. It designs, develops, owns and operates geothermal plants around the world. Enal is one of the biggest world leaders in geothermal energy, and has extensive knowledge in maintaining geothermal resources. Islandsbanki is an international bank based in Iceland that funds geothermal energy investments.
Trends Affecting Implementation Hindering Factors Impoverished nations can’t afford the startup for the industry – Asian financial crash of ‘97 severely cut into it’s ability to have geothermal industries invest in the area. Effect of the system on the environment – Hydraulic fracturing is used in some systems – Overdrawing of heat is possible from a system – Reservoirs can be ran dry – Induced Seismicity Encouraging Factors Little to no greenhouse gas emissions – Binary, closed loop energy systems have net zero emissions Applicable to many different parts of the world – Geothermal electricity can be tapped in many active geothermal areas – In low-temperature areas, new technology has allowed for even more areas to utilize geothermal energy Energy is renewable – Over used areas can be replenished over time
Enhanced Geothermal Systems Typical geothermal systems are only able to be implemented in select areas that have: Significant geothermal activity An established reservoir Sufficient fluid flow through the reservoir EGS’s are used in areas that don’t have all of these characteristics
The Geysers First power plant built in the 60’s, which produced 11 MW of power Now the site of 22 geothermal plants producing 1517 MW of power Meets 60% of the power demand for the coastal region between the Golden Gate Bridge and Oregon border. Geysers was originally a typical geothermal system. However, it began to dry up it’s fluid reservoir and has since become an EGS by pumping greywater from the City of Saint Rosa and Lake County sewage treatment plants into the reservoir
Location, Location, Location The Geysers’ fluid reservoir is held in a sandstone layer – Optimal for fluid flow The reservoir is above a large magma chamber located 4 miles below the ground and over 8 miles in diameter. Such a large area has allowed the system to be tapped into many times – There are more than 350 wells producing steam from the Geysers The heat from the magma chamber is so great that it’s a dry steam in the reservoir – Excellent for the power plant turbines which rely upon a vapor phase input
Ownership 19 of the 22 plants are operated by Calpine. The other 3 are owned by Northern California Power Agency and the municipal Electrical Utility of Santa Clara, California. A consolidated ownership of the system is helpful – Individual plants operate cooperatively instead of acting on short term interest – Performance of plants in the area have an effect on the production of each other
CO 2 Geothermal Systems Uses CO 2 instead of water as a heating fluid – Much of the geothermal capacity of the US is located in the arid Southwest, where water is scarce – Large quantities of water are needed in standard geothermal systems
An Arizona startup company, they are pioneering the idea first thought up by Donald Brown at the Department of Energy’s Los Alamos National Lab and further advanced by Karsten Preuss and others at the Department’s Lawrence Berkeley National Lab By the end of 2011 they are looking to drill their first geothermal well for production using CO 2
Benefits Using CO 2 as a heating fluid provides a variety of benefits suggesting it is better than water as a geothermal fluid – Better heat recovery rates – Lower pumping costs – Fewer problems with rock alterations and surface equipment In injecting the CO 2 underground, it also adds the added benefit of sequestering a portion of the flow
Location Pending successful implementation, GreenFire has plans to implement more power stations around St. John’s Dome in Arizona – Would utilize CO 2 streams from six surrounding coal- fired power plants which produce 100 million tons of CO 2 each year, as the main feed for the system
Supporting Companies and Organizations GreenFire established a joint venture with Enhanced Oil Resources, Inc. in 2009 to help evaluate the St. John’s Dome area for potential of being used for carbon dioxide EGS – EOR is particularly interested in the venture because of the Helium reserves within St. John’s Dome that would also be obtained by drilling the reservoir In 2010, GreenFire licensed with AltaRock Energy to further establish the research in using carbon dioxide as a heating fluid in geothermal systems – AltaRock Energy is renewable energy development company, focusing in Engineered Geothermal Systems Late 2010, GreenFire received a $2 million grant from the DOE to further investigate the potential for low-temperature, carbon dioxide based geothermal power. – In 2009, the DOE allocated $350 million for geothermal energy projects, but also $3 billion for carbon capture and sequestration projects.
The Outlook for EGS The US Department of Energy is providing incentives $400 million set aside in 2010 specifically for geothermal, and $150 million of that was marked for EGS The IGA says that there could be 80,000 MW of EGS projects completed globally in the next 40 years In March, 2011 the GEA released a report stating that US geothermal production could triple over the next few years Expanding from 9 to 15 states Currently 146 projects are currently in development
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