5Mezzogiorno: A peripheral region The Italian peninsula south of Rome + Sardinia & Sicily – 40% of land area and 35% of pop but only 26% of GDPHigh dependence on agriculture, high unemployment, low wages (70% of north) and high emigration (9million in last 100yrs)Physical: 85% is either mountainous or hilly, Apennines are dominant mountain range, 40km to 200km wide… rugged & steep. Thin soils & a narrow coastal plain.2 areas of coastal lowlands Naples-Salerno and the Puglia lowlands, most productive agricultural areasDespite this they are poorly drained mudflats and marshes e.g. Pontine Marshes south of Rome, mosquitos make them a health hazardActive volcanoes e.g. Vesuvius & Etna affect the area which is also subject to earthquakes eg. Puzzuoli in Bay of Naples located 3.5km above a magma chamber… chamber opened & poured into harbour.
6Deforestation & over grazing led to soil erosion. Few Rivers as the area is limestone and the river quickly disappear undergroundThe Volturno flows into the Tyrrhenian sea and the Pescara flows into the AdriaticSoils:Most fertile soils found along the flanks of volcanoes and also along the existing river valleys and their floodplains i.e. Volturno and OfantoMajority of soils thin and infertile and require irrigation and fertilisersTerra Rossa soils cover much of the Mezziogiorno, formed by weathered limestone and have a deep red colour(favoured by wine growers) but most affected by drought and overgrazing
7Climate & Vegetation Mediterranean, hot dry summers…. 9 to 29°C Azores High pressure belt brings clear skies and warm sunshine while the north east trade winds bring drought from June to Septemberbetween 10 and 100mm rainfall pa. with regional variations. Summer the hot Sirocco winds scorch the area.Winters are mild and moist with rainfall varying from 500mm- 900mm pa in the west to 400mm pa in the east. Summer the hot Sirocco winds scorch the area(blow from the Sahara)Convectional Rain in summer causes downpours and often leads to mudslides increasing soil erosion.Climate strongly effects agric.
8Plain of Campania around Naples most productive region… Plain of Campania around Naples most productive region…. Fertile ash soils from Vesuvius. Grow wheat, maize & salad crops + pear, plum & peaches. Pressure on land & villages built on slopes.Fishing on a small scale + limited forestry & some oil & gas make up the rest of the primary sector.Agriculture: Limited by climate, soil & terrain. Small farms, lack of mechanisation. Rely on wheat & tree crops… limes, lemons, oranges, olives, figs & grapes. Roots bind well to soil & olive trees roots extend to water table & release less moisture.Winter wheat… mild moist winter & harvest early summer.Sheep & goats on the hills
9Primary Economic Activities Agriculture:Sheep Grazing upland, soil erosion10% of workforceIncomes 50% lower than EU averageHigh dependency on EU grantsTree crops such as vines, olives etcUntil 1950 land was divided into estates called Latifundi and plots rented by peasants called minifundiaThese labourers were called bracciantiAverage farm size was 3 ha so they were overcultivated and overgrazedProduction levels low as farmers didnt own land so no incentive to improve them
10Forestry: Fishing: Mining: Upland areas, limited rainfall Scrub vegetationFishing:Small continental shelf, limitedPollution of MediterraneanLocal tourist tradeMining:HEP production limitedNatural gas piped from Algeria
11Challenges facing agricultural development Before 1950:Underdeveloped water supplies and droughtPoorly educatedOutmigrationPoor use of technology with aging farmersLimited buying power in local marketUnfair ownership of land, only 1 quarter owned their farmsPoor transport network
12Positive Effects of Cassa: Land Reform – Estates bought by govt and redistributed in 5 hectare farmsNew Farming Techniques, Cash cropsMechanisation investmentIrrigation schemes – Apulian AqueductCo-operatives were formed to help sell produce in NorthImprovements in Infrastructure – Autostrada del SoleMalarial swamps drained – reclaimed marshes of Metapontino
13Output increased tenfold Main producer of citrus fruits and olives in EuropeNegative Effects:Reforms mainly benefitted the coastal plainsWidened gap between upland and lowland200% increase in tomatoes led to seasonal overproduction and dramatic fall in prices
14Secondary Activities 24% of people employed in Secondary 17% were in Mezzogiorno prior to CassaMezzo was bypassed because:Workforce poor and uneducatedPoor local markets and upland terrainPeripheral locationLack of natural resourcesLimited food processing industriesLong distance from eu marketsLittle local capitalBrain drain
15Cassa 1957onwards focused on Secondary Varoni plan invested 2.3billion between300,000 jobs createdGrants, subsidies and tax relief40% of new state companies had to be in southIndustrial estates and transport subsidiesInternational Airport at CalabriaAutostrada del Sole – 1000kmHeavy Industries accounted for 60% of investment in southGrowth pole of Bari-Brindisi-Taranto triangle
16Cassa several growth poles They focused on steel, shipbuilding, auto manufacture, oil refining and chemicals(Bari, Brindisi & Taranto industrial triangle and Naples for chemicals, oil refining and car manufacture) in response to the poor level of manufacturing. By % of Cassa’s budget was in manufacturing.Created 300,000 jobs in industryTax concessions, grants, loans given to companies to set up.Alfa Romeo… assembly plant at NaplesFiat… components & assembly plants employing 44,500.Petro-chemical industry… oil refineries & petro-chemical plants e.g. at Brindisi & Taranto.Steel plants… Taranto & PalermoSet up port industries like oil refining, chemicals, shipbuilding (Bari), engineering.Deep water ports were developed at Catania and Ragusa on the east coast of SicilyState owned companies spent over 40% of their investment in the region.
17Taranto: Pop – 210,000 Located in Puglia Long maritime tradition, location on the Med, natural deep water harbour, improved rail and motorway linkage to northern italyAlso an important naval base and the area is strongly fortifiedPort 3rd biggest in Italy and handles 36million tonnes of freight annuallyImp steel works located there but employment dropping due to increase competition from low cost producersFurther expansion is limited by: distance from markets and shortage of skilled labour
18Finsider Steelworks, Taranto Most successful state owned investmentItalys biggest Steel worksTaranto port handled 36million tonnes of freight in 20021970’s cassa focused on labour intensive industriesCassa disbanded in 1984EU structural funds gave 13billion betweenCurrent worfforce is 1.4m and outmigration has lessened
19Problems:Capital intensive industries (oil refining) providing small number of jobs.Town planning & industrial development needed to be integrated.Lack of training & skill shortage.Continued out-migration from rural areas.Industries not suited to their specific location.1970’s these issues addressed. EEC funds, state owned companies spend 80% of their investment in the Mezz.Emphasis on environmental protection, integrate tourism industry & labour intensive food processing, sourced locally.Programme ended in Corruption (mafia) led to embezzled funds. Privatisation of state companies reduced investment in the region. By 2000 unemployment still at 20% in some areas.
20Negative Cassa Heavy Industry created very little spin off industry Oil refineries – capital intensive and very little jobsEnvironment not a priority – polluted water2m jobs in agri lost due to mechanisationOver reliance on state investmentUnemployment still high at 20%Not an equal spread – naples a beneficiaryInfant mortality 4 times higher than northern ItalyHousing is substandard24 % of children leave education after primary schoolForegin companies nervous of mafia influenceInfastructure still lags behind the north
21Limited SuccessMost factories were capital intensive – provided little employmentMany workers were part time farmers which lowered productionLarge Industries failed to attract other industriesIndustrial jobs created failed to match those lost in agricultureWorkers not properly trainedTown planning and industrial development not coordinated so often built far apartOver reliance on state investmentPrivatisation of industry has allowed a lot of them to move back northCassa finished up in 1984
22Tourism 67% or 17million Tourists Rich Culture… Greek, Roman & Arabic historical mixClimate – sun guaranteedScenery + Etna & VesuviusHistorical sites… PompeiiCoast… Amalfi coast, Apulian CoastGood infrastructure… ferry, airports & motorway.Adriatic coast has a lot of Greek and Roman influenceCheaper and less crowded than other alternatives(Cassa spent 15% of budget on tourism developing 25 locations by upgrading acc and providing grants for facilities)
23Growth of Tourism began in 1950’s Package holiday, cheap flights and paid holdiays from workLimited to coastal regions due to accessibility15% of cassa budget spent on TourismImproved hotels and self catering facilitiesCommunicationsAirport at Calabria, Ferry links to Siciliy and SardiniaDeveloped 25 tourist areasThese increased demand for local farm produce2/3 of tourists from northern ItalyFailed to attract lucrative foreign marketEmployment seasonal as no skiing option in winterEnvironmental pollution and inflated land pricesStrained water supplyInternational tourism coming- Ryanair fly London-BariStarting to develop skiing in Apennines
24Transport: 2.5 Million euro of Cassa Autostrada Ports Taranto,Sicily, Gioia Tauro, 1995 employed 1000 people
25GDP per capitaUnemploymentHospital beds per 1000North of Italy25,5274.2%4.4Mezzogiorno13,02815.0%3.9
26Human Processes:Life Expectancy Improving – men 76 + women 8213.2 births per 1000 (high) but decreasing due to educationPopulation density variesLow fluctuation stageHilltop villages, humidity, Malaria, protectionNaples 1.2million, 3rd largest cityPeople descended from Greeks, Romans & Arabs. Influence of different cultures. Area a crossroad for Mediterranean trade & many invaders.Result: Sallow skin, dark haired & smaller than northern Italians. Arabs introduced oranges, lemons & sugar cane to the area.Language: Italian, Catalan, Spanish, Sard & Arabic. Local dialects of Sicilian & Neapolitan…. reflecting past history.
27Population: 21million (36% of Italy) Population: 21million (36% of Italy). Overall reduction in family size due to education, rise in living standards, & decline of Catholic church influence. Death rate below the birth rate so overall a slight natural increase in pop.Migration: Outward. Major factor in pop. change in the area. Move to North of Italy & USA 1951 to 1971 total 4 million.Inward: Balkan refugees & African.Pop. density & distribution varies greatly due to relief, land system & migration.Sicily: Invaded by Greeks, Romans, Arabs & Normans. Unified under Italy in 1860’s. Led to a mistrust of outside rule. Resulted in Mafia & corruption.
28Major Problems that threaten improvement Organised CrimePolitical corruptionOutward migrationHigh unemploymentSlow economic developmentLow literacy levelsHigh dependency ratioPoor healthcare system
29Port of Gioia Tauro New container port in Calabria opened in 1995 Second largest container port in the MedGioia Tauro is now a transport hub for transhipment to 12 countries around the MedSince 1998 its the southern terminal of rail routeway that allows quick shipping to North sea coast – journey of 2500km to rotterdam takes 42hrsEmploys 1000 and local town of 18,000 is experiencing growth
30Naples Founded by the Greeks in 600BC Largest city in Mezzogiorno and 3rd in ItalyCity pop is 1.2 but total urban pop is 3mLocated in beautiful bay near VesuviusNaples reputation is one of crime, gridlock and the MafiaCity and infrastructure benefitted from Cassa but unemployment still 20%Informal economy is strong i.e. They dont pay taxes e.g. Clothing, footwear etc
31Tourism is very big, Pompeii, Herculaneum and the Isle of Capri Urban renewal has given the city a facelift and modernised itNeapolitans have deep mistrust of government and political leaders and look to themselves to develop economically
32SicilyCentre of Med where shipping lanes pass so colonised for centuriesGreek, Roman Aran and Norman influencesReunited with Italy in the late 19th CDistrust of outside ruler which led to mafia in 18th CMafia offered protection to Islanders from foreign rulers for a price
33Sicilian Provinialism led to continuation of Mafia after unification Omerta – Code of silence – very hard to break the MafiaLocal politicians have strong links with the MafiaPublic prosecutors targeted by mafiaMany convictions overturned on technicalities by a judge later convicted of membership