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Chapter 39 The Stalemated Seventies AP Notes. Objectives…. Describe Nixon’s policies toward the war in Vietnam, the Soviet Union, and Communist China.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 39 The Stalemated Seventies AP Notes. Objectives…. Describe Nixon’s policies toward the war in Vietnam, the Soviet Union, and Communist China."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 39 The Stalemated Seventies AP Notes

2 Objectives…. Describe Nixon’s policies toward the war in Vietnam, the Soviet Union, and Communist China Examine the conflicts created by the secret bombing of Cambodia, the American withdrawal from Vietnam, and the “new isolationism” represented by the War Powers Act

3 The Nixon Presidency

4 Who was Richard M. Nixon? Shy and remote Born into poverty – always felt an outsider Often seemed stiff and lacking in humor and charm Few close friends – spent time with family at estates in Cal. and Fla. (lavishly redone at government expense)

5 Nixon’s Vice President? Spiro T. Agnew Treated dissent as treason Called the media “an effete corps of impudent snobs” and “nattering nabobs of negativism”

6 The Democratic candidates? Hubert H. Humphrey (LBJ’s Vice President) Edmund Muskie the senator from Maine

7 American Independent Party? George Wallace – Alabama governor “Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever!” Against school busing, antiwar demonstrations, urban uprisings Running mate – Curtis LeMay proposed nuclear weapons in Vietnam – “bomb the North Vietnamese back to the Stone Age”

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9 The Election of 1968 Wallace won 13.5 % of the vote 5 southern states middle-class white northerners tired of inner-city riots and anti-war protests – (“White backlash”) Humphrey took 42.7% of the vote Richard Nixon won with 43.4%

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11 Henry Kissinger National Security Council Advisor U.S. could not appear weak and retain global leadership Shaped Nixon’s foreign policy

12 Vietnamization… 1968 – Nixon said he had a plan to end the war – but wouldn’t explain Remove Am. forces and replace with S. Vietnamese –1968 – 543,000 –1972 – 39,000 Did not want to lose – resumed bombing of N. Vietnam Widened the war beyond Vietnam

13 Nixon’s Vietnamization Nixon spoke of “peace with honor” while the US continued bombing campaigns into Laos and Cambodia to cut supply lines Nixon appealed to the “silent majority”

14 My Lai Massacre… In Nov Americans learned of the massacre of 504 of S. Vietnamese civilians – mostly women, children, and elderly Lt. William Caley, Jr. was the leader of the platoon responsible Caley was court-martialed and convicted of premeditated murder

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17 Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson saves civilians by landing between US troops & Vietnamese civilians

18 Extending the war beyond Vietnam… Cambodia – communist camps from which the enemy was mounting attacks on South Vietnam U.S. announced bombing of Cambodia in April, 1970 Fresh wave of protests on college campuses – Largest series of student demonstrations in U.S. history

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20 U.S. Bombing Points in Cambodia,

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22 Cambodian children rolling an unexploded bomb to a scrap metal dealer…

23 Kent State University May 2, 1970 – student protesters burnt down the ROTC building Gov. Rhodes sent Ohio National Guard to Kent State May 4 – classes were held – guardsmen were on campus – 200 students and protestors After several confrontations – guard opened fire on crowd

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26 Campus unrest… 4 students killed at Kent State – 9 wounded May 14 – Jackson State University – state troopers shot 2 students and wounded college campuses closed down after shootings 37 college and University presidents signed a letter calling for war’s end 100,000 march on Washington

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28 Allison Krause -Protester -Shot in the chest & arm

29 Sandy Scheuer -Not protesting -Walking to class -Shot in the throat

30 Jeffrey Miller -Not protesting -Shot in the head

31 Bill Schroeder -Not protesting -Walking to class - Shot in the back -Ironically an ROTC student

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35 The Hardhats… Construction workers – Building and Trades Council –100,000 members held rally supporting government – broke up an anti-war rally Many Americans supported the National Guard and felt the students “got what they deserved”

36 The War Continued… 1971 Nixon directed S. Vietnamese to invade Laos to cut supplies – defeated 1972 Nixon ordered the mining of N. Vietnamese harbors and bombing of Cambodia and N. Vietnam December, 1972, Kissinger met in Paris with Le Duc Tho –Cease-fire –Withdrawal of U.S. troops –Return of U.S. prisoners of war

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38 The war… Nixon unleashed the “Christmas Bombings” of Hanoi and Haiphong, 100,000 bombs over 11 days Jan 27, 1973 an agreement was reached On March 29, 1973 the last US troops left for home February 12, Operation Homecoming begins the release of 591 American POWs from Hanoi

39 April, The last soldiers arrive home from Vietnam

40 Nixon and John McCain upon his return

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42 The Fall of Saigon Within months of the US departure the cease fire was broken In March 1975 North Vietnamese launched a full scale invasion The US sent $ to South Vietnam but no troops Pres. Ford did not want another nightmare On April 30 th, 1975 North Vietnamese tanks rolled into Saigon - renamed Ho Chi Minh City

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45 What was the Vietnam legacy? No victory parades for Vietnam Vets Many faced bitterness and hostility Many had debilitating injuries and drug dependencies 15% or 3.3 million soldiers developed post traumatic stress disorder 58,000 US troops were killed $150 billion

46 Millions of Vietnamese were killed - chemicals like agent orange have polluted the environment and caused birth defects and cancer, 400,000 re-educated by the communists The Communists forced 1.5 million people out of Vietnam - 50,000 boat people perished Cambodia’s civil war in which Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot killed 3 million Cambodians

47 The US abolished the draft In Nov Congress passed The War Powers Act in which the President must inform Congress within 48 hrs. of sending forces Troops cannot remain longer than 90 days without authorization from Congress In 1982 the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was unveiled in Washington DC

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49 Nixon’s Foreign Policy Kissinger promoted the idea of the “realpolitik” - political realism (Foreign policy is based on consolidation of power) US should confront and deal with the powerful nations (Negotiations/Militarily) Nixon and Kissinger had a flexible approach in dealing with Comm. Pushed for “détente” or a relaxing of Cold War tensions

50 “Playing the China Card” “Ping-pong” diplomacy began in 1971 Take advantage of the rift between the China and the USSR Feb., 1972 – Nixon visited China - symbolic - opened up diplomatic and economic relations Major shift in U.S. foreign policy Both would cooperate and participate in scientific and cultural exchanges

51 Ping Pong Diplomacy July, The ice breaker between China & US

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53 Nixon and Premier Zhou En-lai

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56 Nixon’s Visit to the USSR In May 1972, President to visit Moscow Nixon met with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev They signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) - limited ICBM’s and sub missiles to 1972 levels Nixon offered to sell $ 1 billion in wheat crop to the USSR Détente

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59 “Shuttle Diplomacy” Secretary of State Henry Kissinger traveled between Middle Eastern countries In January 1974 Egypt and Israel signed a peace accord In May Israel signed a cease fire with Syria

60 The Apollo 11 Launch July 16, 1969

61 Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins & Buzz Aldrin A P O L O 11

62 Man Walks on the Moon!

63 Objectives… Analyze Nixon’s domestic policies, his appeal to the “silent majority,” his opposition to the “Warren Court,” his “southern strategy,” and his landslide victory against George McGovern in 1972…

64 Nixon appealed to the “silent majority” Appealed to hostility toward protestors and counterculture Americans who worked, paid taxes, and did not protest “People who love their country” Restore law and order

65 Nixon promised… To appoint federal judges who would undercut liberal civil rights interpretations and be tough on crime To role back the Great Society Restore law and order

66 Southern Strategy? Democrats alienated the South – Civil Rights Act of 1964 Sunbelt – retirement communities and rise of high tech industries  growing pop. Military bases, defense plants, and increasing influence of Protestant evangelism  conservative region

67 Nixon’s New Conservatism Nixon was determined to turn the US into a more conservative direction with a sense of order The US was intensely divided over Nam Nixon felt LBJ’s Great Society programs gave the federal gov. too much power

68 Two Sides to Nixon’s New Federalism The Nixon Administration – increased Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare –made food stamps more accessible –Subsidized housing for the poor –Oversaw creation of Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration –Supported Family Assistance Plan (guaranteeing minimal income for the poor- defeated in the Senate)

69 And the other side…. Nixon tried to eliminate the Job Corps, and in 1970 he denied funding for (HUD) By 1973 Nixon had impounded more than $15 billion in funds for housing, health, and education (Courts overturned the impounding) Nixon abolished the Office of Economic Opportunity

70 Law and Order Politics He played to the “silent majority” Nixon used the FBI and CIA to investigate American dissidents and political enemies The IRS was used to audit anti-war and civil rights activists returns Nixon had a “enemies list” of who to harass VP Agnew attacked liberals, the media, and anti-war protestors ( Pit-bull)

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72 “Ultraliberalism today translates into a whimpering isolationism in foreign policy, a mulish obstructionism in domestic policy, and a pusillanimous pussyfooting on the critical issue of law and order.”

73 What was Stagflation? Inflation….. Stagnant economy……

74 What factors contributed to stagnation? Presence of women and teenagers in job market…. Declining investment in new capital Cost of government safety and health regulations Shift – manufacturing  services Vietnam War… International economic competition….

75 What factors contributed to inflation? Vietnam War + Great Society – inflationary spending with no check (higher taxes) – put money in people’s hands but fewer goods Drastic increase in the price of oil

76 Oil problems? OPEC raised the price of oil in 1960s –The Six Days War in 1967 –The 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and Egypt and Syria The US military aid to Israel  Arab OPEC nations cut oil sales to the US (Oil Embargo) By 1974 price increased 4x Major gas lines and shortages in the US early, mid 1970s

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80 Nixon Battles Stagflation… To reduce deficit - raised taxes and cut the budget (Congress opposed) Tried to reduce the inflation by pushing for higher interest rates Took the US off the gold standard In 1971 froze wages, rents, fees and prices for 90 days-it helped temporality but the recession continued

81 The Environment… Nixon supported the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Improved the Clean Air Act of 1963 Supported the Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970 In 1973 the Endangered Species Act was passed Membership in the Sierra Club took off due to new concerns over the environment On April 2d, 1970 the first Earth Day was held

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84 The 1972 Election

85 George McGovern Democrat

86 George McGovern Liberal Democrat Anti-war… Reduce in defense spending $6,500 minimum income ERA Amendment & abortion Amnesty for draft evaders

87 Dirty Tricks…

88 Results of the 1968 Election Elector/ % Pop Vote Nixon: 520… 60.7% McGovern: 17… 37.5%

89 1972 Election

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91 Nixon’s “Victory Salute”

92 Objectives…. Discuss the Watergate scandals and Nixon’s resignation….

93 The Imperial Presidency Nixon expanded the power of the Presidency with little thought of Constitutional Checks Impoundment of funds for fed. programs Invading Cambodia without the approval of Congress Nixon felt the office of the Presidency was above the law

94 The President’s Men Fierce loyal advisors H.R. Haldeman – Chief of staff John Ehrlichman – Chief Domestic Advisor John N Mitchell – Attorney General John W. Dean III – White House Council

95 Nixon’s dirty tricks… Nixon used the FBI to gather info on political rivals Manufactured, irrelevant, cruel & incorrect rumors Nixon laundered $ to accept illegal campaign contributions CREEP & “The plumbers”…

96 Hunt and Liddy

97 C ommittee to Re - e lect the P resident (CRP or CREEP) A private group supporting RMN by using its money to pay for & later cover up "dirty tricks”

98 The Plumbers July, 1971 RMN’s covert White House group Established to stop info from leaking to the media Employed by CREEP… Responsible for Watergate

99 The Pentagon Papers A secret study prepared by the D of D - Analysis & summary of U.S. political & military involvement in Vietnam The PPs show that the gov. deceived the public

100 47 Volumes 7,000 pages

101 Daniel Ellsberg D of D employee who releases the PPs to The NY Times

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103 The significance of the Pentagon Papers… Eroded public support for the war & made it difficult for RMN to fight the war As SC case it establishes the people’s right to privileged gov. info

104 Ellsberg & dirty tricks … RMN orders the D of D to prosecute The Plumbers break into Ellsberg’s psychiatrist office seeking info. that will discredit him CIA is given orders to “incapacitate“ Ellsberg

105 Watergate CREEP breaks into the DNC (Watergate Hotel) - 5 arrested & convicted RMN denies knowledge

106 The Cover-Up Documents were shredded in Haldeman’s office The White House asked the CIA to urge the FBI to stop investigating the break- in CREEP passed out $450,000 to the burglars to buy their silence The burglary was of little interest to the public and the press

107 Washington Post Reporters (Woodward & Bernstein) follow evidence back to the oval office… “Deep Throat”

108 WatergateWatergate

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110 The Cover-Up Unravels In Jan McCord (burglar) sent a letter to Judge John Sirica (Presiding Judge) He lied under oath, and hinted others were involved On April 30 th, Nixon fired John Dean and announced the resignations of Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard Kleindiest

111 Nixon went on TV to promote his new Attorney General Elliot Richardson and he suggested a “Special Prosecutor” be appointed to investigate Watergate

112 The Senate Investigation Senator Sam Ervin began called Administration officials to give testimony Dean admitted the President had been deeply involved in the cover-up (White House denial)

113 Presidential Aide Alex Butterfield revealed the tapes of Oval Office Conversations A year long battle for the tapes began

114 The Saturday Night Massacre The special prosecutor (Cox) demanded the tapes… Nixon refused claiming “executive privilege”… Nixon ordered Attny. Gen. Richardson to fire Cox Richardson refused and was fired

115 The Deputy Attny Gen refused to fire Cox He was fired Solicitor General (Robert Bork) fired Cox Nixon apptd. new special prosecutor – Jaworski

116 So what did Jaworski do? He asked for the tapes The Supreme Court ordered Nixon to turn the tapes over

117 The Fall of Nixon March 1974 a Grand Jury indicted seven presidential aids on charges of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury Nixon released 1,254 pages of edited transcripts In July 1974 The Supreme Court ordered Nixon to give up the unedited tapes “I am not a crook!”

118 In Aug. Nixon released the tapes with an 18.5 min. gap (Rose Mary Woods accidentally erased the most crucial part)

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120 The Nixon tapes reveal… Anti-Semitic attitudes Nixon ordering government agencies to harass private citizens Nixon ordering the Watergate break-in & cover- up

121 What? No Vice –President? 10 days before the Saturday Night Massacre Spiro Agnew resigned – accused of income tax evasion and taking bribes Gerald Ford appointed Vice President under the 25 th Amendment

122 Impeachment or Resignation? The House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment: obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of Congress On August 8 th, 1974 Nixon announced his resignation Nixon admitted no guilt, some judgments “were wrong”

123 Gerald Ford was sworn in as President Ford gave Nixon a full Presidential pardon 25 administration members served prison terms

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125 RMN: Resigns August 9, 1974 * The first President to resign.

126 Gerald Ford

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130 The Ford and Carter Years

131 Ford’s Unusual Road to the Presidency… Never elected to the Vice- Presidency or Presidency Only person to become President and Vice-President under the 25 th Amendment Nelson Rockefeller became Vice- President under the 25 th Amendment

132 The Nixon Pardon Ford gave Nixon a full pardon for Watergate Covered crimes Nixon committed or may have committed as Pres. Ford wanted to spare the country a trial Some Americans were outraged None of Nixon’s former employees were pardoned and nearly all served prison terms

133 1973 – OPEC – Oil Embargo Inflation rose form 6% in ’73 to 10% in ’74 Ford started the “WIN” campaign, (Whip Inflation Now) It failed. Ford urged Americans to cut back on use of oil and gas He cut government spending, interests rates went up triggering the worst recession in 40 years

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135 Foreign Policy Ford kept Kissinger as Sec. of State Helsinki Accords – 1975 –Legitimized Soviet drawn borders in E. Europe –Agreement allowing for more open exchanges of people and information –Milestone –One-sided

136 Vietnam… Wanted to continue to give money to aid South Vietnam, Congress refused, the South fell in 1975 –140,000 Vietnamese left –Cost to U.S. - $118 billion –56,000 Am. dead and 300,000 wounded –U.S. lost respect

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139 Feminism in the 1970s Movement showed vitality Title IX to the Education Amendments ERA Court cases: Reed v. Reed and Frontiero v. Richardson 1973 – Roe v. Wade

140 First Women’s March for Equality

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142 Anti-Feminism Nixon vetoed nationwide public day-care Phyllis Schlafly – STOP ERA – blamed for rising divorce rate

143 Civil Rights…. Courts: Milliken v. Bradley – 1974 –Desegregation could not require across district bussing –Reinforced “White Flight” –Pitted poor whites and blacks against each other

144 Bakke v. Board of Regents 1978 – Allan Bakke denied admission to U. of Cal. – Davis Medical School Sued – said his scores were better than the minorities who were accepted Supreme Court – preference for admission can not be given to any group Racial factors may be used in overall admissions process Bakke admitted – “reverse discrimination”

145 Native Americans Asserted status as separate semi- sovereign peoples Seized Alcatraz 1972 – Wounded Knee 1972 United States v. Wheeler – 1978 –Indian tribes possessed a “unique and limited” sovereignty –Subject to the will of Congress – not the states

146 Alcatraz

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148 Carter in the White House Former peanut farmer and Gov. of Georgia Promised he would never lie to the American people Carter and Ford squared off over energy, inflation, and unemployment Carter won by a close margin He talked to the American people through FDR like “fire-side” chats by radio and TV

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150 Newspape

151 How did the economy change in the 1970s? Less manufacturing jobs More jobs in communication, transportation, and retail Greater overseas competition U.S. iron and steel and clothing – plant closings and lay-offs OPEC raised oil prices

152 Carter’s Domestic Agenda Carter urged Americans to cut back their consumption of oil and gas The National Energy Act – taxed gas guzzling cars, removed price controls on oil and gas produced in the US, and gave tax credits for development of alternative energy.

153 In 1979 inflation hit 11.3%, 14% by ’80. Famous “malaise speech” - complained of a “crisis of spirit” in Americans.

154 Carter and Draft – Evaders? Wanted to end divisions in the country Gave full pardons to draft evaders No pardons for deserters Few protested the pardons (put Vietnam behind us)

155 Three-Mile Island? March 1979 – nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island broke down  at risk for nuclear meltdown Caused widespread fear Some Americans doubted nuclear energy was safe Nuclear power plants were held to stricter safety standards

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157 Carter and Civil Rights? Appointed more women and African Americans to his administration than any other previous administration Appointed Andrew Young as US Ambassador to the UN

158 Carter’s Foreign Policy Based upon human rights Publicly criticized the Soviet Union and South Africa Most countries that violated human rights no longer received U.S. foreign aid Panama Canal Treaty – gave canal back to Panama on December 31, 1999

159 Camp David Pace Accords Carter invited Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Menachem Begin (Israel) to Camp David 13 days – negotiation Two agreements –Conditions for general peace talks –Conditions for peace between Egypt and Israel –1979 – peace treaty signed

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161 Carter and Soviet Union? 1979 attempted to improve on SALT I by negotiating SALT II – impose additional limits on certain nuclear weapons Conservative Republicans and Democrats opposed SALT II – died in the Senate

162 Carter and China? Formally recognized the People’s Republic of China as the sole legitimate government of China 1979 – trade and cultural contacts increased

163 Afghanistan? Hotbed of Islamic fundamentalism The government backed by S. U. S. U. invaded to protect government against fundamentalists Carter protested  suspended grain and high-tech sales to Soviets Boycotted 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow

164 Iranian Hostage Crisis? Shah of Iran a strong ally of the U.S Shah was overthrown by Islamic fundamentalists – Ayatollah Khomeini Carter allowed the Shah to enter the U.S. for cancer treatment Nov. 4, 1979 Khomeini’s followers seized U.S. embassy in Tehran – 52 hostages Hostages released 444 days later – January 20, 1981

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170 Miracle at Lake Placid 1980


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