Monitoring Nutrients “Collectively, the Susquehanna, the Potomac, and the James Rivers contributed 95% of the annual Nitrogen load and about 87% of the annual Phosphorus load from the nine major rivers draining to Chesapeake Bay....” Source: USGS (November 1999)
Monitoring Nutrients “The Choptank River is the largest river on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, but contributes less than 1 percent of the streamflow, the total nitrogen load, and the total phosphorus load delivered annually from the nontidal part of the Chesapeake Bay Basin.” Source: USGS (November 1999)
Bay Contribution by River Source: USGS (November 1999)
Maryland Agriculture Maryland agriculture accounts for just 5% of the land use in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and contributes only 7.75% of the total N load Source: CBF Correspondence (June 2006)
Keep Things In Perspective Maryland’s Contribution to Total Load Entering Chesapeake Bay in 2004 Source: Maryland Department of Legislative Services (2007)
Pollution Control Summary Source: EPA-Chesapeake Bay Program (April 2007)
Agricultural Goals – Moving in the right direction! Source: EPA-Chesapeake Bay Program (April 2007)
Urban/Suburban Goals – Progress is not being made! Source: EPA-Chesapeake Bay Program (April 2007)
The Problem with Population Growth “The rapid rate of population growth and related residential and commercial development has made this pollution sector the only one in the Bay watershed to still be growing, and thus ‘progress’ is negative.” Source: EPA
Urban/Suburban Goals – Progress is not being made! Source: EPA-Chesapeake Bay Program (April 2007)
The Real Problem “Increasing human populations and the associated land-use changes continue to be the primary factors causing water quality and habitat degradation in the Bay and its watershed.” Source: USGS
Why Depend Upon Agriculture? “In part because they are so cost-effective, the Bay Jurisdictions are relying on future reductions from agricultural lands for more than half of the remaining nutrient reductions needed to meet restoration goals” EPA-Chesapeake Bay Program (April 2007)
Bay Watershed Population Source: EPA-Chesapeake Bay Program
Agricultural land contributes 20 to 25% less nitrogen than developed land. Bob Summers Deputy Secretary, Maryland Department of the Environment (May 2007) Agriculture vs. Development
“Among the major land use categories, urban and suburban lands contribute, per acre, the largest amount of nutrients to the Bay when septic and wastewater treatment plant discharges are factored in. Runoff from farms is generally declining….” Source: EPA-Chesapeake Bay Program Farm Runoff Declining
Eastern Shore Contributions to Chesapeake Bay N & P Source: Bay Journal (January 2007)
Eastern Shore Improving None of the other watersheds; Susquehanna, Potomac, James, Western Shore, Rappahannock, York, and Patuxent, had as high a Nitrogen non- point source decline and Phosphorous non-point source decline as did Delmarva. Source: Bay Journal (January 2007)
Development Growth “From 1985 to 2005, EPA estimated loads from developed land sources increased up to 16% while loads from wastewater disposal and agriculture decreased.” Source: EPA (September 2007)
Development Growth “New development is increasing nutrient and sediment loads at rates faster than restoration efforts are reducing them.” Source: EPA (September 2007)
Development Growth “Little progress has been reported in reaching nutrient and sediment load reduction goals from developed lands.” Source: EPA (September 2007)
Development Growth “…impervious surfaces in the Bay watershed grew significantly, by 41%, in the 1990s.” Source: EPA (September 2007)
Poultry House Capacity Delmarva poultry house capacity grew by only 35% in the 1990s and is only slightly higher now than in 1999. Source: Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc.
Sewer Overflow According to the Maryland Department of the Environment website: Combined sewer overflow = 166 million gallons Sanitary sewer overflow = 24 million gallons Bypasses = 17 million gallons During the last 8 months 207 million gallons of wastewater and human waste made its way into Maryland waters!!!!
Restoration Progress Source: EPA-Chesapeake Bay Program
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Nutrient Management Plans Eastern Shore chicken industry has more comprehensive rules than most farmers in the Bay watershed. Thousands of Pennsylvania and Virginia farms are not required to have nutrient management plans. Only Eastern Shore counties are 100% compliant
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Improved Feed Conversion More feed used by the birds and less excreted. Birds make better use of the feed to produce meat.
What’s Not Added to Chicken Feed... No hormones are ever added to commercial chicken feed It has been illegal to feed hormones to chickens since the 1950s!
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Improved Feed Conversion More feed used by the birds and less excreted. Birds make better use of the feed to produce meat. 7.6% improvement in feed conversion since 1998.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Fewer Nutrients Excreted ‘Between 1959 and 2001, 75% reduction in N and P excreted from broiler chickens (grams of nutrients per kg. of live weight broilers).’ -Dr. R. Angel, University of Maryland (2007)
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Phytase Allows birds to better use P already present in the diet so less is excreted. P levels in excreta has been reduced by approximately 30% in recent years. Research continues on phytase in combination with other products for further reductions.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Litter Transport Poultry companies have voluntarily contributed more than $2 million to this effort since 1999. More than 252,000 tons of Maryland poultry litter have been transported since 2000. Delaware’s program has moved more than 350,000 tons since 2001.
Poultry Litter in Context Poultry Litter Analysis Nitrogen = ~4-5% of the litter Phosphorus = ~2-3% of the litter Organic Material in litter can improve nutrient and water- holding capacity of light, sandy soils common on Delmarva.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Perdue AgriRecycle Perdue AgriRecycle accepts chicken manure from all companies’ growers without charge. Much of this manure has been transported out of the local watersheds as a pasteurized organic fertilizer. Fertilizer has received certification by the National Organic Standards Board.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Perdue AgriRecycle Largest litter recycling operation in the world Since 2003, 195,800 tons of litter removed from Delmarva watersheds 8.1 million lbs. of N 4.5 million lbs. of P 6.7 million lbs. of K
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Perdue AgriRecycle 44,000 tons of finished product sold in FY 2007 31,000 of these tons sold outside of Chesapeake Bay watershed states
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Alternative Uses of Manure Coal mine reclamation Burning to produce energy
Attorney General Gansler “We have a site. We have a plan.” Baltimore Examiner October 18, 2007
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Unsuccessful Manure Burning Efforts Previous attempts have met with defeat: Allen’s processing plant in Hurlock, Maryland. Allen’s prohibited protein conversion plant at Linkwood, Maryland. Tyson’s effort on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Delaware’s ban on large-scale manure burning units.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Vegetative Environmental Buffers Voluntary, first of its kind project. Joint funding by local poultry companies, DPI, USDA/NRCS, and NFWF. Designed to improve air and water quality, including the reduction of ammonia emissions.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Cost-Share Programs Poultry growers have been active users of federal and state cost-share programs for environmental practices. Industry personnel have worked with funding agencies to design and publicize these programs.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Energy Efficiency Proper maintenance and cleaning of equipment helps reduce energy consumption. Less energy consumption means less pollution. The poultry industry continues to promote proper equipment management.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Energy Efficiency The University of Delaware has undertaken solar power research at an Allen’s Hatchery, Inc. farm. Growers are switching to lower energy light bulbs. Houses are constructed or retrofitted with solid sidewalls and that helps reduce propane use.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Company Assistance to Growers On-farm environmental audits and technical assistance on environmental stewardship. Recent collaboration with NRCS to help identify and address environmental weaknesses on farms.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Research Projects DPI and local poultry companies spent over $326,000 for research from 1998 to 2000. In addition, poultry companies have funded their own research projects independent of DPI.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Research Projects University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES) has initiated a “chicken house of the future” concept. First full flock on an innovative plastic floor will be placed next year.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments In-House Litter Composting Recycling and treating used litter through a “biological heating” process. Re-conditioned litter provides more flexibility on cleanouts and reduces the need for new bedding material. One area company has already adopted this practice.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Preservation of Working Farms Farmland remains thanks to the chicken industry. The facts show that farmland generates fewer nutrients per acre than developed land. According to a recent 1,000 Friends of Maryland study, the public is concerned about the rapid loss of farmland.
Delmarva Poultry Industry Accomplishments Industrial Strength Permits to Operate Maryland law already requires nutrient management planning and compliance under the Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998. What benefit is there from a duplicate program? How can Maryland afford an additional program?
The Under Utilized Oyster Thrives on algae. A proven water cleanser.
Summary Delmarva Peninsula poultry production is a minor contributor to Bay nutrients. Increase of human population in the Bay watershed and development of farmland are offsetting progress in achievement of goals. The agricultural community, including the poultry industry, has made significant strides in environmental protection.
Summary Research into innovative, efficient, and cost-effective practices continues. The poultry industry has proven and will continue to demonstrate our commitment toward soil and water stewardship. However, poultry people are concerned that they will be asked to make disproportionate sacrifices to help with water quality improvements.
A Point of Agreement “Population growth and related sprawl development will have to be much better controlled…” Gerald Winegrad Bay Journal (September 2007)
It’s Not Just Agriculture! Poultry and agriculture have been very aggressive on environmental issues in recent years. If others in the 64,000 square mile Chesapeake Bay watershed had been as proactive on environmental issue in recent years, things would not remain as challenging as they are and we would not need to be here today!
Thank You! Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc. 16686 County Seat Highway Georgetown, Delaware 19947 (302) 856-9037