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Walker County Master Gardener Educational Series Tomatoes and Potatoes Gardening Presented by Butch Maywald and Susan Moran 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Walker County Master Gardener Educational Series Tomatoes and Potatoes Gardening Presented by Butch Maywald and Susan Moran 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Walker County Master Gardener Educational Series Tomatoes and Potatoes Gardening Presented by Butch Maywald and Susan Moran 1

2 How to be a Green Thumb Gardener Select Recommended Varieties. Plant at the Right Time. Proper Soil Preparation and Fertilization. Control Weeds, Diseases and Insects. Adequate Soil Moisture. Harvest at the Right Time. 2

3 Ideal Garden Location Receives 8 + hours of sunlight. Soil has good internal and external drainage. Free of competition from other large plants, buildings, etc. Near a source of water. Visible! 3

4 4 Garden Design

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8 Soil Preparation Have a soil test run. Incorporate plenty of organic matter. Good drainage. Add nutrients if necessary. 8

9 Mulching Materials Compost Leaves Pine Needles Hay Grass Clippings Paper Plastic 9

10 Cultural Practices Reduce Pesticide Use 10 Healthy Soils Resistant Varieties Planting Time Proper Watering Soil Fertility Sanitation Weed Control Diverse Planting Crop Rotation Plant Spacing

11 Integrated Pest Management Provide plants with the best care and culture possible. Use only the most adapted varieties. If chemical (organic or man-made) control is necessary start with the most environmentally friendly products first. Apply chemicals, (organic or man-made) properly, safely and according to the label. 11

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13 Plant Adapted Varieties Heirlooms Brandywine

14 Tomato Trials A Few Master Gardener Favorites Standard Slicer Celebrity Champion President Dona Beefmaster Better Boy Grape/Cherry Baxter’s Early Bush Sweet 100 Sweet Chelsea Yellow Pear Paste Viva Italia La Rossa Enchantment Heirloom Brandywine Cherokee Purple German Johnson Persimmon (yellow)

15 Plant mid March-April Resistant varieties – VFNT Protect from freeze Apply a weekly foliar spray of a water soluble fertilizer Work in 2-3 Tbsp of high N fertilizer (ammonium sulfate, blood meal, bat guano) when 1 st cluster of fruit forms Pollination ceases and flowers drop when nighttime temps go above mid-70’s, or below 50’s Sweet Baby Girl Juliet Tomatoes

16 Dig about a 4 inch hole, and sprinkle in ¼ - ½ cup of complete slow release fertilizer

17 Plant large, vigorous plants

18 Wrap cages with row cover Space cages 2 feet apart Gives a few degrees of frost protection Protects young plants from wind damage Protects from insects Remove when plants begin to flower

19 Cultural Techniques for Pest Control

20 Blossom End Rot Causes: Irregular soil moisture – too much or not enough Calcium deficiency in soil Poor calcium absorption Temperature fluctuations Treatment: Regular, deep water (do not let soil dry out) Raised beds for drainage Mulch soil

21 Leaf-footed bug

22 Harvest Time

23 Potatoes Plant on Valentine’s Day Cool season crop: warm days (75 - 85 o F), long days (16 - 18 hrs), cool nights (50 - 60 o F), optimum mean 60 - 65 o F. Use certified seed potato 2-3 oz pieces with 2-3 eyes Plant in trench, 4-6” deep Well drained, sandy loam, loamy sand, or sandy clay loam with pH 6.0 - 7.8 7 - 10 in-row on 34 - 40" raised beds. Hill soil up around stems (tubers form laterally from stem) Dig in 90-120 days (or sooner for new potatoes) Wipe off but do no not wash before storing

24 Good Potato Varieties Russet – Russet Norkotah, Norgold M, Century Russet White – Atlantic, Gemchip, Chipeta, Kennebec Yellow Flesh – Yukon Gold Red – Red LaSoda, Viking, Dark Red Norland, Sangre

25 Potato Diseases Major Diseases – Control Seed piece decay – Certified seed, dust immediately after cutting with captan, maneb, Maxim, Polyram Blackleg (bacteria) – Certified seed Early blight – Bravo, Endura, Gem, Headline, mancozeb, Polyram, Quadris, Rovral, Super Tin Late blight – Acrobat, Bravo, Curzate, Gavel, mancozeb, Omega, Previcur Flex, Polyram Tuber rot – Avoid poorly drained soils Nematode – K-Pam, Mocap, Telone II, Telone C-17

26 Seed piece decay

27 Blackleg (bacteria)

28 Early blight

29 Late blight

30 Tuber rot

31 Nematode

32 Potato Pests Major Insects – Control Leafhopper and Psyllid – Actara/Platinum, Admire, Asana, Baythroid, dimethoate, Di-Syston, endosulfan, permethrin, Provado, Sevin, Thimet, Vydate Aphid – Admire, diazinon, dimethoate, endosulfan, Fulfill, Monitor, Provado, Vydate European Corn Borer – Avaunt, Asana, Baythroid, B.t.'s, Furadan, Lannate, Penncap-M, Spintor Colorado potato beetle – Actara/Platinum, Admire, Agri-mek, Avaunt, endosulfan, Guthion, Imidan, Novodor, Provado, Spintor Mite – Omite, Vydate

33 Leafhopper and Psyllid Leafhopper Psyllid

34 Aphid

35 European Corn Borer

36 Colorado potato beetle

37 Mite

38 Sweet Potato Plant slips April-June Allow space for plants to run Harvest in 4-5 months Dig when foliage dies back (October)

39 Sweet Potato VARIETIES Orange flesh- Beauregard, Jewel, Excel, Hernandez White flesh- Sumor, White Delight Gold flesh- Shore Gold SOIL PREFERENCE Deep sandy loam, fine sandy loam or loamy fine sand (pH 5.0 - 7.5) underlain by a firm friable heavier soils. OPTIMUM GROWING CONDITIONS Hot days and warm nights. Extremely heat tolerant, mean summer temperature above 72 o F. Frost tolerant if soil temperature above 55 o F. Optimum time= Soil temperature at planting depth > 65 o F (150 days prior to anticipated 55 o F soil temperature in fall). Slip rate /A= 15,680 - 19,600 Slip depth= 4 - 5 "(Cover several nodes) Slip spacing= 8 - 14 " in-row on 38 - 42 " wide raised beds. WATER/IRRIGATION 10 - 20 "; critical period; slip establishment, uniform distribution during growing season. Discontinue irrigation 2 - 3 weeks prior to anticipated harvest.

40 Sweet Potato Diseases MAJOR DISEASES – CONTROL Scurf and black rot – Mertect (seed roots only), long rotations (2 years) Stem rot and surface rot – Botran, resistant varieties Soil pox or soil rot – clean seed, Telone C-35 Leaf spots Headline, Quadris Nematodes – Mocap, K-Pam, Temik, Telone II, Vydate

41 Sweet potato Scurf and black rot

42 Stem rot and surface rot

43 Soil pox or soil rot

44 Nematodes

45 Sweet Potato Pests MAJOR INSECTS – CONTROL – Sweet potato weevil Weevil free stock, Penncap M (24c), Sevin – Wireworm and white grub diazinon, Lorsban, Mocap – Sweet potato flea beetle endosulfan, Sevin Mite Vydate *NOTE* Always use clean fields and a minimum 3-yr rotations

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47 What is LEAF-PRO? The LEAF-PRO project is an educational outreach effort designed to demonstrate and promote educated, ecologically responsible decision making through home landscape practices. This program was designed in Walker county to work in conjunction with the Texas A&M Earthkind program. 47

48 Objectives of LEAF-PRO (Protection Reduction Outreach) Protection of our Environment Reduction of Solid Waste Outreach Education 48

49 More Information Aggie Horticulture website: http://aggie- horticulture.tamu.eduhttp://aggie- Walker County AgriLife Extension Service Phone:936-435-2426 Master Gardeners Seed catalogs Huntsville Public Library 49

50 Questions? 50 The End

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