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Identifying, Collecting, Pressing, Mounting, and Storing Plants To correctly identify a plant, you must have: 1.Knowledge of terminology 2.Knowledge of.

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Presentation on theme: "Identifying, Collecting, Pressing, Mounting, and Storing Plants To correctly identify a plant, you must have: 1.Knowledge of terminology 2.Knowledge of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Identifying, Collecting, Pressing, Mounting, and Storing Plants To correctly identify a plant, you must have: 1.Knowledge of terminology 2.Knowledge of floras, manuals, and use of herbaria 3.Experience in identification 3 Methods of identification:

2 Key- artificial analytical arrangement of taxa designed for identification -uses contrasting terms to divide organisms into smaller groups -should have two choices for each couplet = _______________ -found in floras (without complete descriptions) and manuals (with complete descriptions) Two types of keys: 1._________________ Key -couplets next to each other -Manual of Vascular Plants of Texas is an example of this type of space-efficient key. 2._________________ Key -couplets indented a fixed distance -Shinners and Mahler’s Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas is an example of this most common, though not as space-efficient type of key

3 Collecting: 1.Select an average plant or collect several small specimens showing the range of variation. 2.Do not collect sterile specimens. 3.Collect all the plant when possible, including the underground parts, especially if these are unusual in some way (such as bulbs, rhizomes). Roots of woody plants are seldom collected. A large plant can be bent to fit the press and later the mounting paper. Collect several individuals of a small sized specimen so that it will fill up the herbarium sheet. 4.Place the plant at once in the press, vasculum, or a plastic collecting bag. 5. Use a field notebook to keep accurate information on each plant.

4 index.phtml Ethics of Plant Collecting 1.Obtain permission from landowner or government agency. Respect the rights of property owners and obtain permits if needed from government agencies 2.Be aware of laws concerning collection or transportation of Plants that have been granted legal protection. Get a list and if in doubt, do not collect. Many plants are threatened or endangered because of illegal collecting for commercial purposes. 3.Collect specimens only when removal will not seriously harm The local populations of the species. NEVER take a single individual and if population is small (<20) take only a single individual or piece leaving behind perennial underground organs

5 Texas threatened and endangered Cactus species: 1) Tobusch Fishhook Cactus Sclerocactus brevihamatus ssp. tobuschii 2) Bunched Cory Cactus Coryphantha ramillosa ssp. ramillosa 3) Black Lace Cactus Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albertii 4) Davis' Green Pitaya Echinocereus viridiflorus var. davisii 5) Chisos Mountains Hedgehog Cactus Echinocereus chisoensis var. chisoensis 6) Lloyd's Mariposa Cactus Sclerocactus mariposensis 7) Nellie's Cory Cactus Escobaria minima 8) Sneed's Pincushion Cactus Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii 9) Star Cactus Astrophytum asterias

6 Texas Threatened or Endangered Trees and Shrubs 1) Hinckley's Oak Quercus hinckleyi 2) Johnston's Frankenia Frankenia johnstonii 3) Texas Ayenia Ayenia limitaris 4) Texas Snowbells Styrax platanifolius spp. texanus 5) Walker's Manioc Manihot walkerae Styrax platanifolius spp. texanus (Styracaceae) -endemic to Texas along streams in limestone areas In Bell and Burnet counties

7 Texas Threatened and Endangered Wildflowers: South Texas Ambrosia Ambrosia cheiranthifolia Pecos Sunflower Helianthus paradoxus Texas Prairie Dawn Hymenoxys texana Ashy Dogweed Thymophylla tephroleuca Terlingua Creek Cat's-eye Cryptantha crassipes Zapata Bladderpod Lesquerella thamnophila White Bladderpod Lesquerella pallida Tinytim (Earth-fruit) Geocarpon minimum Slender Rush-pea Hoffmannseggia tenella Texas Poppy-mallow Callirhoe scabriuscula Large-fruited Sand-verbena Abronia macrocarpa Texas Trailing Phlox Phlox nivalis ssp. texensis Chaffseed Schwalbea americana Navasota Ladies'-tresses Spiranthes parksii Texas Wild-rice Zizania texana Little Aguja Pondweed Potamogeton clystocarpus

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10 Two parts in a field notebook- 1.Journal 2.Catalog Journal Format and Information: 1)The page should be titled as journal and contain the name of the investigator and the year, month, and date at the top of the page. 2) Number the pages consecutively. 3)Record the exact locality and date of each observation or account. A hand-drawn map to the locality is required. 4)Results of the fieldwork should be described along with information on habitat, general impressions on plant communities and populations, animal interactions with plants observed, and any additional information that is potentially helpful in the investigation.

11 Catalog Format and Information: Much of this is probably in your journal entry and need not be repeated unless it is different for that particular plant. 1)The page should be titled as catalog and contain the name of the investigator and the year, month, and date at the top of the page. Pages should be numbered consecutively. 2)Assign the specimen a collection number 3) Once the specimen is identified, add in the scientific and family name. 4)Record the exact locality for each collection. 5)For each collection listed in the catalog, the following should be considered: a.Habitat. b. Ecological information such as community type, soil type, associated species, animal visitors, etc. may be recorded. c.Color of flowers should be recorded. d.Height of the plant is important for trees and shrubs. e. Technical information you need to identify plants. f. Relative abundance in the locality can also be useful.

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14 Pressing Plants: 1.Use the collection numbers from your fieldbook to label a once-folded newspaper cover approximately 400 mm X 280 mm in size. 2. Place the plant in the once-folded newspaper cover. 3.Arrange the plant in the newspaper so that the floral parts are well displayed. It may be necessary to bend the stem once or more times and remove some leaves. 4.Place this between thick blotters of about the same size. Put cardboard of the same size around the blotters and stack these up. Place plywood boards on each end of the stacks and tighten with straps. Place the press in a warm dry place or in a plant dryer.

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17 Labeling plants: 1.Prepare labels using data from the fieldbook. The label should Contain the scientific name and authority, locality, county, collector's name and collection number, date of collection, and other pertinent data from the fieldbook. You may wish to record the family and common names. The label must be about 8 cm X 12 cm.

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19 Mounting Plants 1. Pour glue onto a plexiglass sheet and spread with a paintbrush. Place the herbarium paper beside the plexiglass. 2. Lay the plant and the 8 cm X 12 cm label on the paper and arrange it so that it fits with the label in the lower right hand corner. 3.Place the plant in the glue and then onto the herbarium paper. Do the same with the label. 4.Allow the plants to dry and store.

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21 Storage of Plants: 1.Place plants in a below-zero degree freezer for two weeks and then store in insect proof cabinets with containers of paradichlorobenzene. 2.As the collection grows, organize them by family and genus alphabetically or phylogenetically in cardboard folders.

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