Presentation on theme: "Citizen’s meeting on Power Sector Reform Chris Greacen November 25, 2007 Bangkok, Thailand Solar, wind, hydro, CHP in Thailand: technology, cost, potential,"— Presentation transcript:
Citizen’s meeting on Power Sector Reform Chris Greacen November 25, 2007 Bangkok, Thailand Solar, wind, hydro, CHP in Thailand: technology, cost, potential, applications Palang Thai
13.7 km Solar 0.037% of Thailand area 100% peak load (22,586 MW) TESCO Lotus, Rama I, 460 kWp, Cost: 75,165,000 baht World-wide 2006: 6,000 MWp cumulative 2007: >9,000 MWp cumulative 13.7 km
Thai population: 65,069,000 Person per household: 5 Households: 13,014,000 System size: 3 kW If 58% of households 100% of peak load VSPP subsidy: 8 baht / kWh Solar 3 kW = 660,000 baht
Thai government solar home program 203,000 solar home systems >20% failure rate within first year in Tak
Wind Hundreds of watts to 5 MW per turbine Now over 15,000 MW in Germany Denmark gets >17% electricity from wind At windy site, US 5 cents/kWh (1.65 baht/kWh) In Thailand: 6 baht/kWh (?) VSPP subsidy: 2.5 baht/kWh (3.5?) 1 MW = 35,000,000 baht Thai wind potential: 1600 MW (?)
28,530 MW = Thailand’s peak load in 2007 Installed in Thailand: 1 MW
Wind energy – human scale 17.7 baht/kWh 8,200 baht Thai wind pioneers build wind power themselves.
Micro-hydro technology Source: Inversin, A. R. (1986). Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook.
Kre Khi village, Tak Province 1 kW for school, clinic, church Cost: <150,000 (turbine 10,000) Head: 10 meters Flow: 15 lit/sec
Mae Klang Luang, Chaing Mai 200 watts 5,000 baht (turbine: 4,000 baht) Installed: 2550 (2007) Head: 1.7 meters
Breakdown of economically viable biomass resource Biomass resourceEconomic potential (MW) Bagasse1900 Biogas (cassava, pig, food waste)1185 Wood residues950 Rice husk100 Corncob54 Distillery slop49 Coconut43 Palm oil residues43 TOTAL4,324 Source: Black and Veatch (2000). Final Report: Thailand Biomass-Based Power Generation and Cogeneration Within Small Rural Industries. Bangkok, NEPO; NEPO/DANCED (1998). Investigation of Pricing Incentive in a Renewable Energy Strategy -- Main report. Bangkok. Bagasse figure from interview with interview with Sirisak Tatong, power plant manager at Mitr Phol sugar factory. Biogas from interviews with biogas developers
Rice husk fired power plant 9.8 MW Roi Et province VSPP: Subsidy 0.3 baht/kWh
Uses waste water from cassava to make methane Produces gas for all factory heat (30 MW thermal) + 3 MW of electricity 3 x 1 MW gas generators VSPP: Subsidy 0.3 baht/kWh Korat Waste to Energy - biogas
Biogas from Pig Farms Reduces air and water pollution Produces fertilizer Produces electricity 8 x 70 kW generator Ratchaburi Subsidy: 0.3 baht/kwh
Source: Presentation by Ministry of Energy at Energy Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003
Combined Heat and Power (CHP)… Why?
Why CHP? Electricity Generation Worldwide (TWh) (source: International energy Agency 2002) 67% wasted!
Combined Heat and Power (CHP)… also called “cogeneration” Thai CHP Potential: ?,??? MW >2,400 MW in applications received
Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) plant at Bangkok’s Suvarnabhumi International Airport 55MW CCGT Steam provides cooling for terminal (563,000 m²) and surrounding facilities
Global Distributed Energy Development Denmark Netherlands Finland Russia Germany Canada China Chile Portugal US WORLD Thailand Mexico Brazil France India DE share as % of total power generation 7.3% Thai Data from ‘Power Development Plan 2007”, Ministry of Energy World Data from ‘World Survey of DE ’ World Alliance for Decentralized Energy
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Thai government solar home program 203,000 solar home systems US$200 million No maintenance plan 23% failure rate within 20 months
ResourceTechnical potential (MW) Commerical Potential* (MW) Year 2011 Government targets (MW) Biomass (includes biogas) Biogas Solar PV Micro- & Mini- hydro Wind Municipal Waste 7,000 >400 >5, ,600 ? >4, ? >200 ? Total>14,000>4, Estimated renewable energy potential in Thailand Source: Technical potential from Thai Ministry of Energy. (2003).“Energy Strategy for Competitiveness” Commercial potential from from Black & Veatch 2000 and NEPO/DANCED 1998 as well as interviews with power plant managers. Targets from 2005 Prime Minister’s Energy Workshop 23 November. * Commercial potential based on actual prices paid to renewable energy generators currently on-line.