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Weizmann Institute’s Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative Presentations are at

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Presentation on theme: "Weizmann Institute’s Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative Presentations are at"— Presentation transcript:

1 Weizmann Institute’s Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative Presentations are at ENERGY THE Global Challenge

2 climate water food energy

3 To live the life we aspire to, Sustainably, is an unprecedented challenge Why? Weizmann Institute’s Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative Presentations are at Three Reasons: ENERGY THE Global Challenge

4 Mankind’s Top Challenges* E N E R G Y  resource sustainability WATER (  energy) (rest of) ENVIRONMENT (  energy) FOOD (  energy) HEALTH/DISEASES(  energy) POVERTY (~ energy) EDUCATION, SECURITY P O P U L A T I O N (  ( ~ cheap energy ) -a- Energy defines accessibility to most other resources Credits/sources: many slides or parts of them came from (websites of): IEA, USDOE BES, NREL, N. Lewis (Caltech), P. Alivisatos, S. Chu (UCB /LBL), A. Nozik, S. Kurtz, D. Ginley (NREL), J. Karni, I. Lubomirsky, I. Maron, G. Hodes (WIS), A. Zaban (BIU), L. Bronicki (Ormat), Y. Lou (CWRU), G. Crabtree, * after the late R. Smalley (Rice U)

5 Not really; ….………. It is more like WHICH Energy “Types” we need WHEN and WHERE ? It costs energy to transform energy of type A to type B  “exergy”, Δ G What is Energy? Energy (work): kWh Power kW your electricity bill !(rate of energy use/generation) kW/person~ 0.7 India (2008/9 data)~ 1.8Brazil ~ 2.1 China ~ 2.4 world average* ~ 4.7 (W.) Europe ~10 USA * for food: 0.14 is world average Are we running out? (Energy is conserved, E=mc 2 ; --> nuclear energy !)

6 Total World Need for Power in 2010: ~14.5 TW; in 2050: ~28 – 40 ?? TW 1 TW = 1000 GW 1 GW = 1000 MW 1 MW = 1000 kW 2009 estimates(%) U.S.A. ~ 19 EU ~ 14 FSU ~ 10 Brazil ~ 2.2 E.Asia ~ 25 China ~ 16 Japan ~ 5 India ~ 5 Israel ~ 0.2

7 Total World Need for Power in 2010: ~15 TW; in 2050: ~28 – 40 ?? TW 1 TW = 1,000,000,000,000 W(Brazil ~ 0.35 TW) 1 GW = 1,000,000,000 W (Itaipu ~ 12.5 GW) 1 MW = 1,000,000 W (power for 1000 US homes) 1 kW = 1,000 W (1 room air conditioner) Cell phone charger ~ 5 W TV or Laptop PC~20W Frig + freezer~40 W Washing machine ~500W

8 World Power Sources by Type TWTW for Oil coal Nuclear ENERGY: J, Wsec; BTU POWER : W = J/sec 1 TW = 1000 GW 1 GW = 1000 MW 1 MW = 1000 kW gas > 80% of world power from Fossil Fuels -b- Can we rely on our present energy sources? Hydro Other Bio mass Renewables

9 but..… we’ll run out of oil Sure, at some point we will, and, yes, we’re running out of cheap, clean oil, but… do we really know? -b- Can we rely on our present energy sources?

10 From S. Kurtz, NREL; Source: EIA (Energy Information Administration) Oil Reserves as reported by several countries and relying on oil companies isn’t much better

11 Energy “Reserves” and Resources (as number of years of yearly consumption in 2000) Ultimate Resources time-independent constant : ~30-50 yrs of oil Reserves but remember…. “the Stone Age did not end because of a shortage of stones” Sheik Ahmed Zaki Yamani, Saudi Oil Minister b- Can we rely on our present energy sources? Oil ≥ 40 ≥ 50 Gas ≥ 70 ≥ 200

12 Energy “Reserves” and Resources (as number of years of yearly consumption in 2000) Ultimate Resources Oil ≥ 40 ≥ 50 Gas ≥ 70 ≥ 200 COAL~ 100 ~ 400 Reserves So, … coal solves the problems and … -b- Can we rely on our present energy sources?

13 coal  global warming -b- Can we rely on our present energy sources?

14 while not everyone may agree about coal  global warming few dispute that WE pollute OUR water, air and earth -b- Can we rely on our present energy sources?

15 and … are there alternatives? The “logical” candidate: NUCLEAR ENERGY WHY?

16 Pre-animal domestication Energy Sources Through the Ages* * “Western” world -c- Until today, new energy sources always packed more energy in same weight & volume than older ones

17 and are there other alternatives? Nuclear “Lunar” (gravitational)

18 and are there other alternatives? Nuclear (geothermal, solar)  Renewable energy sources: * SOLAR (incl. wind, hydroelectric, biofuel) * geothermal; tides, ocean currents/waves

19 1.2x10 5 TW ~ 100s TW (x 0.1  10s TW) 0.22 TW p (other) solar Renewable Energy on Earth Wind ~50 TW ~3-8 TW 0.24 TW p Biomass with all un-used cultivatable land → ~5 TW (H 2 O?) 1.9 TW (0.2 TW sustainable) Hydroelectric 4.6 TW 1.5 TW 0. 8 TW Geothermal 12 (+30 ocean) ~1 TW ~ 0.03 TW but… storage black: exists, but no idea how to get it red: exists and know how to get it purple: presently used

20 System Power Rating s 1 kW10 kW100 kW1MW10 MW100 MW1GW seconds hours minutes Discharge Time SMES Low-Speed Lead Acid Flow (redox; Vanadium) Na-S Compressed Air Pumped Hydro System Power Rating Super capacitors Ni-Cd Li-ion High-Speed Metal Air Adapted from ORNL Batteries Flywheel Energy Storage: Existing Options

21 System Power Rating s 1 kW10 kW100 kW1MW10 MW100 MW1GW seconds hours minutes Discharge Time SMES Low-Speed Lead Acid Flow (redox; Vanadium) Na-S Compressed Air Pumped Hydro System Power Rating Super capacitors Ni-Cd Li-ion High-Speed Metal Air Adapted from ORNL F U E L S Batteries Flywheel Energy Storage: Existing Options

22 ~ 6 x 6 m 2 solar cell panel for 2 days 1 (US) gallon ~ 3.8 liter ~ 37 kWh work of 2 horses for 25 hrs; of 15 men 1 (40h) week

23 Periodic Table of Potential Fuels* * 01/’07 Igor LUBOMIRSKY & David CAHEN impractical

24 Periodic Table of Potential Fuels* * 01/’07 Igor LUBOMIRSKY & David CAHEN impractical

25 Short term (< 2020) evolutions in technology & engineering: e.g.: Cleaner use of fossil fuels Improve, Optimize; coal  gas /liquid “2 nd Generation” Biofuels CONSERVATION: recycle, re-use, reduce + E D U C AT E So, what should / can we do in the

26 Medium term (up to ): develop applied science & engineering + EVOLUTIONS in basic science + E D U C AT E So, what should / can we do in the

27 Long term (> 2040): Stimulate R EVOLUTIONS in science … + E D U C AT E So, what should / can we do in the

28 God’s gifts to mankind

29

30 Silicon (oxide)

31 0.2 GW p (  ~40 MW c ) plant at Golmud, PRC World’s Largest Solar-Electric Plant (2009) 30 TW p (~ 6 TW C ) requires 1 such plant, every HOUR, for the next ~ 20 years (+ a bit of storage…) Solar Cell Power Stations TODAY

32 0.2 GW p (  ~40 MW c ) plant at Golmud, PRC World’s Largest Solar-Electric Plant (2009) 30 TW p (~ 6 TW C ) requires 1 such plant, every HOUR, for the next ~ 20 years (+ a bit of storage…) Solar Cell Power Stations TODAY 12/11 Global Cumulative installed PV power ~0.06 TW p PRC goal >2011 ≥ TW p /yr

33 Wind Energy Off Shore Wind Farm WIND 10/’11 Cumulative ~ 0.24 TW p ~ 0.08 TW c

34 Wind Energy Off Shore Wind Farm WIND 10/’11 Cumulative ~ 0.24 TW p ~ 0.08 TW c World’s largest wind farm: Roscoe Wind TX, GW p To get 10 TW c 5 / day for 22 yrs PRC goal:~0.05 TW c in 10 yr BIOFUEL: 2010 production ~ nearly 0.1 TW if 50 x  5 TW

35 Brazil’s electricity generation capacity: ~ 0.1 TW (0.5 kW/capita) Israel’s electricity generation capacity: ~ TW (1.6 kW/capita) China’s electricity growth plan: 0.1 TW/year …… One such plant, every day, for the next … 11 years 10 TW electricity from COAL ? So, “if you want to, it won’t be a fairy tale”

36 * Efficient, Affordable Artificial Photosynthesis * Cheap, Efficient Solar Cells: smart optics; solar paint …… ? Smart Natural Photosynthesis: genetic/metabolic engn.;synthetic biology …… ? 3-D (Holographic) Video-Conferencing “Memory-shape” wind turbine blades Clean(er) and Safe(r) Nuclear Energy and … Where Creativity & Curiosity Will Lead Us ! To provide the necessary Alternative Energy we (scientists) need to pursue BASIC SCIENCE to realize what are DREAMS today, such as: “if YOU want to, it won’t be a fairy tale”

37 Weizmann Institute’s Alternative, Sustainable Energy Research Initiative Energy, it’s the Global Challenge for that we need to start… Rising to the ENERGY (TW) CHALLENGE can be mankind’s most important breakthrough but … Meeting it requires all of us to work together

38 Weizmann Institute’s Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative Presentations are at now


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