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Aquatic Ecosystems Ch 7 & more. Aquatic Ecosystem Food Webs plankton: tiny organisms that drift with the currents basis of all aquatic ecosystems – Phytoplankton.

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Presentation on theme: "Aquatic Ecosystems Ch 7 & more. Aquatic Ecosystem Food Webs plankton: tiny organisms that drift with the currents basis of all aquatic ecosystems – Phytoplankton."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aquatic Ecosystems Ch 7 & more

2 Aquatic Ecosystem Food Webs plankton: tiny organisms that drift with the currents basis of all aquatic ecosystems – Phytoplankton Autotrophs Algae – Zooplankton Tiny animals or protozoa Heterotrophs Eat phytoplankton

3 Aquatic Ecosystem Food Webs Nekton = Free- swimming organisms – Fish, turtles, etc. Benthos = bottom- dwelling organisms – Mussels, worms, barnacles, etc – Often are attached to bottom surfaces Decomposers

4 Freshwater vs. Saltwater Salinity = the amount of salt in water Salt water = marine ecosystems – Coastal ecosystems Estuaries Salt marshes Mangrove swamps Barrier islands – Coral reefs – Open ocean Freshwater = no salt – Ponds, lakes & rivers – Marshes and wetlands

5 Ponds and lakes No current Levels are divided horizontally by amount of light and proximity to shore Littoral zone Littoral zone: (think light) – Lots of life – Near shore, rooted plants provide food – Off shore, phytoplankton are base Benthic zone Benthic zone: Bottom – Decomposers (bacteria) – detrivores (eat small bits of organic matter on bottom) – Filter feeders Shrimp, clams, sponges, crabs etc. environment/photos/freshwater-plants- animals/#/mexican-water- lilly_289_600x450.jpg

6 Threats to Ponds and Lakes Eutrophication (review) 1.Excess nutrients enter water 2.Algae bloom, overcrowd and die 3.Bacteria decompose algae, using up oxygen 4.Other organisms die for want of oxygen

7 Prevention of Eutrophication (review) Agricultural: Buffer zones between farms and waterways Control of runoff in areas of high manure concentration High tech fertilizer application (only as-needed)

8 Eutrophication Prevention Domestic Lawn-free landscaping

9 Eutrophication Prevention Domestic Buy phosphate-free products

10 Eutrophication Prevention Domestic Repair leaky sewer and septic systems

11 Wastewater vs. Stormwater Sources of wastewater: Dishwasher Washer Sink Shower bathtub Toilet In short, anything that goes down the drain Wastewater goes down sewer lines to a wastewater treatment plant

12 Wastewater vs. Stormwater Stormwater Water that collects outdoors and gets sent into storm drains Catch basins are design to collect this runoff

13 Runoff Catch basins take much more than storm water Oils from cars Industrial chemicals Soil from construction sites Nonpoint-source pollution – cannot be traced back to any single source Point source pollution: can be traced to a specific source

14 Stormwater runoff Most stormwater goes directly to a waterway

15 Combined Sewer Stormwater and wastewater use same system of pipes and get run to water treatment plant

16 Combined Sewer Overflow It works…until it rains hard In heavy rains, the combined stormwater and wastewater overflow and go directly to the waterways, polluting them CSO = combined sewer overflow

17 Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment Extra waste water treatment plant at point where CSO runoff gets to waterway Stop-gap Better solution: Separate sewers and stormwater systems

18 Permeability The ability to allow substances flow through A permeable surface allows rain to percolate (seep) into the ground. – Examples: Grass or other plants Gravel Dirt Ground cover like pine straw or wood chips

19 Permeability Rain washes/flows over an impermeable surface and does not get absorbed into the ground. – Ex: Rooftops, roads, parking lots

20 Permeability permeable impermeable The more impermeable surfaces we have, the more runoff goes straight into the waterways and takes pollutants with it.

21 Wetlands Areas of nearly constant moisture that contain great biodiversity Wetlands are often found in estuaries: “where rivers meet the sea” – Large mostly flat areas – Salinity changes with tides As tide comes in (gets higher), salinity ↑ As tide goes out (gets lower), salinity ↓

22 Estuaries Nutrient mixing with tides Salt water is ______ than fresh water Heavier/denser Due to tides and salt/fresh water mixing, nutrients get “trapped” in estuaries.

23 Estuaries in Georgia

24 Estuaries in Gulf of Mexico

25 Freshwater Wetlands two main types Marshes Mostly non-woody plants such as grasses, reeds and cattails Swamps Dominated by trees and shrubs

26 swamps Saltwater swamps are mangroves Freshwater swamp Trees have “knees” or buttresses, probably for support in mushy ground ve/mangrove.htm

27 Benefits of Wetlands 1.Filter pollutants 2.Control flooding – Act as giant sponge, absorbing and slowing water as it flows through 3.Buffer shorelines against erosion (absorb impact) 4.Spawning grounds, migration stop and habitat for: – commercially important shellfish and fish – Native species (some rare, endangered) 5.Recreation

28 Wetlands: Human Impact Less than ½ of original US wetlands remain Causes of destruction include – Ports (remember, wetlands are usually in estuaries) – Development (NYC, Miami, Shanghai, New Orleans…etc) – Dams, levees, canals, channels – Pollution from runoff and wastewater – Non-native plants and animals – Sanitary landfills – Mosquito control (drainage, channelization, poisoning) Channelization: digging channels/canals to drain land

29 Wetlands: Human Impact Draining wetlands results in: – Loss of benefits stated earlier – Subsidence: ground sinks due to drying out – Salt water intrusion: as wetlands are drained, saltwater seeps in from ocean This is also a cause of further destruction (positive feedback loop)

30 Wetland Loss Solutions Mitigation program: – Creating wetlands in new areas to replace their destruction for development (1983) – Mitigation bank: sells newly created wetlands to developers who have to mitigate Disallow wetland destruction for agriculture (1985)

31 Barrier Islands Protect mainland and coastal wetlands

32 Barrier islands take the brunt of storms Tuesday, October 30, 2012 Superstorm Sandy: Tuesday A Portion of Harvey Cedars on Long Beach Island, New Jersey is underwater Tuesday, Oct. 30, 2012, a day after Hurricane Sandy blew across the New Jersey barrier islands.




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