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CELLS.

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Presentation on theme: "CELLS."— Presentation transcript:

1 CELLS

2 Cell Theory Cells are the basic unit of life.
Cells come from preexisting cells. ALL organisms are composed of either one cell or many cells.

3 Cell facts: There are different cells that have different functions. (red, white) Some cells are alive and live alone—they are single celled organisms Some cells must live together: they are multicellular organisms Cells are filled with fluid.

4 8 characteristics of life
Needs water Needs energy Needs to eliminate waste Needs to exchange gases Grows Reproduces Responds to the environment. Has cells

5 Any independent living thing
Definition: Non-Examples: Definition: Any independent living thing Characteristics: Needs water and energy, grows, reproduces, exchanges gas, eliminates waste, has cells, and responds to Environment. Living Organism Non- Examples Examples:

6 Doesn’t show all 8 of the characteristics of living organisms.
Definition: Never been alive Characteristics: Doesn’t show all 8 of the characteristics of living organisms. Non-Living Non-Examples: Examples:

7 No longer shows the 8 characteristics of a living organism.
Definition: Non-Examples: Definition: Was once alive Characteristics: No longer shows the 8 characteristics of a living organism. DEAD Examples: Non-Examples

8 Definition: Characteristics: Examples: Non-Examples: Dormant
Definition: Things that are alive but are resting. Characteristics: Shows signs of life when placed in the right environment. Dormant Examples: Non-Examples:

9 Microscope Notes

10 Field of view: what you see when you look into the microscope.

11 Focal plane: a thin plane at a fixed distance from the objective lens where the image is in focus.

12 Power of magnification: the product of the magnification of the eyepiece and the objective lens.
(eyepiece x lens = power)

13 How to focus an object: Place the slide on the stage.
Put the objective lens on the lowest power. Raise the stage all the way up. Look into the microscope. Rotate/turn the course adjustment knob to focus the object. Use the fine adjustment knob to focus clearly.

14 How to care for the microscope:
Carry the microscope with 2 hands, don’t swing it. Use lens paper to clean the lens’/eyepiece. Don’t touch the lens w/ your fingers. Place dust cover over microscope when finished. Place obj. lens to lowest power & raise the stage up. Put it away. Clean up area when finished.

15 Organism: an independent living thing

16 The main difference between living cells that are organisms & cells that are not— is… living cells that are organisms live independently(alone).

17 The main difference between prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells is that Prokaryotic cells do NOT have a nucleus. Prokarotic Eukaryotic bacteria plant cells animal cells Protist cells fungus cells

18 Prokarotic cells. Eukarotic cells Ribosomes
Prokarotic cells Eukarotic cells Ribosomes Ribosomes, cell wall, Cell membrane nucleus, cytoplasm, Cell Wall mitochrondria Cytoplasm lysosome, vacuole, golgi body, vesicle E.R. cytoskeleton, centriole, cell membrane, chloroplast

19 The order from the simplest organization to the most complex
Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissue Organs Organ systems Complex multi cellular organism

20 Single cell organisms: paramecia. 1. Is made up of one cell. 2
Single cell organisms: paramecia 1. Is made up of one cell 2. Eats other organisms for food 3. Can live independently 4. Is an organism 5. Not apart of a larger organism Amoeba, euglena,

21 Multicellular organism: plant/animals. 1. Is made up of many cells. 2
Multicellular organism: plant/animals 1. Is made up of many cells 2. Plants have chloroplasts for food and color 3. Is part of an organism (plant or animal) 4. Can NOT live independently 5. Cells are stuck together

22 CYTOPLASM 1. jelly like substance in the cell all organelles float in
CYTOPLASM 1. jelly like substance in the cell all organelles float in Breaks down molecules.

23 CELL MEMBRANE “gate keeper” controls what goes in and out of the cell.

24 CYTOSKELETON provides support, strength, and shape to the cell.

25 RIBOSOMES synthesizes proteins.

26 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM 1. 2 types: smooth and rough. 2
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM 1. 2 types: smooth and rough Sythesizes macro-molecules and transports synthesized proteins Located around the nucleus.

27 GOLGI APPARATUS collects, modifies, and packages substances made in the cell.

28 VESICLE 1. located on or around the Golgi apparatus; 2
VESICLE 1. located on or around the Golgi apparatus; 2. stores and transports substances in the cell.

29 LYSOSOME digests things like worn out organelles.

30 MITOCHONDRIA 1. called the powerhouse of the cell. 2
MITOCHONDRIA 1. called the powerhouse of the cell Eats sugars and fatty acids to generate energy for the cell Can self replicate or split in 2; has its own DNA.

31 CENTRIOLE 1. located near the nucleus; 2. organizes cytoskeleton and 3
CENTRIOLE 1. located near the nucleus; 2. organizes cytoskeleton and 3. migrates to the poles to help with cell division.

32 NUCLEUS 1. Control center of the cell; also called the brain; 2
NUCLEUS 1. Control center of the cell; also called the brain; 2. controls everything inside the cell; nucleolus and DNA are located inside the nucleus DNA carries genetic messages and is made of chromosomes.

33 ADAPTATION a change an animal goes through to fit its environment in order to help it survive.

34 Mimicry: a weaker animal copies a stronger animals characteristics to warn off predators

35 Scarlet King Snake Coral Snake

36 Caterpillar Looks like a snake

37 animals that are active during the night. Ex. Bats, owls, mice
Nocturnal

38 when animals move from one place to another as a result of temperature changes ex. birds
Migration:

39 when animals sleep thru the winter. Ex. Bears, reptiles, amphibians
Hibernation:

40 Camouflage: when an organism changes its color or pattern to help it blend in w/ the environment ex. Chameleon

41 Extinction: when the last member of a species is dead

42 Natural selection: process by which some species of animals and plants survive and others become extinct

43 Stimuli: (stimulus) something that triggers a response

44 Biotic: living organisms in an environment: trees, animals, etc

45 Abiotic: non-living items in an environment: rocks, water, etc

46 Tropism: when an organism turns or curves due to a stimulus. .

47 Phototropism: plants response to light
Phototropism: plants response to light. Example: sunflowers turning toward the sun.

48 Geotropism: plants response to gravity: example: roots grow towards the center of the earth, the stem grows up

49 Thermotropism: plants response to heat example: when leaves curl up because it is cold.

50 Parts of a Flower

51 Stem 1. provides support/shape for the plant. 2. holds the leaves up

52 B. Leaves 1. Responsible for gas exchange
2. Responsible for most of the photosynthesis that the plant carries out. 3. Energy factories of the plant.

53 C. Petals Most visible and showy part of the flower

54 D. Sepals Where the flower attaches to the stem.
Green leaf-like structures Encloses the bud

55 E. Stamens 1.Male part of the flower 2. It has 3 parts a. Anther: which is the tip and is usually orange or yellow it has pollen grains. b. Sperm: inside each pollen grain.

56 F. Pistil 2. It has 4 parts: a. Stigma is the flattened tip
1. Female part of the flower 2. It has 4 parts: a. Stigma is the flattened tip b. The ovary is at the base of the pistil and is deep in the center of the flower. c. Ovules are located inside the ovary. d. Eggs, the female sex cells, are located in the ovules.

57 G. Stomates Structures that look like little mouths on the leaves that are openings. They can open and close and let gases in and out.

58 H. Guard Cells 1. Controls the size of the openings on the leaves.

59 I. Xylem A tube like structure that carries water from the roots throughout the plant.

60 II. Processes of Flowers

61 A. Main Function of a Flower
Main function is to reproduce.

62 B. Process of Pollination
Pollen forms on the anthers. Pollen grains move by wind or animals to the sticky stigma of another flower. Pollination is complete.

63 C. Process of Plant Reproduction
Pollen contains the sperm. The ovule contains the egg. After pollination the pollen grain grows a pollen tube down to the egg. The sperm joins with the egg to fertilize it. The fertile egg develops into a seed.

64 D. Seed dispersal Seeds need to move away from the parent plant in order to get the resources it needs to survive. Happens through wind, animals, water, and humans.

65 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light energy = chlorophyll C6H12O6 + 6O2
E. Photosynthesis 1. The process in which plants make food out of water and carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight. 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light energy = chlorophyll C6H12O6 + 6O2

66 1. The process from water entering a plant to leaving the plant.
F. Transpiration 1. The process from water entering a plant to leaving the plant. Water from the soil enters the roots, then travels from the xylem to all cells and exits through the leaves.

67 3. During a drought , water is scarce.
2. IT is important because it delivers water to every cell in the plant at all times. 3. During a drought , water is scarce. Less water vapor is released through stomates.

68 C. Pollination Pollen forms on the anthers.
2. Pollen grains move by wind or animals to the sticky stigma of another flower. 3. Once the pollen has landed on the stigma, pollination is complete.

69 Title: SEEDS Facts about seeds
SEEDS ARE LIVING ORGANISMS IN A DORMANT STAGE. WATER ACTIVATES THE SEED TO BEGIN GROWING. SEEDS follow all 8 characteristics of life.

70 A. PARTS OF A SEED EMBRYO

71 1. THE SEED COAT It is the tough, outside layer which protects the seed. EMBRYO

72 2. EMBRYO This is the NEW baby plant inside the seed.

73 EMBRYO EMBRYO

74 3. COTYLEDON It is the food/energy source for the baby plant. EMBRYO

75 B. ORDER OF SEED GROWTH 1. THE ROOT APPEARS FIRST,
AND THEN ROOT HAIRS. 2. THE SHOOT (STEM) APPEARS SECOND. 3. THE LEAVES APPEAR LAST.

76 2 Reasons Roots Grow First
To help the new plant get the water and nutrients it needs. To help keep the plant in place.

77 roots and root hairs

78 Stem appears

79 Leaves appear last

80 C. GERMINATION The beginning growth and development of a plant.

81 EXAMPLES OF MONOCOT SEEDS:
D. MONOCOT SEEDS ONE COTYLEDON FIBROUS ROOT SYSTEM EXAMPLES OF MONOCOT SEEDS: CORN, WHEAT, BARLEY, ONION

82 EXAMPLES OF DICOT SEEDS:
E. DICOT SEEDS TWO COTYLEDONS TAPROOT SYSTEM 50% ARE TREES EXAMPLES OF DICOT SEEDS: SUNFLOWERS, GREEN/LIMA BEANS, SQUASH, PEAS, TOMATOES

83 F. MONOCOTS VS DICOTS THE MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MONOCOT AND DICOT SEEDS: MONOCOT SEEDS--ONLY HAVE 1 COTYLEDON. DICOT SEEDS--HAVE 2 COTYLEDONS.


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