2Cell Theory Cells are the basic unit of life. Cells come from preexisting cells.ALL organisms are composed of either one cell or many cells.
3Cell facts:There are different cells that have different functions. (red, white)Some cells are alive and live alone—they are single celled organismsSome cells must live together: they are multicellular organismsCells are filled with fluid.
48 characteristics of life Needs waterNeeds energyNeeds to eliminate wasteNeeds to exchange gasesGrowsReproducesResponds to the environment.Has cells
5Any independent living thing Definition:Non-Examples:Definition:Any independent living thingCharacteristics:Needs water and energy, grows, reproduces, exchanges gas, eliminates waste, has cells, and responds to Environment.Living OrganismNon- ExamplesExamples:
6Doesn’t show all 8 of the characteristics of living organisms. Definition:Never been aliveCharacteristics:Doesn’t show all 8 of the characteristics of living organisms.Non-LivingNon-Examples:Examples:
7No longer shows the 8 characteristics of a living organism. Definition:Non-Examples:Definition:Was once aliveCharacteristics:No longer shows the 8 characteristics of a living organism.DEADExamples:Non-Examples
8Definition: Characteristics: Examples: Non-Examples: Dormant Definition:Things that are alive but are resting.Characteristics:Shows signs of life when placed in the right environment.DormantExamples:Non-Examples:
10Field of view: what you see when you look into the microscope.
11Focal plane: a thin plane at a fixed distance from the objective lens where the image is in focus.
12Power of magnification: the product of the magnification of the eyepiece and the objective lens. (eyepiece x lens = power)
13How to focus an object: Place the slide on the stage. Put the objective lens on the lowest power.Raise the stage all the way up.Look into the microscope.Rotate/turn the course adjustment knob to focus the object.Use the fine adjustment knob to focus clearly.
14How to care for the microscope: Carry the microscope with 2 hands, don’t swing it.Use lens paper to clean the lens’/eyepiece. Don’t touch the lens w/ your fingers.Place dust cover over microscope when finished.Place obj. lens to lowest power & raise the stage up.Put it away. Clean up area when finished.
19The order from the simplest organization to the most complex AtomsMoleculesOrganellesCellsTissueOrgansOrgan systemsComplex multi cellular organism
20Single cell organisms: paramecia. 1. Is made up of one cell. 2 Single cell organisms: paramecia 1. Is made up of one cell 2. Eats other organisms for food 3. Can live independently 4. Is an organism 5. Not apart of a larger organism Amoeba, euglena,
21Multicellular organism: plant/animals. 1. Is made up of many cells. 2 Multicellular organism: plant/animals 1. Is made up of many cells 2. Plants have chloroplasts for food and color 3. Is part of an organism (plant or animal) 4. Can NOT live independently 5. Cells are stuck together
22CYTOPLASM 1. jelly like substance in the cell all organelles float in CYTOPLASM 1. jelly like substance in the cell all organelles float in Breaks down molecules.
23CELL MEMBRANE “gate keeper” controls what goes in and out of the cell.
24CYTOSKELETON provides support, strength, and shape to the cell.
26ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM 1. 2 types: smooth and rough. 2 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM 1. 2 types: smooth and rough Sythesizes macro-molecules and transports synthesized proteins Located around the nucleus.
27GOLGI APPARATUS collects, modifies, and packages substances made in the cell.
28VESICLE 1. located on or around the Golgi apparatus; 2 VESICLE 1. located on or around the Golgi apparatus; 2. stores and transports substances in the cell.
29LYSOSOME digests things like worn out organelles.
30MITOCHONDRIA 1. called the powerhouse of the cell. 2 MITOCHONDRIA 1. called the powerhouse of the cell Eats sugars and fatty acids to generate energy for the cell Can self replicate or split in 2; has its own DNA.
31CENTRIOLE 1. located near the nucleus; 2. organizes cytoskeleton and 3 CENTRIOLE 1. located near the nucleus; 2. organizes cytoskeleton and 3. migrates to the poles to help with cell division.
32NUCLEUS 1. Control center of the cell; also called the brain; 2 NUCLEUS 1. Control center of the cell; also called the brain; 2. controls everything inside the cell; nucleolus and DNA are located inside the nucleus DNA carries genetic messages and is made of chromosomes.
33ADAPTATIONa change an animal goes through to fit its environment in order to help it survive.
34Mimicry: a weaker animal copies a stronger animals characteristics to warn off predators
51Stem1. provides support/shape for the plant.2. holds the leaves up
52B. Leaves 1. Responsible for gas exchange 2. Responsible for most of the photosynthesis that the plant carries out.3. Energy factories of the plant.
53C. PetalsMost visible and showy part of the flower
54D. Sepals Where the flower attaches to the stem. Green leaf-like structuresEncloses the bud
55E. Stamens1.Male part of the flower 2. It has 3 parts a. Anther: which is the tip and is usually orange or yellow it has pollen grains. b. Sperm: inside each pollen grain.
56F. Pistil 2. It has 4 parts: a. Stigma is the flattened tip 1. Female part of the flower2. It has 4 parts:a. Stigma is the flattened tipb. The ovary is at the base of the pistil and is deep in the center of the flower.c. Ovules are located inside the ovary.d. Eggs, the female sex cells, are located in the ovules.
57G. StomatesStructures that look like little mouths on the leaves that are openings.They can open and close and let gases in and out.
58H. Guard Cells1. Controls the size of the openings on the leaves.
59I. XylemA tube like structure that carries water from the roots throughout the plant.
61A. Main Function of a Flower Main function is to reproduce.
62B. Process of Pollination Pollen forms on the anthers.Pollen grains move by wind or animals to the sticky stigma of another flower.Pollination is complete.
63C. Process of Plant Reproduction Pollen contains the sperm.The ovule contains the egg.After pollination the pollen grain grows a pollen tube down to the egg.The sperm joins with the egg to fertilize it.The fertile egg develops into a seed.
64D. Seed dispersalSeeds need to move away from the parent plant in order to get the resources it needs to survive.Happens through wind, animals, water, and humans.
656CO2 + 6H2O + Light energy = chlorophyll C6H12O6 + 6O2 E. Photosynthesis1. The process in which plants make food out of water and carbon dioxide in the presence of sunlight.6CO2 + 6H2O + Light energy = chlorophyll C6H12O6 + 6O2
661. The process from water entering a plant to leaving the plant. F. Transpiration1. The process from water entering a plant to leaving the plant.Water from the soil enters the roots, then travels from the xylem to all cells and exits through the leaves.
673. During a drought , water is scarce. 2. IT is important because it delivers water to every cell in the plant at all times.3. During a drought , water is scarce.Less water vapor is released throughstomates.
68C. Pollination Pollen forms on the anthers. 2. Pollen grains move by wind or animalsto the sticky stigma of another flower.3. Once the pollen has landed on thestigma, pollination is complete.
69Title: SEEDS Facts about seeds SEEDS ARE LIVING ORGANISMS IN A DORMANT STAGE.WATER ACTIVATES THE SEED TO BEGIN GROWING.SEEDS follow all 8 characteristics of life.