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Recent Trends in Membrane Technology for Water quality management Prof. (Dr.) P. K. Tewari President Indian Desalination Association Professor Homi Bhabha.

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Presentation on theme: "Recent Trends in Membrane Technology for Water quality management Prof. (Dr.) P. K. Tewari President Indian Desalination Association Professor Homi Bhabha."— Presentation transcript:

1 Recent Trends in Membrane Technology for Water quality management Prof. (Dr.) P. K. Tewari President Indian Desalination Association Professor Homi Bhabha national Institute Head Desalination Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay Mumbai (India) January 20,2011 Delhi

2 Access to water ≠ Safe drinking water

3

4 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80, , , ,000 Fluoride Arsenic Salinity Iron Multiple No.of habitations Source: DDWS Water Quality Problem Number of Habitations affected by Contaminants in India

5 Clean water Disinfection Decontamination Re-use and reclamationDesalination Shannon etal. Nature 452(2009) Science and technology for water quality management

6 Coimbatore February 2009 URBAN SECTOR (Large size requirement MLD) RURAL SECTOR (Community size desalination/ water purification systems KLD) DOMESTIC SECTOR (Point of use technology LPD) INDUSTRIAL SECTOR (Waste heat utilization/ water recycling & reuse KLD to MLD) DISASTER MANAGEMENT (Extreme field conditions KLD)

7 Membrane Technology

8 Pressure Driven Membrane Processes

9 Salient features of the membranes ParameterUFNFRO Pore size1-200 nm1-5 nm0.1-1 nm Operating pressure 1-4 bar7-15 bar>15 bar Flux LMD >700 LMD LMD Energy requirements 0.03 KW e h4-5 KW e h5-9 KW e h Suitable forComplex ions/molecules MW>600 Ionic species, bivalents Monovalent ionic species

10 CHALLENGES High efficiency membrane Membrane life Membrane flux Fouling & compaction resistant Selection of Polymer Preparation of Membrane Characterization Application Diagnostics

11 WATER PURIFICATION

12 UF membrane candle Housing No suspended solids No Bacteria (Inactive, dead or decayed) Very Compact Small inexpensive device No need of electricity No need of Chemicals Highly resistant towards chemicals No loss of water, (dead end operation) UF Membrane device for domestic water purification Ultra-Filtration (UF) Membarane for Domestic Water Purification

13 Commercialized On-line Domestic Water Purifier Produced & Marketed by BARC’s Licensees No of licensees: 21

14 Domestic Water Purifier Contaminated water pure water Rural Adaptation of BARC developed Membrane Based water Purification Technology  Ultra-Filtration (UF) based domestic and community level water purification technologies  Removal of bacteria and virus from the contaminated water  Works without electricity.

15 BARC Developed Membrane based Next Generation Water Purification Devices  Arsenic removal (product water <10 ppb as per WHO standard)  Iron removal (product water <0.3 ppm as per WHO standard)  Fluoride removal (product water <1 ppm as per WHO standard) Module Capacity: 5 KLD UF

16 Role of BARC in Desalination & water Purification-Present Capabilities- Solar Energy Driven Desalination & Water Purification Solar Energy Driven Desalination & Water Purification Facilities at Trombay RO Capacity: 2000 LPD* UF Capacity 2400 LPD RO Capacity 240 LPD Solar-Thermal 1000 LPD LPD*: Litres Per Day

17 DESALINATION

18 DG UF RO Trailor Mounted RO Developed by BARC Trailor Mounted Brackish Water RO Desalination Plants Present Capabilities in Community size (KLD)- BARC PLANT CHARACTERISTICS: Product Quality: As per WHO Higher membrane flux hence more production Energy Recovery Less pretreatment RO Plant for Sea water Desalination at Kalpakkam BARC (Capacity: 1.8 MLD)

19 SALIENT FEATURES Physical elimination of Suspended solids, Micro-organisms, Ensures continuous operation, Low foot print, Stable flux, Colloidal species, Turbidity Stable output quality Useful as community water purifier Useful as pretreatment for desalination SPECIFICATIONS Operating pressure 2-3 Kg/cm2 (g) Backwashing pressure upto 2.0 Kg/cm2(g) Polysulphone/ Polyether sulphone Ultrafiltration membrane Cross flow mode of operation for higher NTU feed Dead-end mode operation for feed quality upto 10 NTU Membrane flux of 1000 lmd/bar Backwashing by filtrate / pure service water BACKWASHABLE UF ELEMENT IN OPERATION BACKWASHABLE SPIRAL WOUND ULTRAFILTRATION ELEMENT Technology transferred to 3 parties

20 Development of Barge Mounted RO Plant for Drinking Water from Sea Water in coastal areas

21 S. No. PlaceCapacity (MLD) ProcessSupplied/ Installed by 1.NDDP, Kalpakkam6.3Hybrid (MSF- RO) BARC (India) 6.TWAD, Chennai3.8SWROBHEL (India) 7.NPCIL, Kudankulam1.2SWROTata Proj/ Doshi Ion 8.CMWSSB, Chennai100SWROIVRCL/ BEFESA (Spain) 9.CPCL, Chennai26SWROIon Exchange (India) Some of Membrane based Seawater Desalination Plants in India

22 SWRO Desalination Plant at Minjur Chennai (India) set up by IVRCL & BEFESA (Spain) on DBOOT Basis Capacity: 100 MLD Source: CMWSSB

23 Nuclear Energy Driven Desalination Plant based on Hybrid MSF-RO Technology at Kalpakkam Total capacity (MLD): 6.3 Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) Capacity (MLD): 4.5 Product water quality (ppm): 2 (distilled quality, good for high end industrial use) Reverse Osmosis (RO) Capacity (MLD): 1.8 Product water quality (ppm): 250 (fit for human consumption) MLD: Million Litres/Day

24 WASTE WATER RECOVERY & RECYCLE

25 Integrated Solution CONVENTIONAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT Process Raw Water Water Treatment Plant Treated Water Effluent Treatment Plant Effluent Discharge WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT USING MEMBRANE PROCESSES Process Raw Water Water Treatment Plant Treated Water Product Recovery Plant (NF) Effluent Partially treated effluent Water Recovery & Recycle Plant (RO) Recycled Water Recovered Product Minimal Discharge Source Reduction Product Recovery Water Reuse Waste Minimisation Industrial Waste Water Management (any capacity KLD to MLD)

26 Emerging Trends in Membrane Technology

27 Charged membranes Positively charged membrane Na + Ca ++ SO 4 -- Cl - Quaternary ammonium groups like -N + (CH 3 ) 4 Cl - contribute to the fixed positive charge of the membrane Cl - Na + Ca ++ SO 4 -- Negatively charged groups like SO 3 H +, COOH groups contribute to the negative charge of the membranes Negatively charged membrane

28 Nano-material Contaminants Removal Metal nanoparticles & Bimetallic nanoparticles (effective redox media) Organic & inorganic pollutants Metal oxide like TiO2 (effective photocatayst) Organics like Chloro-alkanes and inorganic pollutants like heavy metals Metal oxides like MgO and Ag nanoparticles Bacteria removal Carbon Nanotubes (Nanosorbents) Heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cu etc.; organics like dioxin, anions like arsenate, fluoride etc ; bacteria like E. Coli and polio virus Nanotube/ nanoparticle embedded membrane (Nanocomposite membrane) Removal of wide range of contaminants from water with high flux, high selectivity, less fouling characteristics Activated carbon fibers (nanosorbents) Organics like benzene, toulene etc. Nano-materials of Interest for Water Purification

29 Selected nanomaterials currently being evaluated as functional materials for water purification Dendrimer (repeatedly branched polymeric species) Zeolite (microporous aluminosilicate materials) Carbon Nano-TubeMetal Oxide

30 Nanotechnology in Water Purification  Bacteria removal  Anions removal (Arsenite, Arsenate etc.)  Organic contaminants removal  Heavy Metals Removal (Lead, Cadmium etc.)

31 Carbon Nano-Tubes (CNT) Graphitic sheets rolled into seamless tubes have diameters ranging from tubes have diameters ranging from about a nanometer to tens of nanometers about a nanometer to tens of nanometers with lengths up to centimeters have unique electrical, thermal, hydrodynamic and mechanical properties properties SWNT-A single graphite sheet rolled MWNT-Multiple graphitic sheets rolled 1. Soumitra Kar, R.C. Bindal, S. Prabhakar, P.K. Tewari, 'Potential of Carbon Nano-Tubes in Water Purification: an Approach towards Development of an Integrated Membrane System', International J. of Nuclear Desalination, Vol.3, No.2, 2008, pp K. Dasgupta, Soumitra Kar, Ramani Venugopal, R.C. Bindal, S. Prabhakar, P.K. Tewari, Self-standing Geometry of Aligned Carbon Nano-Tubes with High Surface Area, Materials Letters, Vol. 62, 2008 pp

32 Conformal encapsulation of as-grown aligned CNTs With Polymer/Ceramic Removal of excess material above the CNT array and metallic nanoparticles at the back. HF acid etch to remove membrane from substrate Opening of CNT tips Using plasma oxidation or acid treatment CNT membrane fabrication steps Hinds, B.J., et al. (2004) Science, Vol. 303, p.62. Challenge is to have 12 orders of magnitude of aligned CNTs per sq. cm

33 Nanocomposite Membranes in Water Purifications Effect of zeolite loading on separation performance of synthesized TFC and TFN membranes Journal of Membrane Science, 294, 2007, 1 Applied pressure: 1.24 MPa Feed concentration: 2000 ppm

34  If carbon nanotube–based membranes can be scaled up and made to exclude salts— it could enable desalination facilities to sharply reduce the amount of energy required to purify water  The CNT based membrane fabrication (scaling up to large size), could be useful industrially for chemical separations  CNT/ceramic composites (instead of CNT-Polymer composites) can be used in the field of high-temperature applications Challenges & Opportunities in CNT-based Membrane

35 Nanostructured materials are of tremendous interest, from both a fundamental and applied perspective because of:  Exceptional thermal and mechanical stability  High surface area  Reusability with full filtering efficiency regained  Chemical functionalization of the surfaces Nanotechnology is an emerging field with great opportunities. Commercialization of R&D work and product development is yet to pickup. Synergy among different R&D groups and industries is needed. It is estimated that nanotechnology has potential to create a trillion dollar industry by Challenges & Opportunities in CNT-based Membrane

36 Thanks

37 Production of the macro architecture of aligned nanotubes for use in filtration applications a.Spray Pyrolysis of Benzene-Ferrocene mixture b.Macro tube grown composed of aligned CNTs c.SEM cross section of Macrotube Srivastava, A., et al. (2004) Nature Materials, Vol. 3, p.610.


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