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Agricultural Science Teachers Presentation Oilseed Rape Maize Geraldine Hynes B.Agr.Sc. H.D.B.S. Teagasc Drystock Advisor Claremorris Co Mayo (094 ) 9371360.

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Presentation on theme: "Agricultural Science Teachers Presentation Oilseed Rape Maize Geraldine Hynes B.Agr.Sc. H.D.B.S. Teagasc Drystock Advisor Claremorris Co Mayo (094 ) 9371360."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agricultural Science Teachers Presentation Oilseed Rape Maize Geraldine Hynes B.Agr.Sc. H.D.B.S. Teagasc Drystock Advisor Claremorris Co Mayo (094 ) 9371360 Dec 09

2 Oil Seed Rape Source World wide source of Vegetable oil IRL `90s 6000ha – UK for processing CAP economically unattractive `05 SFP and energy premium Energy Crop Scheme €45 /ha max National top up €80/ha max 37.5 ha + demand from local bio fuel processors grown on contract Quinns Baltinglass, Glanbia Ireland 4500 ha

3 Rotation and Soils Free draining Med heavy Soil Poor yield light /waterlogged soils Ph 6.3 OSR Brassica crop Previously Brassicas Club root leave 4 yrs Previously Sugar Beet Beet Cyst eelworm leave 2 yrs Good as break crop - Deep roots improve soil structure

4 Establishment Winter OSR Mid Aug (North) – Mid Sept (South ) 60-80seeds/m2 30-50plants/m2 in spring Allows sufficient light to base,encourage branching and pod numbers Spring OSR Mid March - April 100-120 seeds/m2 Fine firm level seed bed depth 1.5cm Ploughing one pass drilling In dry conditions to avoid compaction Roll - firm seed bed -Moisture retention

5 Varieties Spring OSR HGCA List UK Home Grown Cereal Authority VarietyYield %Standing Ability Straw Shortness Earliness Maturity Dorothy97886 Estrade98777 Heroes101755 Liasion98755 Topic93777

6 Varieties Winter OSR Daff data 3 year mean Daff data 1yr results 2009 HCGA Resistance to lodging Shortness stemLight Leaf spot Osprey105103------------- -------- NK Bavour10110087 6 FLASH11512276 6 Lioness----- 87 6 Epure108 ------ ----- Castille10011188 5

7 Lime and Fertiliser PH 6.5 N 130-150kgsN/ha. P + K Soil index 3 20kgs P 35 kgs K /ha. e.g. 400kg/ha 18 6 12 /ha and top dress post emergence with Nitrogen 50% incorporated pre sowing / Vigorous growth Remainder rosette to early stem stage Sandy soils Sulphur deficiency 20kgs.ha Boron deficiency common especially in drought conditions Apply Bo fertilizer / Solubar spray @5-10kgs./ha.

8 Weed Control Pre sowing Incorporate Treflan (Chickweed/Fat Hen/Speedweel Pre emergence Trifuralin /Butisan (Knotgrass / Mayweeds) Post emergence Kerb Flow grass weeds broadleaf weeds

9 Disease Phoma leaf spot (Canker ) 25% reduction in yield Light leaf spot 50% Sclerotina effects petals leaf stem 50% Alternaria pod spot WOSR I to 2 sprays of a fungicide to cover above SOSR usually disease free

10 Harvesting End July early August 90% seeds are black 1. Desication and direct combing weedy crops Glyophosphate products 14- 21 days pre harvest (2/3 pods are brown ) scutch/perennial weeds controled Diquat products 7-10 days pre harvest (Bottom pods Brown /black : middle reddish brown ) 2. Swathing done in exposed locations 6-7weeks after the end flowering ( seeds top pods turning green to brown : middle brown : lower pods dark brown ) 7-14 days later combine seeds black Suits exposed weed free fields

11 Yields and Returns WOSRSOSR Yield Tons/ha2.5 - 4.31.7- 3.1 Materials Seed fertiliser sprays 711536 Hire Machinery Plough roll till harvest 462380 Total Variable costs1173616 Gross Margin excl premia-€65 - 500 -€63 - 368

12 Maize Why grow High in energy less meals required Could replace 50% silage In cow increases intake by 10% increases milk fat and protein 3- 5% Cattle increased performance by 10% Easy to ensile Utilises slurry well

13 Feeding value Protein 9%- 11 % low Grass silage 12-15% Introduce Maize Gradually Feed with long fibre hay /straw if main roughage Minerals low so balance with Maize Balancer Maize silage spoils quicker than grass Don’t ruffle feed face esp. in mild weather Slightly Cheaper /ton dm €91 versus €118 grass silage

14 Site Selection Requires 10° C Ontario Heat units (based on max min temp e.g crop needs 2400 OHU from sowing to harvest Ireland south of line from Dundalk to Fermoy back up to Galway Outside this will grow but yield poor

15 Site Selection (cont`d) Sheltered fields Well drained good soil Southerly Aspect so max. sunlight &temp long growing season Good access to facilitate slurry in Spring harvesting in Autumn Grown continuously without rotational constraints

16 Variety Good yield Maturity date Lodging resistance Disease Resistance DAFF Recommended list

17 Sowing date Requires 10 C Seed sown in cold soils poor emergence and vigour April 20 th complete May 10 th Seed rate 105,000 to110,000/ha 1acre packs Seed dressed soilborne diseases and bird repellent Germination 90% Plant population 100,000 above this DM% is low and delay in maturing

18 Fertiliser Cattle /Pig slurry Ploughed in Mar/Apr should supply most of P&K Nitrogen 80 - 225kgs /ha. Phosphorous 10 - 70 kgs Potash 100- 285kgs

19 Seedbed Preparations Has deep and flat rooted plant system Plough Deep (10 - 13 cm ) Generally 2 passes power harrow Firm fine tilth similar to sugar beet Light rolling to ensure good consolation

20 Sowing Precision drill in rows 70 -75 cm apart at a depth of 4cm in heavy soils 6 cm in light soils Too deep will delay emergence Plant at right angles to the prevailing wind to facilitate harvesting if lodged Plastic photodegradable increases temp 3.5 C in May 3.9 C in June 1.0 C in July Cost €300/ha cost effective increases dm yield increases DM content increases starch content

21 Weed Pest Control Perennial weeds Scutch/ Docks in Autumn with Round up ?? (C `ant plough grassland between October 15 and Dec1 0(Green cover 6wks) Pre emergence Cadou Star Post emergence Dow Shield/Titus Annual weeds/Broadleaf weeds Pests not problem Leatherjackets /wireworms after grass Yaltox Frit fly Yellow dead central shoot Dursban

22 Harvesting Unlike grass silage DMD does not fall rapidly DMD 68% ( range 60-72) >30 % DM hard passes through animal High DM crops corn cracker used Harder to ensile Clamp consolidation More Aerobic deterioration 27% Grain med to hard dough stage Top of grain starting to dimple Harvest Sept. _ early maturing crops Harvest Oct _ Majority varieties

23 Harvesting Cont`d Chop length 1- 1.5cm so most grains are ruptured By varying the no blades and speed of feed roller Generally no additive used

24 Cost MaizeGrass silage Seed/Reseding18520 Fertilizer364260 Seedbed prep185 15 Spraying slurry3663 Harvest into pit Covering 300453 Total1148855 Cost /ton DM91118

25 Maize Versus Silage MaizeGras silage Protein %9- 1012-15 DM%27-3519-25 DMD %6860-75 Yield /ha40-5024-27 Value 1 ton Meals @€185 4025-30

26 Thanks For your attention

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