Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates CH339K. What Makes a Carbo a Carbo? Overall formula Where n ≥ 3 Etymology: From their general formula C n (H 2 O) n ; they were once thought."— Presentation transcript:
What Makes a Carbo a Carbo? Overall formula Where n ≥ 3 Etymology: From their general formula C n (H 2 O) n ; they were once thought to be hydrates of carbon.
Simplest Carbos: N=3 2 Tautomers Tautomers are isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert by a chemical reaction called tautomerization. (Wikipedia)
Glyceraldehyde exists as a pair of enantiomers Enantiomers are non-superimposable mirror images Vertical bonds go into the plane of the projection Horizontal bonds emerge from the plane of projection
Spore formation Figure 1. Stages of sporulation. (A) Stage 0/I, (B) stage II, (C) stage III, (D) stage IV, (E) released spore. The hatched line around the spore in panels D and E is the coat. From: Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 59 (2002)
Do not try this at home!!!!! 1.It will not work as shown 2.You will die 3.Everyone you know will go to Gitmo Production
Delivery The M33 500-lb biological cluster bomb, which held 108 of the M114 bombs. Photograph: Chemical and Biological Defense Command Historical Research and Response Team, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.
Pilot anthrax plant at Ft. Detrick, MD (shut down in 1969) Al Hakam “Single-Cell Protein” Plant (demolished under UN supervision, 1996)
Whoopsie! 1979 – Sverdvlosk 66 people die Aerosol plume from “Military Compound 19” Somebody left the vent to the outside open.
-Lactams This carbon forms covalent bond with active-site serine on transpeptidase enzyme
Glycoprotein Functions FunctionGlycoproteins Structural moleculeCollagens Lubricant and protective agentMucins Transport moleculeTransferrin, ceruloplasmin Immunologic moleculeImmunoglobins, histocompatibility antigens Hormone Chorionoic gonadotropin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) EnzymeVarious, eg, alkaline phosphatase Cell attachment-recognition site Various proteins involved in cell-cell (eg, sperm-oocyte), virus-cell, bacterium-cell, and hormone cell interactions AntifreezeCertain plasma proteins of coldwater fish Interact with specific carbohydratesLectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies ReceptorVarious proteins involved in hormone and drug action Affect folding of certain proteinsCalnexin, calreticulin Regulation of developmentNotch and its analogs, key proteins in development Hemostasis (and thrombosis) Specific glycoproteins on the surface membranes of platelets
N-Linked Glycosylation All eukaryotes make N-linked glycoproteins Usually Cotranslational Consensus sequence Asn – X – Ser/Thr Usually when there’s an accessible loop in the folding protein structure
N-Linked Glycosylation (cont.) Core oligosaccharide synthesized on cytoplasmic side of ER Attached to dolichol in ER membrane Core oligo transferred to lumen of ER Core oligo transferred to protein Further processing occurs in ER / Golgi