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Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation Government of India Bamboo as a Material for Housing.

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Presentation on theme: "Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation Government of India Bamboo as a Material for Housing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation Government of India Bamboo as a Material for Housing and Buildings – Indian Experience

2 Traditional use of Wood and Bamboo

3 Forest Cover in India 329 m hectares land area 63.34 m hectares notified as forest – 19.15% Dense forest-11% Open forest-8% Mangrove-0.15% Therefore, there is a need to save forest timber.

4 Bamboo Addresses THREE Major National Concerns ECOLOGICAL SECURITY: ECOLOGICAL SECURITY: conservation of forests through timber substitution, alternate materials to non-biodegradable & high energy consuming materials like metals and plastics SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY: SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY: bamboo based agro - forestry system, maintenance of soil fertility of adjoining agricultural lands, and bamboo shoots LIVELIHOOD SECURITY: LIVELIHOOD SECURITY: generation of employment in planting and primary processing for manufacturing mat based composites and other market driven bamboo products

5 MAJOR BAMBOO GROWING REGIONS / STATES REGIONS / STATES AREAGross ( % ) Share ( % ) Share North East 28.066 Madhya Pradesh 20.312 Maharashtra9.95 Orissa 8.7 7 Andhra Pradesh7.42 Karnataka5.53 Other States20.25 (Kerala, UP, Jharkhand, West Bengal) India is home to almost 45 % of world's bamboo forests 4.5 M tons annually produced from 8.96 m ha. LAND AREA 329 MHa FOREST AREA 63.3 MHa BAMBOO AREA 8.96MHa 67% clump forming 33% non clump forming BAMBOO RESOURCES IN INDIA

6 Status of Bamboo Resources in North- Eastern Region StateBamboo Growing Area (Sq.Km.) Bamboo Stock (Million tons) Mizoram921010.89 Assam821313.41 Arunachal Pradesh45909.84 Manipur369211.47 Meghalaya31024.41 Tripura9390.86 Nagaland7583.66 Total3050454.53

7 Distribution of Some Important Bamboo Species in India SpeciesAvailability % Growing Stock States D. strictus45Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Orissa M. baccifera20Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tipura B. arundinacia13Nagaland, Karnataka, Orissa D. hamiltonii7Arunchal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland B. tulda5Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Tripura B. pallida4Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Tripura Rest6

8 Major Uses of Bamboo UsePercent Consumption Paper Pulp35.0 Housing20.0 Non-Residential5.0 Rural uses20.0 Fuel8.5 Packing, including baskets5.0 Transport1.5 Furniture1.0 Other wood industries1.0 Others, including ladders etc.3.0

9 Characteristics affecting usefulness of bamboo as construction material -the strength of bamboo culms -their straightness -lightness combined with hardeners -range and size of hollowers with good physical and mechanical properties, low shrinkage and average density, it is well suited to replace wood in several applications


11 Major Uses of Bamboo in Construction Scaffolding Reinforcement Roofing Walling Doors & Windows

12 Bamboo – Nature’s Gift [A material for cost effective and disaster resistant housing] As a Raw Material Properties: 1.High tensile strength 2.Very good weight to strength ratio 3.Pressure tolerance upto 3656 kg/cm 2 4.Easy to handle with simple tools 5.Renewable raw material Building Material 1.Environment friendly 2.Energy efficient 3.Cost effective Weaknesses 1.Has short durability compared to wood 2.High moisture and starch content 3.Prone to fungi and beetle attach 4.Service life of untreated bamboo 4-6 years in exposed conditions Treatment & Preservation Preservation (Traditional methods): Curing; Smoking; Soaking; Seasoning Chemical Treatment: Boric acid; Borax; Boron; (Dip diffusion or modified Boucherie processes) Mechanical Process for Cutting, slicing, knot removing and slivering Mat weaving from Slivers Hot Processing and Binding Composite Building Materials BMBs, BMPB, BMCS Bamboo Lumber Sandwiched panel Bamboo based shutters Bamboo flooring Bamboo House Bamboo – Raw Material to Finished Product

13 Indian Specifications for Bamboo & Bamboo Products IS 14588 : 1999 Specification for Bamboo Mat Veneer Composite for General Purposes IS 13958 : 1994 Specification for Bamboo Mat Board for General Purposes IS 1902 : 1993 Code of Practice for Preservation of Bamboo and Cane for non-structural purposes IS 10145 : 1982 Specification for Bamboo Supports for Camouflaging Equipment IS 9096 : 1979 Code of Practice for Preservation of Bamboo and Cane for Structural purposes IS 8242 :1976 Method of Tests for Split Bamboo IS 8295 :1976 Specification for Bamboo Chicks ; Part 1 Fine, Part 2 Coarse IS 7344 : 1974 Specification for Bamboo Tent Pole IS 6874 : 1973 Method of Tests for Round Bamboo IS 15476 : 2004 Specification for Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets

14 Bamboo has lower natural durability against attack of fungi and insects -requires treatment to increase durability -difficult to be treated by normal preservative methods in dry conditions. -Best carried out in green conditions. IS9096:2006 : Code of Practice for preservation of bamboo for structural purpose Covers : Type of preservations, Treatment procedure for structural purposes like post, scaffolding, walls, trusses etc.

15 Preservatives Recommended -Coal Tar Creosote -Copper – chrome - arsenic compositions -Acid- cupric – chromate composition -Copper – chrome- born composition -Boni Acid – boxes -Copper zinc – napthanate Abietates

16 Process of Preservation IS 401:2001 Code of Practice for Preservation of Timber 1. Surface application ( brushing, dipping) 2. Hot & Cold Method 3. Boucheire Process5. Inter Nodal Injection 4. Diffusion Process

17 Structural Provision of Bamboo Part 6:Structural Design Section 3:Timber and Bamboo: 3B. Bamboo National Building Code. Material Specification -Physical and mechanical properties of 20 species of bamboo -16 species found suitable for structural purpose and densified in Group A,B,C.

18 Limiting Strength Values (in Green Conditions) Modulus of Rupture (R’) Modulus of Elasticity (E) in Bending 10 3 N/mm 2 Group AR’ > 70E > 9 Group B70> R’>509 > E > 6 Group C50> R’>306 > E > 3

19 Most Suited Species Bamusa bamboosDendrocalamus strength Bright shiny, green when fresh, yellow with age Pale blue green when fresh dull green to yellow with age Height15-30m8-16m DiameterUpto 150mm25-80 mm Internodes200-400mm300-400 mm ThicknessThick-walledThick walled often solid Other species: Bamboo Below; Bamboo; Dendrocalamus as per; Dendrocalamus transitions


21 Typical Moisture Content Relation Matured culms shall be seasoned to about 20% moisture content before use.

22 Grading of structural bamboo Sorting out bamboo on the basis of characteristics importance for structural utilization Diameter and length of culms Taper of culms Straightness of culms Inter-nodal length Wall thickness Density and strength Durability and seasoning.

23 Segregation of Bamboo Structural Group A and Group B Species Special Grade:70mm < diameter < 100m Grade I50mm < diameter < 70m Grade II30mm < diameter < 50m Grade IIIDiameter < 30m Structural Group C Special gradeI80mm < diameter < 100m II60mm < diameter < 80m IIIDiameter < 60m Taper : shall not be > 5.8 mm/m may be length in any grade. Curvature : max. curvature shall not be >75mm in length of 6m of any grades. Wall thickness: Minimum wall thickness of 8mm for load bearing members. Defects: Dead and immature bamboo, bore/GHOON, holes, decay, collapse, checks more then 3 mm in depth shall be avoided.

24 Trusses

25 Joints






31 BMTPC’ Initiative For Application of Bamboo in Housing

32 Focus Areas of Work Environmental Protection through technology intervention Energy Efficiency in Materials production Cost Reduction & Employment Generation Disaster Mitigation & Vulnerability/ Risk Reduction


34 BMTPC and IPIRTI have jointly developed a technology for manufacturing Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets (BMCSs) particularly for North-Eastern region. This technology has been transferred to M/s Timpack Pvt. Ltd. who have set up a commercial plant at Byrnihat, Meghalaya with a production capacity of 3000-4000 sheets per month. Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets

35 Size: 1.05m X 1.8 m X 3.5 mm Weight : 6.5 – 7.90 kg/sheet (app. half that of ACCS) Load Bearing Capacity: 4.8 N/mm width Deflection at Breaking Point: 85 mm Thermal Conductivity: 0.1928 k cal/m O C (app. half that of ACCS) Fire Resistance: Conforms to flammability test Energy Requirement : Highly Energy Efficient Some Important Properties of BMCS


37 Women Working in Corrugated Sheet Factory in Byrnihat, Meghalaya





42 Traffic Pedestal (prototype) Two installed at Mathura Road New Delhi (Nov. 2000)



45 ‘Bamboo - A material for cost effective and disaster resistant housing used for construction of demonstration buildings and structures’ Use of Bamboo in Housing & Building Construction

46 Demonstration House (plinth area 290 sq. ft.) (plinth area 290 sq. ft.) at IPIRTI, Bangalore March 2001

47 Two bedroom bamboo house constructed at IPIRTI, Bangalore Design: Mrs. Neelam Manjunath, Mansaram Architects, Bangalore Construction Agency: KARNIK, Bangalore Total Built Up Area : 897 Sq. Ft. Construction Cost : Rs. 2,75,000 (Rs. 307 per sq. ft.)

48 Construction of demonstration structures using bamboo materials in Mizoram and Tripura Salient Features of the Structures Bamboo posts Bamboo grid ferrocement walls Bamboo trusses and purlins Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheet Roofing

49 Construction of Demonstration Buildings using Bamboo Based Technologies in Mizoram Type I house at Sairang, Aizawl.Type II house at Sairang, Aizawl. Library Building, Kolasib.Type I house at District Park, Kolasib.

50 Construction of Demonstration Buildings using Bamboo Based Technologies in Mizoram OPD Building at Zemabawk, Aizawl. Type II house at Lunglei. Picnic Hut at Tiangnuam, AizawlType II house at Luangmual, Aizawl

51 Construction of Demonstration Buildings using Bamboo Based Technologies in Tripura

52 Construction of Demonstration Structure using Bamboo based Technologies in Shillong

53 Construction of Demonstration School Building using Bamboo based Technologies at Mizoram

54 Construction of Demonstration School Building using Bamboo based Technologies in Tripura

55 Establishment of Bamboo Mat Production Centres (BMPCs) Objectives 1.To set up Bamboo Mat Production Centres for uninterrupted supply of mats to manufacturing units of bamboo based building components for increasing the productivity and improving quality. 2.To provide training in Mat production. BMTPC in cooperation with CBTC and State Govts. is establishing 8 BMPCs in the States of Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura & Assam

56 StateLocation of Mat Centres Mizoram1.New Airport Road, Sairang, Aizawl (Phase-I) 2.Bualpui, Kolasib (Phase-I) Meghalaya1.Sokhar Nongtluh village, Umden (Phase-I) 2.Nongchram (Phase-II) Tripura1.Kowaifung,Tripura (Phase-I) 2.To be identified (Phase-II) Assam1.Golaghat (Phase-II) 2.Silchar (Phase-II) Benefits Feeder units for the bamboo industry Employment generation - 150 women/men per day per Centre Increased productivity and improved quality Bamboo Mat Production Centres (BMPCs) … contd.

57 S. No. ParticularsS. No. Particulars 1.Bamboo Cross cutting machine 8.Bamboo Stick Making Machine 2.Bamboo Radial Splitter (chain type) 9.Bamboo Stick Sizing Machine 3.Bamboo Inside Knot Remover cum slicing Machine 10.Bamboo Stick Polishing Machine 4.Bamboo Outside Knot Removing Machine 11.Bamboo Two side Planner with Knot Remover 5.Bamboo Slivering Machine12.Cutter Sharpening Machine 6.Bamboo Manual Splitter13.Tool Kit including Measuring instruments, etc. 7.Bamboo Slivering Machine (Manual) with stand Machines being Installed at BMPCs

58 Bamboo Mat Production Centre at Kowaifung, Tripura

59 Bamboo Mat Production Centre at Sairang, Mizoram

60 Bamboo Mat Production Centre at Bualpui, Mizoram

61 Bamboo Mat Production Centre at Vill.Sohkar Nongtluh, Meghalaya

62 Management of BMPCs A tripartite MoU between BMTPC, CBTC and local partners identified by the respective State Govts. The local partners providing infrastructure facilities such as land development, boundary wall/fencing, storage space for raw material and finishes goods, water & electric connections and working capital for running the Centre at their own cost. All the machinery, equipment and shed is being provided by BMTPC. The training of the managers/supervisors/workers of the respective BMPCs are being provided by CBTC.

63 Production Capacity of BMPCs The production capacity of each BMPC will be 200 mats per day. It is estimated that the Centres will be able to produce the mat at a very reasonable price. This will provide employment generation of nearly 150 women/men per day i.e. 45,000 women/men days per year per Centre. Besides the above, the Centres can also generate income by supplying bamboo sticks made out of bamboo waste, to the artisans for making handicraft items.

64 NewTechnologyDevelopment

65 Pre-fab Double walled Composite House Developed a technology for Pre-fab Double Walled Composite House with IPIRTI, Bangalore. Material used are Bamboo Mat Board for walling, BMCS for Roofing with steel framed structure. Salient features are ease in transportation, speedy erection at a reasonable cost. Most suitable for emergency structures during post disaster events.

66 Two Storey Bamboo Housing System Developed the technology with IPIRTI, Bangalore using bamboo based components. Material used are Bamboo coloums, Bamboo grid walls, BMCS for Roofing, bamboo composite beams with steel and bamboo and bamboo composite slab. Development of this technology will enable construction of two storey houses in the bamboo growing regions.

67 Bamboo Mat Ridge Cap for Roofing Developed the technology with IPIRTI, Bangalore for replacement of the present practice of using flat boards to avoid perforations. Salient features are:  Dimensionally stable  Ready & easy to fix  Non permeable  Suitable for wide range of roof angles.  Compatible with BMCS.

68 Other projects completed in NE Region  Construction of 2 Cafeteria Buildings in Kisama, Nagaland.  Construction of 2 demonstration structures using bamboo based technologies in Shillong, Meghalaya  Organisation of number of training programmes on bamboo based technologies.  Preparation of detailed feasibility reports for production ofbamboo based components like BMCS, BMB etc.

69 Ongoing Activities in NE Region  Setting up of Bamboo Mat Production Centre in Mopaya village, Deomali, Arunachal Pradesh  Setting up of Bamboo Mother Park in collaboration with CBTC at Byrnihat, Meghalaya  Setting up of Bamboo Mat Production centre at Nongchram, Garo Hills, Meghalaya  Construction of demonstration structures using bamboo based technologies  Setting up of Technology Demonstration cum Production Centre at Tripura  Development of technology for Flattened Bamboo Lumbers for structural applications.

70 Ongoing Activities in other Regions


72 Challenges ahead Increasing durability Developing efficient jointing system Developing prefab system Developing composite system to deal with natural hazards Growing bamboo of structural grade Setting up of more production centers Studying other bamboo which are available but not used in construction Capacity building of artisans

73 Thank you for your kind attention Creating Enabling Environment for Affordable Housing for All

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