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© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Food and Water Supply Energy and Resources
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Contents Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page Flash activity (these activities are not editable) Web addresses Printable activity Extension activity Icons: Agriculture Food supply and demand Sustainable agriculture Managing water supply
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Key questions: Agriculture Agriculture What different types of agriculture are there? What are intensive and extensive farming? Which agricultural systems are used in the UK and around the world? By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions:
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Agriculture types
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Intensive and extensive farming
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Farming types in the UK There are several different types of farming employed in the UK and they are located in certain areas for various reasons. The types include: horticulture and market gardening: intensive commercial production of flowers, fruit and vegetables; this needs good soils. livestock farming: this takes place in areas less favourable for crops due to climate, geography and soils mixed farming: this reduces the reliance on one product but requires good land arable farming: this happens on flatter, more extensive land with better soils
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Global farming types On a global scale, there are more types of farming, combining different types of provision and resources. These include: In which parts of the world do you think each type of farming takes place? intensive subsistence nomadic hunting extensive subsistence nomadic herding. commercial pastoral intensive commercial commercial grain commercial plantation Mediterranean agriculture irrigation
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Key questions: Food supply and demand Food supply and demand What are the patterns of global food supply and demand? What measures can be employed to increase global food supply and what are their advantages and disadvantages? What is the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and how does it operate? By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions:
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Global food supply and demand
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Increasing food supply Since the 1950s much of the increase in agricultural yields has been the result of intensification through fertilizer and pesticide use. However, their use has declined due to concerns over the implications and drawbacks of their use. World food supply could be increased through various different measures, including: integrated pest management (IPM) the Green Revolution land colonization. genetic modification (GM) land reform use of fertilizers and pesticides What are the drawbacks of fertilizers and pesticides?
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Integrated pest management Integrated pest management (IPM) refers to a pest-control strategy involving natural predators and parasites, pest- resistant varieties, cultural practices and biological controls. Pheromone traps for insects were used in the 1990s in Pennsylvania, USA in order to decrease the pest problem on crops, especially maize. It resulted in a 50% reduction in pesticide application, saving over $20 million (US) per year. natural predators insect growth regulators pheromones to disrupt mating. trapping devices For example:
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 The Green Revolution The Green Revolution refers to the development of high- yielding varieties (HYVs) of crops, and the accompanying modernization of farming technologies. The crops have a higher growth rate, more usable parts or an increased resistance to disease. In India, an HYV seed programme began in New hybrid varieties of wheat, rice, maize, sorghum and millet were introduced. By the end of the decade India was self-sufficient in wheat and rice crops.
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Pros and cons of the Green Revolution
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 What types of genetic modification of crops are there? GM crops The genetic modification (GM) of crops involves taking genetic information (in the form of DNA) from one species and adding it to the genetic code of another. The new crop then takes on the desired characteristics of the donor plant. adding the genes of resistant species to those of non-resistant species, e.g. to make them resistant to a pest or to a herbicide treatment adding drought-resistant genes to another species to make them tolerant of drier conditions, e.g. rice.
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 The GM debate
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Land strategies
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 The Common Agricultural Policy The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a strategy for managing food production in Europe. It was set up in 1960 by the European Economic Community (EEC), a predecessor of the European Union (EU). At the time, the six members were net importers of staple food products. What are the aims of the CAP? stabilize markets and decrease dependence on imports ensure fair prices for farmers ensure fair prices for consumers. maintain agricultural employment increase agricultural productivity
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Operating the CAP
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 CAP issues
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Key questions: Sustainable agriculture Sustainable agriculture What causes unsustainable agriculture and what can be done to combat it? What Environmental Stewardship schemes exist? How can food security be achieved in developing countries? By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions:
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Can you explain how each of these causes, or contributes to, unsustainable agriculture? Towards sustainable agriculture Sustainable agriculture requires the production of food indefinitely without damage to the environment. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has identified five causes of unsustainable agriculture. rural inequalities unsuitable technologies trade relations. resource imbalance policy failure These causes are:
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Sustainable strategies
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 CAP changes for sustainability In 1992, 1999 and 2005 radical CAP reforms introduced new regulations to address some of the issues with overproduction and environmental impacts. Crop-specific subsidies have been withdrawn and the emphasis has shifted to Environmental Stewardship and consumers rather than production. Environmental Stewardship pays £30 per hectare each year to carry out stewardship schemes. There are over 50 options to choose from. Set-aside was a scheme introduced in 1988 to pay farmers to reduce the cultivated area and set areas aside for nature reserves or leave them fallow.
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Environmental Stewardship
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Towards food security In developing countries efforts are being made to bring food security to the population. This is being done through a sustainable livelihoods approach to raise people from poverty. adopting a range of sustainable farming practices better healthcare provision. access to credit at a fair price prioritizing domestic food production more agricultural education, especially for women better rural infrastructure effective storage to reduce loss of harvests off-farm employment opportunities to increase income Measures employed include:
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Key questions: Managing water supply Managing water supply How are agriculture and water linked? What is salinization and what impacts does it have? What is desalination and what impacts does it have? How can water supply be managed to overcome shortages, demand, conflict and environmental concerns? By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions:
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Water and agriculture
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Poor irrigation practices add water too fast for drainage to keep pace, so the ground becomes waterlogged. As the water evaporates, salts are drawn up into the topsoil, making it inhospitable to most plants. Land degradation occurs. Salinization Salinization is the deposition of excess salts on the ground surface. It occurs in arid and semi-arid areas where potential evapotranspiration is greater than precipitation and the water table is high. Evaporation draws salts up through the soil to the surface by capillary action.
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 The $69 million Khushab project was completed between 1989–1994. Under-field drainage pipes, surface water drains and irrigation channel lining were installed to tackle waterlogging and salinization. Salinization in Pakistan Over-irrigation caused severe waterlogging and salinization of soil in the semi-arid region of northern Pakistan during the 1980s. It resulted in reductions in yields, land abandonment, unemployment and acute poverty for 800,000 farming families. At the same time, local farmers were educated about sustainable water management practices.
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Desalination Extensive desalination projects in the Middle East aim to increase water security in the region. The world's largest desalination plant is the Jebel Ali plant in the UAE. Desalination is the removal of salt from water to create freshwater. It is simple but expensive and energy-intensive so it is generally used by energy-rich and water-poor countries. Australia is planning to build a $3.1 billion (AUS) desalination plant at Wonthaggi, on the Bass Coast of Victoria, for completion in 2011 in order to help tackle the country’s water supply problems.
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Desalination pros and cons
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Water shortage in Australia
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Rural–urban conflict in Australia
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Managing Australia’s water supply The water shortage in Australia is being tackled through various methods, including: $10 billion (AUS) water management plan: modernization of irrigation, sustainable management of resources $2 billion (AUS) government water fund for three projects: Water Smart Australia, raising national water standards, community water grants urban water management. adoption of new technologies and practices improving farming techniques: drought-tolerant crops, sustainable methods, use of GPS for planting crops
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 The Colorado River The entire annual flow of the Colorado River in the USA is diverted and used by seven states in its drainage basin. About 90% of this is for agricultural irrigation in this arid part of south- west America, making it the most dammed river in the USA. What problems has this caused? Demand: massively increased demand due to population growth Conflict: tensions between the upper and lower states and different parties over allocations Environment: 90% of the delta has dried out; habitats have been lost; there are concerns over dam impacts.
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Powell
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Summary quiz
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Glossary
© Boardworks Ltd of 38 Key questions: Agriculture Agriculture What different types of agriculture are there? What are intensive and extensive farming?
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