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Environmental Pollution Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman Professor Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET) Dhaka, BANGLADESH Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Pollution Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman Professor Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET) Dhaka, BANGLADESH Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Pollution Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman Professor Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET) Dhaka, BANGLADESH Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 1

2 Types of Pollution  Water Pollution  Air Pollution  Soil Pollution  Noise Pollution Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 2

3 Sources of Pollution Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 3

4 Water Pollution Point source Industrial effluent TextileTanneryDyeingThermal Municipal waste Non-point source Agricultural runoff Atmospheric Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 4

5 Air Pollution Global Industrial Gaseous emission Thermal Natural Marshlands Forests Local Industrial Gaseous Thermal Natural Landfills Gaseous Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 5

6 Soil Pollution Industrial Liquid effluent Sludge Toxic Chemicals Man-made Landfills Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 6

7 Noise Pollution SourcesIndustrialMachinesExhaustConstructionOperationDemolitionVehicularOther Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 7

8 Industrial Effluent Discharge  Numerous textile and tannery industries in Bangladesh  Required to have ETP  Expensive to treat effluent  Owners reluctant to spend money on non-productive issues such as ETP  Engineers tend to compromise with the owners  Technology to treat textile dye may not always be economically viable  Buyers and consumers expect good governance & implementation of rules  Enforcement of regulations inadequate in the past; at present more strictly enforced Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 8

9 Some Examples Industrial wastewater discharge in Turag river Sewage discharge in Balu river Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 9

10 Waste materials dumping in Turag riverSewage discharge in Bongshi river Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 10

11 Sludge Cake Dysfunctional ETP Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 11

12 Hatirjheel Sewage outfall Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 12

13 Thermal Plume Discharge in Sitalakhhya River Haripur Barge-Mounted Power PlantCDC Globeleque Power Plant Shiddhirgonj Power Plant Outfall Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 13

14  Two Combine Cycle power plants on either banks of the river  One has a side bank discharge, the other has a submerged single-port discharge  A third STPP is planned just u/s of these two  The river water quality has already deteriorated to an unacceptable level  Govt. and funding agencies plans to install the new plant at this location because of existing cable network  Aquatic environment is at a stake  Professional ethics necessitates wastewater safe disposal for the aquatic environment  Solution – cooling tower for the thermal discharge may provide a safe disposal option Pertinent Issues Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 14

15  Water Quality Map provides a good visual picture of pollution status of river  It can be presented to managers and decision makers as a good visualization aid Water Quality Mapping using Biological and Chemical Indicators Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 15

16 Rivers Selected Based on reconnaissance visits and discussion with local people, 20 sites on 5 rivers around Dhaka city were selected for sampling and analysis. River includes: On the Western side of Dhaka city – Part of Bongshi river and Turag river from Tongi bridge upto its confluence with Buriganga. with Buriganga. Southern side of Dhaka city – part of Dhaleshawri river and Buriganga Northern side of Dhaka city – Tongi khal and part of Balu river Eastern side of Dhaka city – Balu river and part of Shitalakkhya river Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 16

17 Chemical Analysis Macroinvertebrate Classification Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 17

18 Effect of Untreated Wastewater Discharge Water Quality Map around Dhaka Industrial effluent discharge Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 18

19  Pashupatinath Temple in Kathmandu, on the banks of the Baghmati river which meets the Ganges downstream  Stream-fed river; dries up in winter and floods during monsoon  Dammed just d/s of the temple to hold water  Cremation is done on the pedestals constructed along the banks  Extremely polluted due to untreated domestic wastewater disposal and solid waste disposal into the river  People bathe in this water as a part of the religious ritual Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 19

20 Expectations of the Society  Community at large no longer trust the experts as they used to and Environmental Professionals are no exception  Society expects the organizations to be environmentally certified and demonstrate responsible and ethical governance  Social and Environmental development projects are expected to adhere to the ethical obligations. Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 20

21 Shared Responsibility  The responsibilities do not rest with the Engineers only.  Government, Policy Makers, General Populace, Entrepreneurs should share the responsibilities  Good governance in every sector is essential to ensure ethical management of the environment Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 21

22 Media and Environmental Awareness Erin Brockovich Erin Brockovich  The movie portrays the environmental disaster due to contamination of drinking water at Hinkley, California.  Chromium (VI), a carcinogen, caused by a Pacific Gas & Energy Ltd.  The pipeline was constructed in The company knew that Hinkley GW was being contaminated through their pipeline but tried to cover up.  The case was settled in 1996 for $333 million in a direct action law suit.  Another lawsuit, against this company alleges contamination near PG&E Kettleman Hills compressor station in Kings County, California Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 22

23 Media and Environmental Awareness A Civil Action Tannery industry in Wooburn, MA dumped toxic waste on the ground The poison percolated into the water table and was pumped by two wells into the drinking water Eight neighborhood children died of leukemia. Their families sued Beatrice Foods and W. R. Grace, the megafirms responsible for the pollution It was difficult for the adversary system to determine whether toxins dumped by these companies made the children sick Relying on the adversary system and lay juries to find the truth simply compounded the disaster and created more tragedy. Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 23

24 Accountability ?  On June 15, 1997 a massive blowout of the drilling well took at the 1 st drilling site of Occidental at Magurchara, Sylhet, BD  The explosion of gas turned into an inferno, towering over 300 feet and spreading to the surrounding villages, rainforest and cropland  As required, Oxy submitted and EIA report a priori but DOE objected to some issues and didn’t provide an environmental clearance certificate  245Bcf of gas was burnt out amounting to a loss of $685million. Environmental damage was estimated to be ~$105million.  No compensation was paid and Oxy transferred its share to Unocal for a 28.57% share in 3 producing wells in Yemen  Recently, Unocal has transferred its share to Chevron and the whole compensation issue is in limbo Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 24

25 In Conclusion  Professional ethics is essential for ensuring a safe and sound environment  The responsibilities rest upon not only on the Engineers but also on the policy makers, govt. and non-govt. organizations, donor agencies as well as the general public  Good governance in every sector is essential to ensure ethical management of the environment  Communication between the professionals and policy makers-end users provides the key to success Dr. A. B. M. Badruzzaman 25


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