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Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Roxane Bertrand & Cristel Portes Université de Provence Laboratoire Parole et Langage,

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Presentation on theme: "Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Roxane Bertrand & Cristel Portes Université de Provence Laboratoire Parole et Langage,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Roxane Bertrand & Cristel Portes Université de Provence Laboratoire Parole et Langage, UMR 6057 CNRS France

2 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Prosody & pragmatics/discourse analysis Grammar approach Constructed data Information flow tradition Monologue Naturally occuring data Contextualization tradition Dialogue Spontaneous speech in large databases

3 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Prosody & pragmatics/discourse analysis Beyond the sentence, 4 dimensions  1. Using sentences: speech acts, pragmatics  2. Combining sentences: coherence/cohesion, discourse analysis  3. Adapting to context (situation): discourse typology  4. Coordinating with the interlocutor(s): interaction, conversation analysis

4 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Marandin (2004, 2006) Contours as constructions Prosody and illocution

5 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Prosody and illocution Marandin (2004, 2006) Contours as constructions

6 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Prosody & Illocution Portes, Bertrand & Espesser 2007

7 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research A discourse prosodic unit: the paratone Discourse topic = what a piece of discourse is ‘about’ Paratone = a group of utterances corresponding to a discourse topic and prosodically marked:  Beginning phrases (vs intermediate vs final phrases) higher and wider (resetting) Delayed first pitch peakdowntrend Louder=between Slowerintonational phrases (IP)  Final lowering  Very long pause Brown & Yule (1983), Grosz & Hirschberg (1992), Swerts (1994), Wichmann (2000)

8 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Phonological units are preserved in spontaneous data despite… Disfluencies Orthogonal prosodic variation  Tempo Faster slower  Pitch range Register level Register span Both have discursive and interactional specific functions …

9 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Disfluency inside the Accentual phrase

10 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Tempo & register variation

11 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Slower tempo

12 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Register

13 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Interactional Linguistics Perspective (1) (Couper-Kuhlen 2001; Couper-Kuhlen & Selting, 1996) Background  How linguistic structures are shaped by interaction?  How, simultaneously, linguistic structures influence interaction? Attempt of elaboration of an Interaction Grammar Interaction in langage?Linguistics in Interaction?

14 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Take into account verbal activities in which speakers are involved to reach some objectives or specific tasks in talk- in-interaction  Locate interactional activities (such as narratives, requests, reported speech, humor, etc.)  Characterize these activities at various linguistic levels What type of resources available? Role of prosodic cues? Observables, tools and methods from the Conversation Analysis (Sacks et al. 1974) The Interactional Phonetics (Local, Ogden, etc.) Interactional Linguistics Perspective (2)

15 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Basic notions of an approach of talk-in- interaction (1) Naturally-occurring data  More often  BUT : elicited conversations, task-oriented corpus, etc. enable to analyze in a systematic way the whole resources availabe avoid to reject some phenomena (overlaps among others) (see Bertrand et al. 2008, The CID: Corpus of Interaction Data) Activity collectively fulfilled  Take into account all the partners  Analysis unit based on their relevance in the interaction for the participants

16 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Basic notions of an approach of talk- in-interaction (2) Co-ordination, alignment and negociation according to the shared knowledge  Specific units or phenomena to make this understandable: adjacency pair (request~answer for example, extract from the CID) Sp1mais les euh les nanas du foyer elles étaient pas au courant but girls of residence they did not know Sp2 non non no Sp1ah… Localisation in specific points (TCU & TRP)

17 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Overview of the turn-taking system Mechanism for the organization of turn- taking:  relies on 2 components related to the construction and the allocation of the turn A turn constructional component = turn- constructional unit (TCU) A turn-allocation component = transition relevance place (TRP)

18 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research TCU and TRP How do speakers build and recognize TCU and TRP? What type of resources or cues are used? Turn-Constructional Unit (TCU): the smallest interactionnally relevant complete linguistic unit (Selting 1998: 40)  A TCU is a point of completeness (Ford & Thompson, 1996) Syntactic (clause) Prosodic (intonative unit achieved in a terminal rising) Pragmatic (complete action of request and answer) Transition-Relevance Place (TRP)  Completion points which make a transition relevant but not necessarily accomplished (Schegloff 1996: 55)

19 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Crucial notion of Projection (1) Large projects (Selting 2000)  Consists of more than 1 TCU = multi-unit turns (explanation, narratives, description, etc.) Need to be projected by the SPEAKER Typical prosodic features of turn-design are used locally to project more-to-come (Ogden 2005, Bertrand et al. 2007, Kern 2007)  pitch contours (extracted from the CID): the rising contour (H*H%) Turn-holding device

20 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Crucial Notion of Projection (2) What about the RECIPIENT?  Each TRP occurs in a point of potential achievement built from the different linguistic criteria which are used by recipients as predictable cues.

21 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Backchannel signals (1) BCs are short utterances produced by the recipient  to co-construct discourse by orienting it in one or another way  different functions Continuer Acknowledgement Assesment Attitude statement, etc.  They provide information on interlocutor’s listening but also comprehension processes of discourse (Fox Tree 1999) Prosodic role in the projection of this kind of response?

22 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Backchannel signals (2) Context of production of BCs  Higher occurrences of BC after terminal rising contours (continuation rise) Different BC’s function according to a terminal rising vs a continuation rising (Bertrand et al. 2007)  function as continuer for continuative rising  function as assesment for terminal rising Confirmation of the « more-to-come » intonation function Prosodic cues organize the floor by making specific recipient response relevant. Multimodal analysis (Bertrand et al. 2007): gestural resources also play a role in the context of production of BC  More gestural BC after continuative rising than vocal BC  less intrusive Confirm that BC highlight some steps in the elaboration of discourse, and more precisely in the construction of different steps of the larger projects

23 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Direct Reported Speech in conversation Who is speaking and for what? Reported speech is not only used to report words but also  to convey their assessment of the utterance while reproducing it (Holt 2000)  to increase one’s standing or saying something without really assuming it (Bertrand 2003)  to typify a character on which members of the same community shared knowledge and typical representations (Klewitz & Couper- Kuhlen 1999; Bertrand & Priego-Valverde, 2009) Using of a specific prosodic delivery to make the another voice hearable and understable (Couper-Kuhlen 1996, Klewitz & Couper-Kuhlen 1999 Bertrand & Espesser 2002)  Melodic Shift in the beginning of DRS  But an absence of such a shift is yet a relevant cue  Specific prosodic design of each voice in a reported dialog

24 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Reported dialog in conversation  Re(gister)Span/Re(gister)Le(vel) N(ormal) = direct speech Rai(sed) and Exp(ansion) of span = reported speech (other figure) N(ormal)/Com(pressed) = reported speech (self-quotation)

25 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Prosodic orientation (Szczepek-Reed 2006) Belongs to the general frame of the interactional orientation  throughout the course of a conversation (…) speakers display in their sequentially “next” turns an understanding of what the “prior” turn was about’ (Hutchby & Wooffitt 1998: 15). Several cases of prosodic orientation  complementation of a prior turn  continuation of a previous unfinished prosodic pattern  copy of a previous prosodic pattern

26 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Prosodic mapping in humor (Bertrand & Priego-Valverde 2009) 4 TCUs with the same syntactic and prosodic form: little variation in f0 curve, slightly falling, final lengthening + filler (euh) he works at I.R.A. and he blows up uh and he put the detonators uh yeah he is watchmaker at I.R.A

27 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research In Sum Prosody is a crucial resource in the management of turn-taking system and in the structuring of various activities displayed in everyday conversations  Construction of turn  Projection of points of completion  Projection of more-to-come  Step by step constitution of the shared knowledge

28 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Conclusion Of course, naturally occurring data present to the observation multiple sources of information mixed together so that they may be hidden at first sight. However, phonological (grammatical) units are recoverable in spontaneous speech. The confrontation of grammatical formalization with attested data and the reverse appear to be very fruitful. In order to do so, we need a separate model of disfluencies (which are not grammatical but play important interactional roles). We also need to treat orthogonal dimensions of prosody (tempo, pitch range, intensity) separately because of their specificity (gradience). Finally, we need to dissociate the speaker from the addressee, and to study the way each of them takes its specific part in the co-construction of discourse.

29 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research References Bertrand R. & Espesser R. (2002) Voice diversity in conversation : a case study, in Bel B. & Marlien I (éds), Speech Prosody 2002, Aix-en-Provence, Bertrand R., Portes C., Sabio F. (2007) Distribution syntaxique, discursive et interactionnelle des contours intonatifs du français dans un corpus de conversation Travaux neuchâtelois de linguistique, 47, Bertrand R., Ferré G., Blache P., Espesser R. & Rauzy S. (2007) Backchannels revisited from a multimodal perspective' Proceedings of Auditory- visual Speech Processing. Hilvarenbeek, Cederom. Bertrand, R., Blache, P., Espesser, R., & al., (2008) « Le CID - Corpus of Interactional Data -Annotation et Exploitation Multimodale de Parole Conversationnelle », in Traitement Automatique des Langues, 49 : 3 (in press) Bertrand, R. & Priego-Valverde B. Does prosody play a specific role in conversational humor?, Pragmatics and Cognition (accepted) Couper-Kuhlen E. & Selting M (1996), Prosody in conversation. Interactional studies, Cambridge University Press,. Couper-Kuhlen E. (2001) The Handbook of Discourse analysis. Couper-Kuhlen E. & Ford C.E. (2004) Sound Patterns in Interaction, John Benjamins Publishing Company. Couper-Kuhlen E. (1999) Coherent voicing: On prosody in conversational reported speech, In Wolfram Bublitz & Uta Lenk (eds.) Coherence in Spoken and Written Discourse: How to create it and how to describe it, Amsterdam: Benjamins, Ford C. E. & Thompson S. A. (1996), Interactional Units in Conversation : syntactic, intonational and pragmatic resources for the management of turns. In Interaction and Grammar, E. Ochs, E. A. Schegloff & S. A. Thompson (eds), , Cambridge UP. Fox Tree J.E. (1999) Listening in on Monologues and Dialogues", Discourse Processes 27(1): Hirschberg J. (2002) The pragmatics of Intonational meaning, in Bel B. & Marlien I (éds), Speech Prosody 2002, Aix-en-Provence, Hutchby I and Wooffitt R. (1998) Conversation Analysis. Principles, Practices and Applications (Cambridge: Polity Press) Jefferson G. (1978) Sequential aspects of storytelling in conversation, Studies in the organization of conversational interaction. New York (Academic Press), Kern F. (2007) Prosody as a resource in children’s game explanations: Some aspects of turn construction and recipiency, Journal of Pragmatics 39, Klewitz G. & Couper-Kuhlen E. (1999) Quote-Unquote? The Role of Prosody in the Contextualization of Reported Speech Sequences, Pragmatics 9, Labov W. & Waletzky J. (1966) Narrative analysis: oral versions of personal experience. In: J. Helm (ed.), Essays on the verbal and visual arts: Proceedings of the 1966 Annual Spring Meeting of the American Ethnological Society. Seattle (University of Washington Press), Local J. (2007) Phonetic detail in talk-in-interaction: on the deployment and interplay of sequential context and phonetic resources, Nouveaux cahiers de linguistique française 28, 67-86, Université de Genève. Ogden R. & Routarine S. (2005) The communicative functions of Final Rises in Finnish Intonation, Phonetica, 62, Sacks H.,Schegloff E. A., Jefferson G. (1974) A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn-Taking for Conversation, Language, 50, 4, SchegloffF E. A. (1996), Turn organization: One intersection of grammar and interaction. In Interaction and Grammar, E. Ochs, E. A. Schegloff & S. A. Thompson (Eds), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Selting, M., (2000) The construction of 'units' in conversational talk", Language in Society 29: Szczepek Reed B. (2006) Prosodic orientation in English Conversation, Palgrave Macmillan

30 S2S 04/20/2009 Spontaneous speech, interaction & large databases for prosodic research Prosodic cues in turn-taking


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