2 1.1 DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING BASIC ENG.INTRODUCTION
3 At the end of this lesson, you should be able to : i) Define the term of engineering ii) State the importance of engineering in daily life iii) List out the engineering professional agencies or/and bodies in Malaysia
4 1.1 DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING Latin root (Inginere) – to design or to deviseAn engineering is a;discipline and profession thatapplying technical and scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resourcesto design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processesthat safely realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria
5 1.1 DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING i) Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)- a board that accredited engineering bachelor’s degreeprogram in United Statesii) Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC)- is entrusted by Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) toaccredite all engineering Bachelor’s program in Malaysia.
6 1.1 DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING i) Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC)Accreditation for Engineering courses is only given by EAC.LAN and other bodies will submit the application to EAC for accreditation.Public university submit directly to EAC whilst private university go through LAN.BASIC ENG.INTRODUCTION
7 ENGINEERING ACCREDITATION i) Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC) (cont.)After university get accreditation from EAC then university submit the letter to JPA/PTPTN etc.Now, all these body are merged in MQA.BASIC ENG.INTRODUCTION
8 Engineering Accreditation Council WHAT IS EAC ?Engineering Accreditation CouncilFormed in 2000Previous accreditation for engineering programs :PSD (1957) IEM (1959) BEM (1967) EACBEMIEMPSDLAN
9 Engineering Accreditation Council WHAT IS EAC ?Engineering Accreditation Councilformulate and update accreditation policy and criteriaapprove guidelines and operating proceduresoversee operational arrangements and appoint evaluation panelreceive evaluation report and decide on accreditationrespond to complaints, appeals or any proposals for changeoversee development and operation of accreditation and mutual recognition agreement with other countriesfoster the dissemination of developments and best practices in engineering educationhold consultation meetings with universities when necessary
10 1.1 DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING ABET has defined engineering as ;“[T]he creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus,or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design;
11 1.1 DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING ABET has defined engineering as ;(cont.)or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property.”
12 1.1 DEFINITION OF ENGINEERING EAC defined engineering as ;“that an engineer is to create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources and modern engineering tools, including prediction and modeling, to complex engineering activities, with an understanding of the limitations”.
13 TECHNOLOGY TEAM i) Scientist - Like an engineer, but a primary goal is the expansion of knowledge and understanding physical processes.-In Malaysia, scientist is a person having expert knowledge of sciences. He/she uses the scientific method to do research in physical sciences, medical sciences or in any other field.
14 TECHNOLOGY TEAM i) Scientist (cont.) - Normally emphasized the fundamental discovery of physical laws rather than their application to product development.
15 TECHNOLOGY TEAMii) Engineer - Apply knowledge of mathematic, science, material & physical principles - As well as skill in communication & business - In order to develop new better products & machines.
16 TECHNOLOGY TEAMiii) Technologist - Technologists focus on direct application of establish engineering principles and processes. Math, the physical sciences, and underlying engineering theory receive limited coverage. - More interested in hardware and processes.
17 IMPORTANCE OF ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERS Engineers apply physical and chemical laws and principles and mathematics to design many products and services. These products include cars, an aeroplanes, building, computers, hand phone, home appliances and machines that makes various products.Engineers consider important factors such as costs, efficiency, reliability and safety when designing products.
18 IMPORTANCE OF ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERS Engineers perform tests to make certain that the products design withstand various loads and conditions.Engineers play a significant role in the design and maintenance of a nation’s infrastructure, including communication systems, public utilities, and transportation.
19 What does an engineer do? Engineer apply science, technology, and mathematics to solve problems in a systematic way.
20 ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL BODIES The Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM)- Is a statutory body governed by the Engineer’s Act 1967 and it was formed in 23rd August 1972.- The Board is established for the purpose of regulating the professional conduct and practice of registered engineers in order to safeguard the safety and interest of the public.- Engineer must registered before he/she can be practice as an Engineer.
21 ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL BODIES Institute of Engineers Malaysia (IEM’S)The main engineering professional society in Malaysia.Learned society registered under the Society’s Act.Membership is voluntary, but professional standardset by IEM for membership are accepted by BEMas qualifications for registration as a Professional Engineer.
22 ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL BODIES Institute of Engineers Malaysia (IEM’S)- At first, to become corporate membership, one needs only 5 years experience as an Engineer.- To ensure only engineer with relevant experience would be admitted to become member and could register as a Professional Engineer;- Constitution was amended and Professional Interview was introduced.
23 ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL BODIES The Association of Consulting Engineers, Malaysia(ACEM)- Non profit organization comprising of Consulting Engineers- Its objective is to promote the interest of Consulting engineering as a profession.
24 ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL BODIES Others engineering professional society runs in Malaysia, such as;Malaysian Society of Agricultural Engineers (MSAE)Institute of Chemical Engineers (ChemE) Malaysia BranchInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers(IEEE) Malaysia Branch
26 At the end of this lesson, student should be able to; List the various fields in mechanical engineeringExplain the various fields in mechanical engineeringList the various fields in civil engineeringExplain the various fields in civil engineering
27 TYPES OF ENGINEERINGAt the end of this lesson, student should be able to;List the various fields in electrical and electronics engineeringExplain the various fields in electrical and electronics engineeringList the various fields in engineeringExplain the various fields in engineering
29 TYPES OF ENGINEERING i) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING An engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. Mechanical engineering is one of the oldest and broadest engineering disciplines.
30 TYPES OF ENGINEERING i) MECHANICAL ENGINEERING - requires a solid understanding of core concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and energy.Mechanical engineers use the core principles as well as other knowledge in the field to design and analyze motor vehicles, aircraft, heating and cooling systems, watercraft, manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, robotics, medical devices and more….
31 TYPES OF ENGINEERING AERONAUTICS Antonov An-225, the largest airplane ever built.Space Shuttle Atlantis on a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.The Eurofighter TyphoonAeronautics (from Greek aero which means air or sky and nautis which means sailor, i.e. sailor of the air or sky) is the science involved with the study, design, and manufacture of flight-capable machines, or the techniques of operating aircraft.
32 TYPES OF ENGINEERINGMARINEThe engine control room of Argonaute,a French supply vessel.Marine Engineering involves the design, construction, installation, operation and support of the systems and equipment which propel and control marine vehicles, and of the systems which make a vehicle or structure habitable for crew, passengers and cargo
33 TYPES OF ENGINEERING AUTOMOTIVE Modern automotive engineering is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems.
34 TYPES OF ENGINEERING ii) CIVIL ENGINEERING The Petronas Twin TowersCivil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings.
35 TYPES OF ENGINEERING ii) CIVIL ENGINEERING The oldest engineering discipline after military engineering.Sub-disciplines include environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering, surveying, and construction engineering.
36 TYPES OF ENGINEERING STRUCTURAL Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers, tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, and other structures.This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads.Burj Dubai
37 TYPES OF ENGINEERING GEOTECHNICS The application of scientific methods and engineering principles to the acquisition, interpretation, and use of knowledge of materials of the Earth's crust and earth materials for the solution of engineering problems.The applied science of predicting the behavior of the Earth and its various materials towards making the Earth more habitable to human activitiesA slab-on-gradefoundation
38 TYPES OF ENGINEERING HYDRAULICS Hydraulic engineering concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water.This area of engineering is intimately related to the design of bridges, dams, channels, canals, levees, elevators, and to both sanitary and environmental engineering
39 TYPES OF ENGINEERING HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION Highway Engineering is the process of design and construction of efficient and safe highways and roads.Standards of highway engineering are continuously being improved. Concepts such as grade, surface texture, sight distance and radii of horizontal bends and vertical slopes in relation to design speed and in addition to road junction design (intersections and interchanges) are all important elementsof highway engineering.HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION
40 TYPES OF ENGINEERING HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION Transportation engineering is concerned with moving people and goods efficiently, safely, and in a manner conducive to a vibrant community.This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining transportation infrastructure which includes streets, canals, highways, rail systems, airports, ports, and mass transit.
41 TYPES OF ENGINEERING HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION (cont.) It includes area such as transportation design, transportation planning, traffic engineering, some aspects of urban engineering, queuing theory, pavement engineering, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), and infrastructure management
42 TYPES OF ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENT Environmental engineering deals with; - the treatment of chemical, biological, and/or thermal waste, the purification of water and air, and the remediation of contaminated sites, due to prior waste disposal or accidental contamination.- the gathering of information on the environmental consequences of proposed actions and the assessment of effects of proposed actions for the purpose of assisting society and policy makers in the decision making process.
43 TYPES OF ENGINEERING 3) ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Is a field of engineering that deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism.electronic circuits.
44 TYPES OF ENGINEERING 3) ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Electronic engineering involves the design and testing of electronic circuits that use the properties of components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality.Electronic engineering deals with the study of small-scale electronic systems including computers and integrated circuits.electronic circuits.
45 TYPES OF ENGINEERING 3) ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Electrical engineering may or may not include electronic engineering.Electrical engineering is considered to deal with the problems associated with large-scale electrical systems such as power transmission and motor control.Power pole
46 TYPES OF ENGINEERING MECHATRONICS Mechatronics (or Mechanical and Electronics Engineering) ;- the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, controls engineering and computer engineering to create useful products.- the purpose is the study of automata from an engineering perspective and serves the purposes of controlling advanced hybrid systems.
47 TYPES OF ENGINEERING COMPUTING Computer Engineering (also called Electronic and Computer Engineering or Computer Systems Engineering) ;is a discipline that combines elements of both Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.This engineering monitors the many subsystems in motor vehicles.
48 What types of engineer are there? Civil EngineeringStructural (buildings, bridges, tunnels)Transportation (highways, railroads, canals)Environmental (air pollution management)Water resources (flood control)Geotechnical (mining)Surveying & Construction
49 What types of engineer are there? Mechanical EngineeringEnergy (power plants, heating and air conditioning, alternative energy)Structures and motion in mechanical systems (cars, planes, machine tools, medical systems)Manufacturing (tools and processes, automated assembly lines, robotics)
50 What types of engineer are there? Electrical EngineeringElectronics (circuits, microchips, lasers)Communications (cell phones, antennas, networks, fibre-optics)Power (transmission and distribution of power, electric motors, and generators)Controls (automated control systems, aerospace control systems)Instrumentation (test equipment)
52 i) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Deals with the application of physical science (in particular chemistry and physics) and mathematicsto the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms.In producing useful materials, it is also concerned with pioneering valuable new materials and techniques; an important form of research and development.
53 i) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Largely involves the design and maintenance of chemical processes for large-scale manufacture
54 ii) AEROSPACEAerospace engineering is the branch of engineering behind the design, construction and science of aircraft and spacecraft.Aerospace engineering has broken into two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautically engineering.Aerospace engineering also can be categorized under mechanical or electrical engineering
55 iii) AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Agricultural engineering is a discipline that combines engineering science and agricultural knowledge in order to ensure food security.It deals with the development and improvement of cultivation methods and livestock production systems as well as processing engineering. They eventually design machineries and structures for alternative energy systems such as bioenergy.
56 iv) MATERIAL ENGINEERING Materials science or materials engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering.This science investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties.It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry, as well as chemical, mechanical, civil and electrical engineering.
58 At the end of this lesson, you should be able to : i) Differentiate of the various career in engineering ii) Describe the qualification required
59 i) Graduate EngineersThose who has successfully completed an accredited engineering programme.Any person who wants to take up employment as an engineer must be registered as a Graduate Engineer with BEM. (at the very beginning of career)BEM recognizes the experience gained by an engineering graduate only after he has registered as a Graduate Engineer.
60 ii) Professional Engineer? A Graduate Engineer who has obtained the prescribed practical experience, passed the Professional Assessment Examination, and satisfied all other requirements of the Board of Engineers (BEM)
61 What is a Professional Engineer? Engineer that registered with BEM as Professional EngineerIn Malaysia, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a licensed Professional Engineer.Professional Engineer or ‘P.E’ use the title ‘Ir’ in front of his/her name.The earmark that distinguishes a licensed/registered Professional Engineer is the authority to sign and seal or "stamp" engineering documents (reports, drawings, and calculations) for a study, estimate, design or analysis, thus taking legal responsibility for it.
62 How to registered as Professional Engineer? Have a bachelor’s degree in engineering from an accredited engineering programmeRegistered as a Graduate Engineer with BEM.Have satisfied the training requirements of BEMHave passed the Professional Assessment Examination (PAE) of BEM or be elected as a Corporate Member of the Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM).BASIC ENG.INTRODUCTION
63 How to registered as Professional Engineer? Performs engineering work at least 3 years minimum usually 5-6 years.Have been residing in Malaysia for a period of not less than six months immediately prior to the date of application.BASIC ENG.INTRODUCTION
64 WHY NEED ACCREDITATION ? GOVERNED BY THE REGISTRATION OF ENGINEERS ACT 1967 (Revised 2002)no person is allowed to practice unless he is a professional engineerProfessional Engineer may use “Ir” before his name OR “PEng” after his namegraduate engineer to register before taking up employment as an engineer
65 iii) Technical Assistant The work scope of TA is supervising a pool of skilled workers.Qualification – Diploma in Engineering
66 iv) TechnicianPerform engineering work compatible to their qualification and normally works under TA.Qualification - Certificate in Engineering (usually from Polytechnic)
67 v) Skilled Trades Perform engineering work compatible to their skill. Qualification – Certificate in related skill (recognized by National Vocational Training Council)
68 1.4 PROSPECTS IN ENGINEERING BASIC ENG.INTRODUCTION
69 At the end of this lesson, you should be able to : i) Describe the various prospects in engineering ii) Distinguish the various prospects in engineering
70 Prospects in Engineering i) Practicing Engineering– Person that has a qualification in engineering degree and practice an engineering work.ii) Engineering Consultant– An engineer that works in a firm or company that providing a consultation services. This type of engineer offers services to the public for a fee.
71 Prospects in Engineering iii) Engineering Contractor- An engineer that work/join a company that has an engineering contract either receiving the contract from government or private company.
72 Prospects in Engineering iv) Academics - Person that has a qualification in engineering degree, however practice as an academician such as lecturer or teacher. v) Researcher degree, however engaged with a basic or applied research works.
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