Presentation on theme: "Engineering Challenge for Sustainable World Jung Uck Seo October 7, 2010 Tainan, Taiwan Lecture at the National Cheng Kung University."— Presentation transcript:
Engineering Challenge for Sustainable World Jung Uck Seo October 7, 2010 Tainan, Taiwan Lecture at the National Cheng Kung University
What is Engineering? The profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind. Engineering is a profession like medicine, law, etc. that aspires to high standards of conduct and recognizes its responsibility to the general public.
What is an engineer? Engineers use their imagination and analytical skills to invent, design, and build things that matter. They are team players with independent minds who ask, “How can we develop a better recycling system to protect the environment, design a school that can withstand an earthquake, or create cutting- edge special effects for the movies?” By dreaming up creative and practical solutions, engineers are changing the world all the time.
Science, Engineering, and Technology l Scientist - Like an engineer, but a primary goal is the expansion of knowledge and understanding physical processes. l Engineer - Applies knowledge of math and the physical sciences to the efficient design and construction of usable devices, structures and processes. l Technologist - Technologists focus on direct application of established engineering principles and processes. Math, the physical sciences, and underlying engineering theory receive limited coverage. More interested in hardware and processes. l Technician - Completes a 2-year degree in a narrow technical area such as electronics, drafting, or machining. l Artisans - Training may be a combination of schooling and work experience. Examples include, welders, machinists, electricians, carpenters, painters, steel workers, and artists.
Engineering Disciplines l Aerospace Engineering l Agricultural Engineering l Biomedical Engineering l Chemical Engineering l Civil - Environmental, Ocean Engineering l Computer Science and Computer Engineering l Electrical and Computer Engineering l Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution l Industrial Engineering l Mechanical Engineering l Nuclear and Radiological Health Safety Engineering l Petroleum Engineering…..
Engineering Functions l Research - explore, discover and apply new principles l Development - transform ideas or concepts into production processes l Design - link the generation of ideas and the production l Production and testing - manufacture and assemble components or products l Sales - market engineering products l Operations - maintain equipment and facilities l Construction - organizes bids, supervises certain components of process l Management - optimize the use of resources (equipment, labor, finances) l Education and training - teach engineering principles in university and industrial settings l Consulting - provide engineering services by alone or with other engineers.
Employers and Career Paths for Engineers Employers: Industry, Self, Education, NGO, Govt., Military, Others Career Paths: 1) Corporate ladder 2) Independent entrepreneur 3) Military or government 4) Engineering and social service aboard 5) Professor/engineer 6) Graduate work outside engineering 7) A mix of above
Engineering as a Profession Engineering possesses those attributes that typically characterize a profession: l Satisfies an indispensable and beneficial need. l Requires the exercise of discretion and judgment and is not subject to standardization. l Involves activities that require knowledge and skill not commonly possessed by the general public. l Has group consciousness for the promotion of knowledge and professional ideas and for rendering social services. l Has a legal status and requires well-formulated standards of admission.
Systems Engineering An interdisciplinary field of engineering focused on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed. Issues such as logistics, the coordination of different teams, and automatic control of machinery become more difficult when dealing with large, complex projects. Systems engineering deals with work-processes and tools to handle such projects, and it overlaps with both technical and human-centered disciplines such as control engineering, industrial engineering, organizational studies, and project management.
Electrification, Automobile, Airplane, Water Supply and Distribution, Electronics, Radio and Television, Agricultural Mechanization, Computers, Telephone, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Highways, Spacecraft, Internet, Imaging, Household Appliances, Health Technologies, Petroleum and Petrochemical Technologies, Laser and Fiber Optics, Nuclear Technologies, High-performance Materials
Grand Challenges for Engineering
What we do mean by Global Problematique? The interconnected and interacting issues of all types which affect the becoming of life in the global ecosystem The uncontrollable and interacting circumstances of all types, which constrain the timely and effective resolution of these issues. The Club of Rome introduced the phrase “World Problematique” in 1960s. It has been used by many persons who deal with the set of issues combining into a threat to our common future. It is the entire framework of life on Earth and its contents as such: (1) What we, humans, traditionally call Nature, or the environment, considered as everything alive or not (air, land water and minerals), and see commonly as external to human society. (2) Contrary to the most common attitude, the global ecosystem includes our species. Homo sapiens is not external to its natural context but definitely inside of it and utterly depends on it for its existence. We are now the form of life that impacts most severely on the rest of the ecosystem. It is therefore logically incorrect, when addressing the problematique, mentally to isolate our species from its natural context.
Is World Sustainable? The Club of Rome Brundtland Report UNEP MDG One Planet Many People Role of Engineering Role of Systems Engineering A New Path for World Development
New Challenges for Engineering Complexity…through adopting a systems approach Uncertainty…when decision-making in the absence of complete information; Change…by challenging orthodoxy and envisioning the future; People…through consultation processes and negotiation to meet society’s and individual’s needs; Limits to growth…through seeking efficient resource use, ensuring pollution control and maintaining ecosystem services; Whole-life costs…by considering environmental and social externalities and embracing life-cycle management; Tradeoffs…by providing optimization around a single variable to create solutions acceptable for all; and New leadership…through building multidisciplinary / multiculture teams like symphonies.
Systems World The world around us can be looked at in a variety of ways. One way is to see the world as made up from many interacting systems: weather, societal, economic, ecological, floral, faun-al, tectonic plate, oceanic, and so on. This is very much a connected view of the world: nothing is isolated and totally independent; everything is part of something bigger, and everything comprises many interacting parts – subsystems.
Global Crisis Crisis ( 危機 ) = 危脅 + 機會 危脅 : Threat Global Community 機會 : Opportunity Engineering Crisis = Threat + Opportunity
Global Issues The present path of world development is generating imbalances, vulnerabilities, inequities, exclusion and polarization which constitute clear threats to the prospects of both present and future generations. The Program draws on the independent, multicultural and interdisciplinary membership of the Club to clarify the key elements of a new path for world development. It will propose new lines of thinking and action which are urgently needed to: avert the risks and consequences of catastrophic climate change; reduce the devastating impacts of human activities on ecosystems and environment and the overuse of the biological and physical resources of the planet; achieve more fairness in the distribution of vital resources and opportunities and of the costs and benefits of globalization;
Global Issues - cont Accelerate global efforts to eradicate poverty and deprivation of a growing world population; Adapt and reform the structure of international institutions to address the integrated problems of a world in rapid transformation; and broadly, to achieve equitable and sustainable world development and thus preserve international security and world peace. In order to manage the complexity of such an extensive “problematique”, the program strategy focuses successively on five clusters of interconnected issues while recognizing the linkages between the clusters. In each case, a small expert conference develops proposals for action and identifies issues for in-depth analysis through internet-based, international research networks. The five clusters are:
The Five Clusters 1. Environment and Resources: Climate Change, Energy Security, Ecosystems and Water. 2. Globalization: Distribution of Wealth and Income, Employment, Economic Restructuring, Trade and Finance. 3. International Development: Demographic Growth, Environmental Stress, Poverty, Food Production, 4. Social Transformation: Health and Employment, Social Change, Values, Culture, Identity and Behavior. 5. Peace and Security: Justice, Democracy, Governance, Solidarity, Security and Peace.
Reminding Points Systems engineering denotes different things to different people Social & Human factors are critical to the birth of visionary systems engineering and engineers Systems engineering and engineers are critical to mission and programmatic success Continuously Improving systems engineering capability is a challenging and important task for the Military services, Government agencies, and Industries
Systems Engineering on Global Citizenship Systems Engineering fosters key interdisciplinary research and development on corporate citizenship and provides a framework for further academic debate on corporate responsibility in a global society. This provides a unique forum to discuss the consequences of the social and political mandate of business firms and examines the implications of these consequences for the theory of the firm. Systems Engineering should collaborate with various disciplines such as management studies, economics, sociology, legal studies and political science to evaluate the concept of corporate citizenship and to analyze the role of private business in global governance and the production of global goods.
Aerospace Bio / Biomedical Chemical Civil Computer Electrical / Electronic Environmental Industrial / Manufac. Materials Mechanical,.…. Systems ….. Others Instruments 1. First Violins 2. Second Violins 3. Violas 4. Cellos 5. Double Basses 6. Flutes 7. Oboes 8. Clarinets 9. Bassoons 10. Horns 11. Trumpets 12. Trombones 12. Tuba 13. Timpani 13. Other Percussion Instruments 14. Harp ….. Good Engineers are like Maestros
The Conductor The most important person in an orchestra is conductor. He, or she does not play an instrument at all. The conductor's job, at its most basic level, is to indicate the beat of the music. Most conductors use a long stick, called a baton, to make the beat as clear as possible. The conductor moves the baton towards several imaginary 'points' which indicate which beat in the bar the orchestra is currently playing. The conductor is also responsible for the preparation and rehearsal of the orchestra, and for making interpretative decisions - such as whether a certain passage should be slow, fast, soft, loud, smooth, aggressive, and so on. A conductor communicates these decisions both verbally (in rehearsal) and during the performance using different movements, gestures, and facial expressions.
Interdisciplinary Engineering Fields Are you an artist, musician, or athlete? Wouldn’t it be great to be able to combine your talent and passion with a career? There are plenty of traditional, nontraditional, and interdisciplinary fields of engineering. They might just match up with your interests, whether they involve design, architecture, law, business, geography, psychology, or education. As an acoustical engineer, you might develop a state-of-the art sound studio, or as a sports engineer you might create equipment that tests the performance of athletes. You might also work in “human factors engineering,” a fascinating field that takes human behavior and psychology into account in developing products and systems.
Systems Engineering: an Art and a Science We can compare systems engineering to an orchestra and its ability to perform a symphony. Most people understand what music is, but not everyone can play an instrument. Each instrument requires a different level of expertise and skill. Some musicians spend their entire careers mastering a single instrument, which is good because each one needs to be played well. But sophisticated music involves many different instruments played in unison. Depending on how well they come together, they may produce beautiful music or a terrible cacophony.
A Symphony is a System Musicians practice the science of music, and follow the process of translating notes on a page to play their instruments. The maestro, lead them to connect the process of playing to the art of creating great music. Maestros do a lot more than just keep time. They: are born with the insight into musical instruments and musicians beyond pitch, rhythm, dynamics, etc. are necessary when the orchestra reaches a certain size and complexity have typically mastered one or more musical instruments may be composers select and shape the music that an orchestra plays interpret a composer’s music in light of the audience strive to maintain the integrity of the composer’s intentions organize and lead the musicians are responsible for the success of the performance
Maestros and Systems Engineers They know what the music should sound like (the look and function of a design), and lead a team in achieving the desired sound (the system requirements). Systems engineers know the fundamentals of mathematics, physics, and other pertinent sciences, as well as the capabilities of various people and disciplines: master a technical discipline and practice multiple disciplines understand the end game and overall objectives of the endeavor create a vision and approach for attaining the objectives are architects or designers select / shape the technical issues to be addressed by multidisciplinary teams interpret / communicate objectives, requirements, system architecture, and design responsible for the design’s technical integrity organize / lead multicultural/multidisciplinary teams responsible for the successful delivery of a complex product or service The similarities between maestros and systems engineers describe the latter’s desired behavioral characteristics and capabilities.
Systems Engineers pay particular attention to verification and validation Verification answers the question: “Did we build our system right?” If yes, it proves our product meets the requirements. Practice the hard-earned lesson, Validation answers the question: “Did we build the right system?” If yes, it is supposed to do, which often goes well beyond just meeting requirements. Test like you fly, fly like you test !
Global Ecosystem The global ecosystem is the entire framework of life on Earth and its contents. First, it contains what we, humans, traditionally call Nature, or the environment, considered as everything alive or not (air, land water and minerals), and see commonly as external to human society. Second, and contrary to the most common attitude, the global ecosystem includes our species: Homo sapiens is not external to its natural context, but definitely inside of it and utterly depends on it for its existence. We are now the form of life that impacts most severely on the rest of the ecosystem. It is therefore logically incorrect, when addressing the global problematique, mentally to isolate our species from its natural context.
Moving towards Sustainable Development ECO-CENTRIC CONCERNS ECO-CENTRIC CONCERNS: Natural resources and ecological capacity TECHNO-CENTRIC CONCERNS TECHNO-CENTRIC CONCERNS: Techno-economic systems SOCIO-CENTRIC CONCERNS SOCIO-CENTRIC CONCERNS: Human capital and social expectations