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Term lesson 8 Issues in creating a term record. headword Choice of term –Proper nouns ? Japan Trench ? Fosse du Japon ? Lemmatisation.

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Presentation on theme: "Term lesson 8 Issues in creating a term record. headword Choice of term –Proper nouns ? Japan Trench ? Fosse du Japon ? Lemmatisation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Term lesson 8 Issues in creating a term record

2 headword Choice of term –Proper nouns ? Japan Trench ? Fosse du Japon ? Lemmatisation

3 POS subduction n.f. normal stress n. cosismique adj.

4 Subject field Subfield Not included in preliminary records but vital for –indexing a database –distinguishing meaning according to specialisation

5 Example : dribble Subject Field(s) Soccer (Europe: Football) [A technique which consists in keeping the ball] moving along the ground in front of and close to one by a rapid succession of short pushes, instead of sending it as far as possible by a vigourous kick. Subject Field(s) Basketball Handball A continuous bouncing of the ball, the only legal means of moving with the ball. Subject Field(s) Water Polo swim with the ball Termium Plus

6 Definining at the right level shear stress : the form of stress in a body, part, etc. that tends to produce cutting rather than stretching or bending Collins English Dictionary ‘The component perpendicular to each plane is termed normal stress (sn) and the component parallel to each plane is termed shear stress’ San Diego State University m

7 reformulate Observing the rules governing terminological definitions: –normal stress : […] the component perpendicular to each plane –shear stress : […] the component parallel to each plane

8 Universal Decimal Classification One of the two international documentation classifications – –UDC versus Dewey –Used for terminology : cf Wüster (1968), The Machine Tool, London produit semi-fini CDU:658.515

9 Definitions Using ready-made definitions If there are already satisfactory definitions, the term is perhaps not specialised enough. The definition may not live up to the quality criteria we aim at: –seismogram : a record produced by a seismograph –séismogramme : graphique donné par un séismographe circular ? –presupposes definition of seismograph : (eg. instrument used to detect and record vibrations produced by earthquakes)

10 Creating a network of concepts normal fault : a fault in which the hanging wall appears to have shifted downward in relation to the footwall Termium

11 Wikipedia as a starting point The two sides of a non-vertical fault are known as the hanging wall and footwall. By definition, the hanging wall occurs above the fault plane and the footwall all occurs below the fault. USGS. "Hanging wall Foot wall". Visual Glossary. Retrieved 2 April 2010"Hanging wall Foot wall" This terminology comes from mining: when working a tabular ore body, the miner stood with the footwall under his feet and with the hanging wall hanging above him. Tingley, J.V.; Pizarro K.A. (2000). Traveling America's loneliest road: a geologic and natural history tour. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Special Publication. 26. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology. pp. 132. ISBN 9781888035056. Retrieved 2010-04-02Traveling America's loneliest road: a geologic and natural history tourISBN9781888035056

12 New definitions hanging wall : side of a non-vertical fault occurring above the fault plane footwall : side of a non-vertical fault occurring below the fault plane

13 Check through an illustration illustration

14 Using illustrations to craft definitions Define epicentre, hypocentre

15 Defining adjectives asismic free of seisms; not linked to seisms asismique - qui n’est pas lié à un séisme cosismique - lié à l’occurrence d’un séisme intersismique - lié aux déformations produites entre séismes..

16 Distinguishing quasi-synonyms Cf. seismometer = ? seismograph? – the part that just detects quasi synonyms mention variant : –sismogram/sismogramme Quasi-synonym –A term that designates the same concept as another, but which is not interchangeable with the other term in all contexts as its use is limited to certain communication situations. Also partial synonym, near synonym. Pavel

17 Using ready-made definitions The definition must be consistent with definitions of related terms. Eg faults - dip-slip fault (vertical) - reverse fault - normal fault - strike-slip fault (horizontal) - oblique-slip fault (components of both)

18 synonymy sismographe de fond de mer sismomètre de fond de mer OBS –L'Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, […] a mis en place en place une opération d'intervention pluri-instruments et pluridisciplinaire. Cinq sismographes du réseau Lithoscope (INSU) et six OBS (sismomètres de fond de mer) ont été ajouté au réseau permanent de l’Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Guadeloupe (OVSG) pour préciser la localisation des répliques et déterminer précisément la portion de faille responsable du séisme.

19 Synonymy 2 low tide = low water ? HAT Highest Astronomical Tide MHHW Mean Higher High Water MHW Mean High Water DTL Diurnal Tide Level MTL Mean Tide Level MSL Mean Sea Level MLW Mean Low Water MLLW Mean Lower Low Water –Etc. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

20 Tree diagrams What are the relations between: –altered rock –igneous rock –contact aureole –Adamell contact aureole *

21 contact aureole Defining context: –‘The area surrounding an igneous intrusion that has been metamorphosed as a result of the heat released by the magma is called a contact aureole.’ –EENS 2120 Petrology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Tulane University

22 Knowledge rich context Relationship: –A contact aureol has been metamorphosed –It is therefore a metamorphic rock –Metamorphic rock = altered rock Metamorphic rock igneous rock Contact aureol

23 Meronymic relations crust contact aureole hornfels ‘Contact metamorphism is usually restricted to relatively shallow depths (low pressure) in the Earth because it is only at shallow depths [… ]’ –EENS 2120 Petrology Prof. Stephen A. NelsonTulane University

24 Defining the component the common rocks types produced are fine grained idioblastic or hypidioblastic rocks called hornfels. –In metamorphic rocks individual minerals may or may not be bounded by crystal faces. Those that are bounded by their own crystal faces are termed idioblastic. –EENS 2120 Petrology Prof. Stephen A. NelsonTulane University

25 Contact aureole - hornfels

26 Finding the equivalent Crochet terminologique –Identité des traits sémantiques trouvés dans plusieurs contextes ou définitions et prouvant l'uninotionnalité des données consignées sur une fiche.traits sémantiquescontextesdéfinitions – glossaire/crochet_terminologique.html

27 Rock weakening equivalent in French ? Find the defining context : –‘Material failure law has been employed to determine the line of failure from the observed acceleration in earthquakes…’ material failure law line of failure acceleration in earthquakes

28 Finding the same reference in French texts rock weakening [Voight, 1988; 1989] –divergence de déplacements en loi de puissance –ou à l'altération de ses roches.... l'analyse des données d'une dizaine d'éruptions à caractère explosif [Voight, 1988]

29 Collocations and compound terms earthquake cycle process earthquake cycle effects unbalanced earthquake cycle megathrust earthquake cycle great earthquake cycle model of earthquake cycle earthquake cycle model beginning of earthquake cycle

30 Term candidates ‘Avec prudence, la plupart des concepteurs [d’extracteurs automatiques] parlent plutôt de « termes candidats » […], ce qui souligne à la fois que les outils peuvent « faire des erreurs », mais aussi qu’il n’y a pas une définition consensuelle de « terme »’. Condamines & Dehaut (2011: 271)

31 Look for signs of isonymy Meade, B. J. (2010), The signature of an unbalanced earthquake cycle in... deformation for a clustered earthquake cycle… Publications : Crustal Dynamics at Harvard University Publications : Crustal Dynamics at Harvard University

32 Need for expert knowledge effective normal stress normal stress effective stress –In how far can we extract knowledge from texts?

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