Presentation on theme: "King Abdul-Aziz University Diagnostic Radiology Department MS.Nouf Al-Zahrani DR. Saddiq Jastniah Introduction to Nuclear Medicine 2 nd year."— Presentation transcript:
King Abdul-Aziz University Diagnostic Radiology Department MS.Nouf Al-Zahrani DR. Saddiq Jastniah Introduction to Nuclear Medicine 2 nd year
What is Nuclear medicine? Nuclear Medicine is a medical imaging technique that uses radioactive material (known as radiopharmaceuticals,radiotracer and radionuclide)and a camera (known as a gamma camera) to acquire images of the body. Physicians need this imaging technique procedures to visualize the structure and function of an organ, tissue, bone or system within the body.
What are the Radiotracers? Radioactive tracers are made up of carrier molecules that are bonded tightly to a radioactive atom. These carrier molecules vary greatly depending on the purpose of the scan. Radiopharmaceuticals administration: injected intravenously inhaled as a gas ingested as a liquid
Nuclear medicine procedures may be : diagnostic studies, which are tests of body function. therapeutic procedures in which the radiation is used to treat disease. NM Studies: Heart studies, detection of lung abnormalities, bone evaluation, thyroid scan, brain investigations, renal studies,GI study and cancer screening. Procedures of Nuclear medicine?
FUNCTION VS ANATOMY The emphasis of nuclear medicine studies is more on function than anatomical structure.
Nuclear medicine Machine:
Main Components : 1- Gamma camera 2- Table 3- Patient positioning monitors 4-Hand control
1- Gamma Camera Gamma camera is a devise that detects the gamma ray emerging from the body of the patient. main parts are: Collimator, Scintillation crystal,Photomultiplier tubes, and computer
Collimators Collimators is a honeycomb of a cylindrical tubes in a lead shielding. Therefore designed for different photon energies and resolutions (high, low, mid). absorbing all the gamma rays outside of a narrow angle of acceptance.
Scintillation crystal The gamma camera has a large crystal (called a scintillation crystal NaI(Tl)). These crystals detect the emitted radiation signal and convert that signal into faint light.
Photomultiplier tube Detect the photo light coming from the scintillation then converted into electrons. Electrons strike to the dynode inside the tube that produce more and more electrons(amplification). Single photon dynode Thousands of electrons Computer
Summary How it works?
2- TABLE( Patient Bed)&Accessories Patient bed raises to go between the gamma camera. Patent bed designed for the patient to be in the feet –in orientation during all studies except brain and breast imaging. Foot end Head end Patient bed ruler Pallet pad Touch pads Body wrap Arm support Head bad PATIENT BED ACCESSORY
3- Patient positioning monitors PPM is mounted on an arm extending from the top, The arm can be moved to any sides. PPM arm PPM Hand control
4- Hand control Hand control storage Emergency stop Hand control
Function Each collimator has a touch pad that halts all system motion when contact to patient is made Touch pads Provides patients comfort during the scanPallet pad Used to immobilize the patients arm or legs during the scans. Body wrap Runs along both sides of patient table,used to determine the scan length Patient bed ruler Supports the patient’s head and arms during scanarmrest Moving the system, it also operates the patient bed up/down/in or out motion,as well as starting and stopping the scan Hand control Display patient positioning,collimator changing and display scan progress PPM
Operating Area Scan monitor Display and analysis monitor
images Bone scan thyroid scan renal scan
Combining SPECT with CT scan SPECT/CT is a sophisticated scanner which can combine the functional imaging capabilities of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT )with the precise anatomical overlay of CT images, all performed in the one imaging session.
hot lap..? This area is used to prepare the radiopharmaceuticals that are administered to patients for nuclear medicine studies.
Lead apron for protect from the radioactive material Hand monitoring To measure the radioactivity of the hand after preparing of the radiopharmaceutical Floor monitoring for measuring any contamination in floor.
Each one of the monitoring device connecting to this screen to record the activity Area monitoring Inside the hot lab it produce sound and the red light on,if there is a high radioactivity.
Second: Working area or room Containing equipments for preparation the radiopharmaceutical such as: Laminar flow benches Here where the radioactive dose prepared it is shielded to reduce the dose to the technologist.
Radiation Syringe shields use for reduce hand exposure Cabinet for transport the radioactive material from nuclear medicine department to other department
generator inside the lead garage for convert non-radioactive material to radioactive Dose calibrator use to measure the activity of the dose before give it to the patient
Lead lined refrigerators for storage and refrigeration of radiopharmaceuticals, tagged biological and other radioactive materials.
Shielded Waste Container For low-energy gamma waste.