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DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS IN TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING : ______________________________________ THE CASE OF UGANDA ________________________________________.

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Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS IN TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING : ______________________________________ THE CASE OF UGANDA ________________________________________."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS IN TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING : ______________________________________ THE CASE OF UGANDA ________________________________________ Date: December 2013 Venue: Las Vegas Hotel, USA Presented by: Ethel Kyobe, Member of the Uganda Business and Technical Examinations Board (UBTEB)

2 Introduction In most developing countries: The labour market is characterised by high unemployment and under-employment The low quality and productivity levels affect economic competitiveness The Public-Private Partnership has become increasingly critical for development

3 The Uganda situation: Lack of the right competencies of the workforce limits productivity and thus competitiveness of Ugandan economy BTVET courses do not sufficiently reflect the requirements of the real world of work (the relevance of certificates and diplomas is questionable). Access to BTVET is denied for the majority of young people Unit cost of BTVET is too high Hence: BTVET reforms to introduce Competence-Based Education and Training (CBET)

4 Why CBET approach: Why CBET approach: ConcernsCBET remedy 1.Lack of the right competencies Shifting focus from inputs into training to outcome oriented system 2.Questionable relevance of qualifications Labour market defines both Occupational and Assessment standards 3.Denied access to BTVET for Flexible systems- partial or full qualification in one or more occupations ‘forgotten majority’ Improved career progression + recognition of prior learning 4.Unit cost of BTVET too high Modular (short) competence-based courses

5 define the occupational skills requirements in the world of work / employment (=occupational/competence standards) assess learners against these ‘industry-led’ standards (=assessment) award vocational qualifications to learners who prove that they meet the standards (=certification). In December 2008, the BTVET Act, 2008 was launched in which UVQF is established by law. Policy decision to reform BTVET curriculum The Education Ministry initiated a government- driven reform to establish UVQF as a mechanism to: Critical- active participation of Private Sector

6 G. Education Standards (3) Occupational Standards (1) Technical/Vocational Education & Training World of Work How to distinguish types of “Standards” in TVET GAP Training Standards (2) Assessment Standards (4) National Occupational Profiles National Vocational Qualifications Curricula, Syllabi Development/Translation outcomes inputs + processes 6

7 ‘Occupational standards’ (sometimes also called “employment specifications”) usually refer to the occupational duties which a person must be able to perform in employment. Hence ‘occupational standards‘ are closely related with the general structure and contents of occupations in the labour market, i.e. they reflect the qualitative requirements of the working world with regard to occupational competences (skills demand). Starting point: Occupational Profile development [UVQF roles] 7

8 Key Terms: DUTY- general area of responsibility (competence) representing a cluster of related tasks TASKS- represent the smallest unit of job activities with a meaningful outcome. Tasks result in a product, service, or decision. They represent an assignable unit of work and have a definite beginning and ending point. Tasks can be observed and measured. A task reflects a business value payable by an employer or a customer. 8

9 Describe objectives, contents and methods related to the delivery of training as found for example in training regulations, programmes and curricula and/or syllabi. Thus, training standards focus on the supply of competent manpower in terms of vocational knowledge, skills and abilities (competencies) to be acquired by trainees in the course of their training. However, since the logic of learning (i.e. the inputs into and processes of learning) is usually different from the logic of occupational performance in work life, there is need to translate the occupational standards into learning programmes. Training Modules Standards 9

10 Training modules contain so-called “Learning-working Assignments” (LWAs) and related “Practical Exercises” (PEXs) as key elements. LWAs are simulated or real job situations/ assignments that are suitable for learning in a training environment (e.g. “small project”). In a working environment LWAs are real work situations. PEXs are Practical Exercises” performed during execution of Learning-Working Assignments Key elements of Training Modules 10

11 (also called “assessment specifications” or “outcomes” of training/learning) Stipulate the requirements to be met for certification of a certain occupational competence. Assessment / examination standards may also prescribe the mechanisms, modalities and procedures to conduct assessment / examinations. Assessment Standards 11

12 In the CBET system criterion referenced assessments are used where the candidates’ performance is measured against predefined standards. Features of a good assessment are validity, reliability, objectivity, efficiency, transparency, comprehensiveness, differentiation It includes both the cognitive and psychomotor domains with the complexity levels remembering, functional understanding and problem solving Characteristics of Assessment 12

13 I. Develop Occupational Profiles (OP) How the UVQF reform works… III. Develop Assessment Items II. Develop Modular Training Curricula (based on OP) Assessment & Training Packages (ATP) comprise: Occupational Profiles Sample Test Item Training Module Guides 13

14 ATP- Part 1- Occupational Profile: defines duties and tasks performed and provides additional generic information regarding the occupation. exclusively developed by job practitioners, guided by trained DACUM Facilitators Occupational Profiles define WHAT a person is supposed to do in performance terms. It also contains generic information regarding related knowledge and skills, attitudes/behaviour, tools, materials and equipment required to perform as well as trends/ concerns in the occupation. 14

15 ATP- Part 2- Training Modules: Based on the Occupational Profile Training Modules are developed by combined panels of Instructors and job practitioners, guided by trained Facilitators. Training Modules are in the form of a guideline identified and packaged to enable a learner acquire particular set(s) of competencies. Training Modules are employable and certifiable units (not just time-based) Modular courses can be independently certified, leading to partial qualifications 15

16 ATP- Part 3- Assessment instruments: Based on the Occupational Profile Developed by combined panels of Instructors and job practitioners, guided by trained Facilitators. The test Items are in performance (outcome-oriented) terms Types of Test instruments are in form of performance (practical) and written (theory) test items The test items -include performance criteria- check the HOW and/or HOW WELL a person must do the job. 16

17 ATP- Summary: The ATP is a Uganda-specific package (tool) designed to guide employers, assessors and trainers to establish competence- based education and training by linking qualification standards; The ATP is designed to facilitate the shift from conventional ‘subject-based’ training to competence- based training programmes; The ATP is designed to facilitate modularised training as well as modular-based assessment for immediate employment, career progression, Life Long Learning and international benchmarking. 17

18 Occupational standards Assessment standards Training situation world of work bridge the training situation and the real world of work Training Modules Curricula standards General education standards- Relationship of Qualification Standards Test items ( based on OS) to assess/certify candidates OS based on industry requirements Training Modules for trainees to prepare for work/assessment 18

19 TVET Sub-System BandLevelQualificationDescriptorInstitutions Graduate/ Technologist “Science” 8PHD Creators/ Designers Universities 7M. Degree 6B. Degree TechnicianTechnical 5 Diplomas Modifiers/ Interpreters Tech. Colleges 4 CraftsmenVocational 3 Certificate Implementer (supervisor) V.School, V.centre, Tech. sch, Farm sch, Comm. Polytechnic VT Institutes 2 Implementer (skilled) 1 Implementer (semi skilled) 19

20 Strengths of UVQF and Opportunities Strength of UVQF Public private partnership built in all development procedures Introduction and operationalization of CBET in BTVET Products (OP, TMs, TIBs) reflect requirements of world of work in Uganda Opportunities of UVQF Recognition of informal and non-formal training Improvement in mobility of labour force, marketability of skills and productivity of enterprise competiveness 20

21 21 Achievements towards UVQF Establishment by November 2013 The Qualifications Standards department so far has developed;  77 Occupational Profiles  94 Training Modules  96 Assessment instruments/test item banks based on occupational profiles and Training Modules  93 Assessment and Training Packages (ATPs) compiled up to 3 Qualification Levels

22 Challenges! 1. Awareness of the BTVET Act provisions 2. Insufficient BTVET funding 3. Willingness of stakeholders to adopt change 4. Orientation and capacity building of instructors to adapt CBET 5. Motivation of Private Sector 6. Linkage of existing stakeholders 7. Benchmarking of National Standards with different global zones 22


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